Dementia Action Week 2023

Dementia Action Week 2023

Dementia Action Week is a national event that sees people across the UK taking action to improve the lives of people affected by dementia, as organized by the Alzheimer’s Society.

Dementia is an umbrella term for a range of progressive conditions that affect the brain.

Each type of dementia stops a person’s brain cells (neurons) working properly in specific area and affecting their ability to remember, think and speak cohesively. 

It is estimated that one in three people born this year nationwide will develop some form of Dementia at some point in their lives.


A cure for Dementia has unfortunately not yet been developed. However, in the pursuit of a cure, there is things that have the potential to vastly improve the quality of life for those living with these conditions.

Here at Randox, there is a focus on preventative healthcare. Which is why it made sense when Randox partnered with Race Against Dementia for their nominated charity of  2023.

Race Against Dementia is a global charity founded by three-times Formula 1 World Champion Sir Jackie Stewart, OBE – with the aim of funding much needed pioneering research into the prevention and cure of Dementia.


Also, in our work of towards diagnosis and treatments for those living with Dementia conditions, Randox Laboratories have launched a CE marked Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Array.

Alzheimer’s is one of the most common forms of Dementia and is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, in which parts of the brain are damaged over time. 

Randox Laboratories’ Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Array can be used for the direct determination of ApoE4 status from plasma, eliminating the need for genetic testing, assisting in clinical research and personalized medicine strategies.

At Randox, we believe the importance of measuring ApoE4 protein expression in plasma is the way forward to screen those individuals at increased risk of Alzheimer Disease, as new beta amyloid-targeting therapies for this condition are being expected.    


Introducing Comprehensive Educational Guides on Updated CLIA Proficiency Testing Regulations

We are thrilled to present two educational guides that delve into the newly updated minimum performance specifications for Proficiency Testing by CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments). These regulations, set to be implemented by 2024, aim to enhance the accuracy and reliability of test results in clinical laboratories. Here, we introduce these invaluable resources designed to assist laboratories in navigating the evolving landscape of proficiency testing.

1. Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Microbiology):

Our first guide focuses on the specific regulations and requirements pertaining to microbiology proficiency testing. With a comprehensive exploration of these guidelines, this guide is a useful resource for microbiology labs striving to ensure precision and integrity in their testing procedures. From the required categories of testing to maintaining optimal testing conditions, the guide details the updates that promote adherence to the highest standards of quality and safety.

2. Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Non-Microbiology):

For non-microbiology laboratories, our second guide delves into the updated proficiency testing regulations concerning various analytes. From chemistry to haematology, molecular diagnostics to immunology, this guide offers a comprehensive overview of the new requirements and minimum performance specifications. By embracing these regulations, medical laboratories can uphold the utmost accuracy and reliability in their test results, ensuring optimal patient care and clinical decision-making.

Elevating Laboratory Practices:

These educational guides are indispensable tools that empower laboratories to navigate the changing landscape of proficiency testing regulations. By staying informed and adopting the updated minimum performance specifications, laboratories can maintain compliance, demonstrate excellence, and ultimately deliver the highest quality of care to their patients.

Accessing the Guides:

We invite you to access these comprehensive educational guides by following the link provided below. They offer a wealth of knowledge and practical insights, serving as essential references for laboratory professionals, quality managers, and anyone involved in clinical diagnostics.

Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Microbiology)

Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Non-Microbiology):

With the implementation of updated CLIA proficiency testing regulations on the horizon, these educational guides come at a crucial time. By embracing the knowledge and guidance they provide, laboratories can navigate the changing landscape with confidence and ensure their adherence to the highest standards of proficiency testing. Together, let’s strive for excellence, precision, and patient-centric care in clinical laboratory practices.

#CLIARegulations #ProficiencyTesting #ClinicalLaboratories #QualityAssurance #PatientCare



Internal Quality Control and ISO 15189

As a major contributor to the IVD industry, like many of you, the trials and tribulations of quality control are an everyday consideration. It is for this reason we strive to make the process of IQC as straightforward as possible. We recognise how busy life in the laboratory can get and believe it is our duty to simplify your QC process as much as possible.

The Acusera range has been designed with this in mind. Our true third-party control range boasts unrivalled levels of consolidation, supplied at clinically relevant concentrations in a suitable, commutable matrix. When used in combination with Acusera 24.7, our interlaboratory management software, the Acusera range will help to reduce analytical errors and maximise precision in your laboratory.

With the recent updates to ISO 15189:2022, we understand that there will be added pressure on many laboratories who are trying to maintain their accreditation. To assist you with your gap analysis and transition to these updated standards, we have produced this accreditation guide, detailing all of the key points relating to this new version of the highly sought after accreditation.

If you’d like to find out more about what we can do to help your laboratory or view our range of Internal Quality Controls, don’t hesitate to contact us at or feel free to browse the range on our website

D-3-Hydroxybutyrate & Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis is characterised by an accumulation of ketone bodies in response to insulin deficiency, most commonly occurring in T1DM patients, but is becoming increasingly prevalent among sufferers of T2DM.

Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with symptoms such as polyuria, polydipsia, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and fatigue with the most severe cases resulting in disastrous consequences such as cerebral oedema and death.

D-3-Hydroxybutyrate is considered to be the predominant ketone bodies associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and novel methods of detection utilise this biomarker to provide robust and accurate quantification of ketone bodies and aid in confident diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

This guide discusses the physiological and pathological processes associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and the relevant biomarkers, the complications associated with this condition and classic and novel detection methods.

To download this guide, simply click the image at the top of this post!
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Determining bilirubin concentration in paediatric facilities – Vanadate Oxidation Method

The quantification of bilirubin has a wide range of diagnostic utility. In paediatric settings, bilirubin concentrations are commonly used to identify cases of bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus.

Historically, bilirubin quantification has been achieved through various techniques derived from the diazo method, first described by Van der Bergh and Muller in 1918. New technologies and novel methods, like the Vanadate Oxidation method, have emerged and have been shown to display superior diagnostic power, driven by its lower sensitivity to interference caused by haemolysis and lipemia when compared with other methods.

This week, we present our educational guide, ‘Determining bilirubin concentrations in paediatric facilities’ which details the key points relating to bilirubin quantification, along with descriptions and comparisons of the methods mentioned above.

To download this guide, simply click the image at the top of this post!
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Identifying and Reducing Pre-analytical Errors in the Medical Laboratory


Medical laboratory professionals must comply with stringent and robust standards in all aspects of their daily activities. The set of standards to which a laboratory must comply will differ depending on the scientific discipline of the laboratory, however, ISO 15189:2022 – Medical Laboratories – Requirements for quality and competence, applies to all medical laboratories. This recent version of the standard introduces increased focus on risk stratification and mitigation for patients and laboratory stakeholders, placing more emphasis on quality control to improve the accuracy and validity of the results obtained.

In a clinical chemistry laboratory, as in others, internal quality control is of upmost importance. Internal quality control (IQC) is the process used to ensure that all results produced are accurate, reliable, and reproducible. To achieve this, a laboratory must carry out checks on the pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases of testing.

The pre-analytical phase of laboratory testing includes collection, handling, transportation, storage, and preparation of samples. Even when the highest level of care is taken to ensure that all aspects of the pre-analytical phase are suitable and correct, errors can occur, exhibiting the need for clear and efficient quality control processes.

As part of our Acusera quality control range, Randox has developed the Serum Indices quality control to aid in the detection of the common pre-analytical error’s haemolysis, icterus and lipemia, collectively known as HIL. HIL interference can have disastrous effects on the quantification of many analytes, and it is therefore vital to determine levels of interference to improve laboratory efficiency and reduce the frequency of erroneous results. Figure 1 shows a graph of wavelengths at which each of these interferents may affect assays and the table below describes these forms of interference:


Interference Description
Haemolysis The degradation of red blood cells causes interference between 340-440nm and 540-580nm. Red blood cells experience membrane disruption due to tangential stress which results in degradation of cellular integrity and the release of interfering cellular components such as haemoglobin, K+ ions  and aspartate aminotransferase. Haemolytic interference may be evident in assays such iron, lipase, albumin, and creatine kinase.
Icterus Interference as a result of high bilirubin concentrations, affecting assays measured between 400-550nm. The high bilirubin levels result in a yellowish pigmentation of the sample, caused by hepatic necrosis, sepsis, or several other conditions.  Most prevalent in neonatal departments, icteric interference can cause inaccuracies in assays for phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.
Lipemia Interference caused by an aggregation of lipoproteins which affects the turbidity of samples. Lipemic interference can be cause by several mechanisms, the most common being the light scattering effect caused by aggregations of chylomicrons or other large forms of LDL. The larger the LDL molecule, the larger the lipemic effect.  Lipemic interference is evident in assays measured between 300-700nm, however, interference increases as wavelength decreases.

Classical determination of HIL interference took the form of a visual assessment. A sample was examined for tell-tale signs of one or more of these types of interference. However, these methods are subject to operator interpretation and lack harmonisation and uniformity across the industry.  These signs are detailed in the table below and illustrated in figure 2.

Interference Visual indicator
Haemolysis Red discoloration of serum samples which is directly proportional to the concentration of haemoglobin and other interfering erythrocyte components.
Icterus Yellow pigmentation of serum samples increases proportionally to the concentration of conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.
Lipemia Increased sample turbidity proportional to lipid concentration.

Modern clinical chemistry analysers have onboard HIL detection capabilities which offer objective, semi-qualitative or qualitative analysis of these forms of interference in a more precise and consistent manner. Automation of HIL detection improves laboratory throughput along with test turnaround times and enhances the reportability of the results.

Errors at any stage of the analytical process will result in retesting of the sample. Errors in the pre-analytical phase can have repercussions such as increased cost of repeated sample collection and testing, poor test turnaround times, and more seriously, delayed or incorrect diagnosis causing an exacerbation in the condition of the patient. To add to the adverse outcomes on patients, repeated testing places additional stress on laboratory resources and staff which ultimately affects every aspect of a laboratory’s daily activities.

We hope that by using the Acusera Serum Indices quality control and EQA scheme we can help to improve the accuracy of laboratory testing around the world and remove some of the excessive strain placed on laboratories and the professionals who continually strive for the highest levels of quality in all their work.

How can Randox help?

Randox Sales Reps are experts in their fields and are available to discuss your specific requirements. 

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Medical Laboratory Professionals Week – Industry Insight

As part of our effort to raise awareness of the hard work and dedication displayed by laboratory professionals around the world, we have been talking to individuals from the industry to discover what it is like to work in a medical laboratory environment.

Here, we talk to Dean, a mobile laboratory manager for Randox, based in the UK, to find out what it is like to work in his role.

Q: Let’s start with your name and job title please.

A: I am Dean Gordon and I’m a laboratory manager.

Q: So, what does a normal workday look like for you?

A: A normal day consists of ensuring all our laboratories have everything they need to follow our standard operating procedures and ISO standards. This ranges from ensuring we have enough staff and stock on site to reviewing end of day reports and KPI’s.

Q: What encouraged you to pursue a career in clinical diagnostics?

A: I actually never considered a career in clinical diagnostics. Previously, I worked in marine biology all over the world. During the pandemic I found myself back in Northern Ireland in limbo and Randox were advertising scientific roles on the radio. I thought I would use my science degrees in this moment and work in the lab until the pandemic finished. Over 2 years later, I now find myself still working with Randox and managing ten clinic labs in London and still testing for covid!

Q: What is the most challenging part of your job?

A: The most challenging thing I find is keeping an open line of communication with so many different departments. As our operations have continued to grow over the past 2 years, the more departments you find yourself dealing with, from operations and different clinics to HR and recruitment. There are so many cogs in the wheel and you need to work well with them all to keep it turning!

Q: What is your favourite thing about your role?

A: I love how quickly things move. Since I have started managing labs with Randox, we have opened dozens of new labs and are constantly adding new tests to our portfolio. You always have to be prepared and ready to go when the next new thing is announced. It keeps things exciting. I never feel that I’m bored or standing still in this role.

Q: And finally, why should others consider a career in clinical diagnostics?

A: When you hear feedback from a customer that their test results have helped save or prolong their life and how grateful and happy they are, that they decided to pay for their test – you remember what you are doing can change lives for the better.


We also got the opportunity to speak to Meadhbh, the Randox Clinical Laboratory Services Laboratory Manager, to hear about her work activities and opinions on working in a medical laboratory.

Q: Can you tell us your name and job title please?

My Name is Meadhbh Sheerin, and I am the RCLS Laboratory manager for all of RCLS.

Q: What does a normal workday look like for you at RCLS?

A: Everyday can be slightly different depending on what needs done. But everyday includes morning checks to identify work yet to be completed and ensure target sample turnaround times are met, dealing with customer queries, updating the LIMS system, adding new and bespoke tests to our equipment, managing reagent and other consumables, maintaining up to date SOP and ensuring laboratory staff follow them, and  attending in management meetings scheduled. In addition to this I am responsible for hiring and training new staff, setting up new RCLS laboratories and managing the daily activities of other staff.

Q: What encouraged you to pursue a career in clinical diagnostics?

A: For me, it was that people’s health is a priority. Every day, we are saving lives and helping people with their diagnosis, prevent any health conditions, and help them get the right treatment if necessary.

Q: What is the most challenging part of your job?

A: Juggling everything in terms of staff, getting samples in and processed and reports out in time. There is an awful lot to do!

Q: What is your favourite thing about your role?

A: Every day is different and it’s challenging. It is rewarding to know that we are helping individuals to improve their health and that we are the future of diagnostics.

Q: And finally, why should others consider a career in clinical diagnostics?

A: I think everyone should consider a career in some sort of laboratory discipline because you are helping people improve their health and prevent further illness. Preventative care is better than a cure!


Like Dean and Meadhbh, there are millions of conscientious laboratory scientists and technicians which provide crucial testing services all over the world. Working in clinical diagnostics is an incredibly fulfilling career path, providing the opportunity to help people and save lives from a behind-the-scenes yet essential role. We would like to thank Dean and Meadhbh for taking the time out of their busy schedules to answer our questions. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the Medical Laboratory Professionals who have worked tirelessly before, during, and after the pandemic and wish you all the greatest success in the future!


How can Randox help?

Randox Sales Reps are experts in their fields and are available to discuss your specific requirements. 

Simply send us an email by clicking the link below and we will get in touch!

Randox Health partners with REVIV

Randox Health have entered into an exciting new partnership with REVIV

Randox Health Clinics are pioneering preventative health care, bringing the world’s most advanced and personalized health programs directly to the public – with the goal of harnessing the power of testing and data to shift healthcare away from sickness management and towards a more proactive approach.

This partnership with REVIV, who championed commercialised IV therapy, will allow people to see real-time results from taking steps to protect their health and to experience the future of wellness.

The IVD drip therapies include:

  • The Megaboost, that was designed with wellness in mind this infusion is packed with B vitamins, Vitamin C, Antioxidants and minerals to accomplish restoration of the body’s essential nutrients in one drip.
  • The Miniboost, similar to its larger counterpart, the Megaboost, this Miniboost is not to be underestimated! Containing B Vitamins, Vitamin C and antioxidants, it can support energy levels and the immune system whilst aiding protection against cell-damaging free radicals.
  • The Royal Flush which supercharges recovery and nutritional balance by providing the ingredients you need directly into your bloodstream. This all-in-one infusion has been directly designed to rehydrate, decreame inflammation and aid detoxification.
  • The Hydromax IV which aims to replenish your body’s salts and water.
  • The Vitaglow can support detoxification of free radicals that accumulate in the body from exposure to pollutants, daily stresses and chemicals including pesticides.
  • The Ultraviv and The Ultraviv pro, both recovery infusions. The Ultraviv can be used to aid recovery against the common cold, sore throats and even the after effects of alcohol. The Ultraviv pro combines a number of prescribed medications with essential vitamins and nutrients delivered alongside the maximum of hydration.

A full list of all REVIV drip therapies and IM booster shots will be available in the Randox Health clinics.

On REVIV partnering with Randox, David Ferguson, Chief Operating Officer, said: “Over the past few years, we’ve seen a dramatic change in people’s behaviours as they seek to understand their health and wellbeing better. At Randox Health, we provide a range of specialised health packages that enable you to take control of your health.

“Our innovative diagnostic technologies can deliver hundreds of results to give you a comprehensive overview of your health and help detect the earliest signs of illness. Collaborating with REVIV is a natural next step, combining our world-class diagnostic services with REVIV signature IV therapies to help our customers protect their current and future health.”

For more information please contact us at:

Medical Laboratory Professionals Week 2023


Medical Laboratory Professionals week is taking place from 23rd – 29th April 2023. This is an annual celebration to highlight and acknowledge the contribution of medical laboratory professionals and pathologists to medicine and healthcare. Whether carrying out routine testing or performing vital analysis during states of emergency, patients around the world rely on the hard work and dedication of medical laboratory professionals.

Medical laboratory professionals’ and pathologists’ work often goes unnoticed due to the ‘behind the scenes’ nature of their activities, but today we would like to shine a light on their work and highlight the importance of these individuals to medicine and global health. The role laboratory professionals play in healthcare cannot be understated and Randox would like to give thanks to those around the world who undertake this responsibility every day.

For most people, the process after a sample is taken is largely enigmatic. Therefore, we at Randox would like to elucidate the processes involved and the considerable effort displayed by laboratory staff.

After a sample is taken, it is then transported to a laboratory. Even this supposedly simple process requires careful consideration to ensure the sample is suitable for testing upon reaching the laboratory.  Once received, laboratory staff carry out quality control checks to ensure the instrumentation to be used is functioning correctly and providing accurate results. The quality control procedure will differ depending on the scientific discipline but some form of validation of the test process is always required.

Once accurate and robust sample analysis has been carried out a pathologist examines these results or data and works to form a diagnosis. Using this diagnosis, a suitable therapeutic strategy can be determined and administered.

Test results are a major factor in a clinician’s decision for diagnosis and treatment, with 70% of all medical decisions being based on laboratory results. This demonstrates why diagnostics are so important and why Randox believes in celebrating those who make it happen.

As a major contributor to the diagnostics and healthcare industry, we are keenly aware of how important and hard-working medical laboratory professionals are, and the value they bring to the world. This week you’ll find articles featuring a short interview with a medical laboratory professional and a short educational piece on pre-analytical errors.

We hope everyone shares our enthusiasm for celebrating medical laboratory professionals and would like to thank all those who work tirelessly in medical laboratories around the world.

How can Randox help?

Randox Sales Reps are experts in their fields and are available to discuss your specific requirements. 

Simply send us an email by clicking the link below and we will get in touch!

The Importance of Maintaining Regular Dietary Patterns to reduce CVD risk

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. An estimated 17.9 million people died from some form of CVD in 2019, accounting for 32% of all-cause mortality that year1. Associations between diet and risk of cardiovascular complications have long been established, largely relating to alterations in lipid profiles.

For as long as anyone can remember, breakfast has been considered the most important meal of the day. Previous studies2 have shown an association between skipping breakfast and increased CVD risk prompting recommendations that up to 30% of one’s daily energy intake should be consumed during the first meal of the day. It has been reported that over 25% of adults skip breakfast. These individuals are often socioeconomically disadvantaged, shift workers, individuals who work particularly long hours, those who suffer from depression or those with poor health literacy2. Another study3 showed that skipping breakfast, when compared with consuming a high-energy breakfast, was associated with a 1.6x and 2.6x higher probability of non-coronary and general atherosclerosis respectively, when all other CVD risk factor had been controlled. This suggests a close relationship between eating breakfast and reducing CVD risk, however, the mechanisms and magnitude of this relationship are poorly understood.

Small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is a smaller form of LDL-C which boasts greater propensity for uptake by arterial tissue, increased proteoglycan binding, and increased susceptibility for oxidation4. sdLDL-C concentration is strongly associated with CVD risk, yet once again, the mechanisms of this association remain enigmatic. It is thought that all of the metabolic changes associated with alterations in sdLDL-C concentration collectively contribute to the increased risk of CVD, with the main drivers being its propensity for uptake by arterial tissues and its long circulatory stability4

Skipping breakfast and sdLDL-C

A recent study investigated the relationship between skipping breakfast and the effects on lipid parameters5. In a cohort of around 28’000 people from the Japanese population, this study looked at the several markers, including sdLDL-C, to develop an understanding of the importance of regular dietary patterns for reducing the risk of CVD.

The study participants were divided into two main categories: breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers. These categories were further subdivided to differentiate men and women, over and under 55 years old, and those who eat staple products (rice, pasta, bread, etc.) and those who did not. The participants contributed blood samples which were tested for several cardiovascular biomarkers: Creatinine, Liver ALT, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, direct LDL-C, HDL-C and sdLDL-C.

They found that around 26% of men and 16.9% of women skipped breakfast regularly. Of these, most were considered young and had significant increases in concentration of triglycerides, LDL-C and sdLDL-C compared with those who ate breakfast almost every day.

Table 1. Median concentration of triglycerides, LDL-C, and sdLDL-C for breakfast skippers and eaters5

Analyte Breakfast Skippers (mg/dL) Breakfast Eaters (mg/dL)
Triglycerides 103 93
LDL-C 124 122
sdLDL-C 34.7 32

This investigation also revealed that in this cohort, 20% of men and 27.3% of women did not regularly consume staple foods as part of their diet and had higher median sdLDL-C concentration.

Table 2. Median concentration of sdLDL-C in men and women who eat or skip staple food products in their diet5

Gender Staple Skippers (mg/dL) Staple Eaters (mg/dL)
Men 34.1 31.6
Women 25.8 24.7

The data from this study supports the finding that individuals who skipped breakfast had higher sdLDL-C concentrations than those who ate breakfast consistently. Skipping breakfast can therefore be associated with troublesome lipid parameters in both genders and all age groups in the Japanese population. This study suggests that eating breakfast every day is crucial to maintain beneficial lipid parameters and reduce the risk of developing CVD.

The data also show that individuals who skipped staple foods in their meals presented with higher concentrations of sdLDL-C and a higher sdLDL-C/LDL-C ratio, in men and postmenopausal women, when compared with those who included staple foods in their meals. It is becoming increasingly common to remove staple foods from one’s diet due to their high carbohydrate content and the prevalence of low-carbohydrate diets. This data exhibits the importance of maintaining a nutritionally balanced diet to help reduce the risk of developing CVD.

As the first large scale study of its kind, this analysis provides clear insight into the increased risk of CVD associated with not only skipping breakfast, but failing to maintain a nutritionally balanced diet. The major limitation of this analysis is that it only includes individuals from the Japanese population and the same affects may not be seen in populations from other ethnicities. Therefore, further in-depth analysis is required to confirm these findings in other ethnicities


Randox sdLDL-C Assay

The Randox sdLDL-C assay employs the clearance method which displays good correlation with the gold standard in sdLDL-C quantification, giving laboratories increased confidence in their results first time, every time. Supplied as liquid ready-to-use reagents, this this test can be applied to a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers, producing results in as little as 10 minutes. Relevant controls and calibrators are also available from Randox as part of the Acusera range.

Randox sdLDL-C Assay Key Features

  • Direct, automated test for convenience and efficiency.
  • Rapid analysis results can be produced in as little as ten minutes, facilitating faster patient diagnosis and treatment plan implementation.
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease of use.
  • Applications available detailing instrument specific settings for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers.
  • sdLDL-C controls and calibrator available.


  1. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases. World Health Organization. Published June 11, 2021.
  2. Ofori-Asenso R, Owen AJ, Liew D. Skipping Breakfast and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death: A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies in Primary Prevention Settings. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2019;6(3):30. doi:
  3. Uzhova I, Fuster V, Fernández-Ortiz A, et al. The Importance of Breakfast in Atherosclerosis Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017;70(15):1833-1842. doi:
  4. Rizvi AA, Stoian AP, Janez A, Rizzo M. Lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease: An update on the clinical significance of atherogenic small, dense LDL and new therapeutical options. Biomedicines. 2021;9:1579. doi:
  5. Arimoto M, Yamamoto Y, Imaoka W, et al. Small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in breakfast skippers and staple food skippers. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. 2023;30. doi:

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