Raising awareness of sexual health on National STIQ Day
National STIQ Day
National STIQ day was introduced in 2010 and every year since then the 14th of January has been dedicated to raising awareness for STIQ. The purpose is to emphasize the importance of sexual health and to encourage everyone to get regular health checks.
Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs) are infections passed from one person to another through unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex, or genital contact.
Lack of symptoms
More and more people in the UK are catching STIs and each year the infection rate is rising. According to The World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million STIs are acquired every day and the majority of these STIs have no symptoms.1 Therefore you could have an STI and not be aware. 70% of women and 50% of men show no symptoms after contracting Chlamydia which is the most common STI condition in the UK.2
Even though the majority of the time symptoms of STIs aren’t visible, there can be signs of having an STI, including unusual discharge from the vagina, penis or anus, pain when peeing, lumps or skin growth around the genitals, a rash, unusual bleeding, itchiness or blisters around the genitals.3
What to do when you catch an STI
Anyone can catch an STI regardless of what age you are, your sexuality or how many sexual partners you have, as it only takes one sexual encounter to put you at the risk of catching an STI. A shocking fact from Public Health England shows that a case of chlamydia or gonorrhea is diagnosed in a young person every 4 minutes in England, and over 144,000 diagnoses of these sexually transmitted infections are seen in people aged 15 to 24 in 2017. 4
It is extremely important to get routinely tested. The earlier the diagnosis is made and treated the less chance of having long-term effects including infertility.
Randox Biosciences 10-plex STI test
Randox Biosciences would like to take the opportunity to support STIQ day by offering our CE marked 10-plex STI test, a cost-effective solution for accurate STI testing. This test detects the following 10 infections simultaneously from a single patient urine sample.
- Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG)
- Mycoplasma genitalium (MG)
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU)
- Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)
- Trichomonas vaginalis (TV)
- Haemophilus ducreyi (HD)
- Mycoplasma hominis (MH)
- Treponema pallidum (TP)
- Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
- Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2)
Does your laboratory or clinic carry out STI testing? Our molecular analyser, the Bosch Vivalytic, powered by our award winning Biochip Array Technology, could be the diagnostic solution.
For more information about our STI Arrays or Vivalytic email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Improving Your Health
Getting Healthier in 2019? The New Year has started and whether your resolution has been to lose weight, save money, make new friends or improve your health, you’re reaping the benefits of the new you, right?
It has been found that nearly two-thirds of the British public (64 per cent) want to take greater control of their health. However almost a quarter (23 per cent) are not confident that they can help prevent or reduce problems associated with their health, in a survey from Nesta’s Health Labs.
Health problems mainly arise from two things – your genetics or your lifestyle. One of these you can change, the other you can learn more about to improve your knowledge of what your future health could look like. At Randox Health we aim to give our clients the information and guidance they need to help improve their health, now and in the future.
What Randox Health does
If you really want to make a change to your health this New Year, our packages will give you an unmatched overview of your health, now and in the future.
Randox Health goes beyond a health check. We have the world’s most comprehensive full-body health packages available on the market today, thanks to Randox patented Biochip Array Technology, which enables 100s of individual tests to be carried out from one sample. Giving you truly unrivalled knowledge about your health and wellbeing now and in the future, our goal is to help you extend your life.
Your health matters to us. Randox Health Packages provide more than just a health check or assessment, they are a full-body health MOT. Above all we are committed to improving healthcare worldwide by identifying and preventing illness at the earliest possible stage.
How Randox Health can help you this New Year
How can we help you? Identifying the very first signs and risks of disease can help prevent health problems that may be on the horizon. Randox Health aim to do this before the appearance of unpleasant symptoms or illness. Prevention is better than looking for a cure.
Just some of the markers our Packages help to identify and prevent:
- Heart Disease
- Hormone Imbalances
- Iron Levels
- Adrenal and Pituitary Levels
- H. Pylori Levels
- Kidney Health
- Vitamin Levels
Randox Health Packages will not only give you a comprehensive picture of your health now, but also a detailed profile of how it could look in the future.
This Month’s Randox Health Offer
During the month of January, we are offering a free specialised Test: Cough, Cold & Flu, with every Everyman or Everywoman Programme purchased. Our process is explained below and you can read more about our packages here. If you’d like more information or to make a booking contact our team today.
Have you read Randox Health’s blog on New Year’s Resolutions? Because it could help you! It has helpful tips and advice on keeping your resolutions.
Visit https://www.randoxhealth.com/new-years-resolutions-new-year-new-you/ to find out more.
In clinical diagnostics, proteins are part of a wide range of biochemical markers used to identify health and disease in patient samples. Proteins play a key role in the human body, as they are involved in almost every process and can be associated to functions and regulatory pathways that are either signature for disease onset or a target for therapeutic intervention.
There are two main methods used to detect proteins in patient samples; nephelometry and immunoturbidimetry. Nephelometry although traditionally thought to be more sensitive can be expensive due to higher consumable costs. In addition to this nephelometers can be inefficient and are limited by their test menu. Immunoturbidimetric tests are an increasingly accepted alternative to nephelometry for specific protein assays, and studies have shown a close correlation between Randox immunoturbidimetric tests and nephelometry. This particularly lies with the latex enhanced immunoturbidimetry methodology utilised by Randox.
Why the RX series?
Renowned for quality and reliability, the RX series excels in clinical testing combining robust hardware, intuitive software and a world leading test menu featuring routine and novel high performing reagents.
Running specific protein tests on the RX series provides laboratories with a wide range of advantages. The move from nephelometric testing to immunoturbidimetric lowers laboratory costs as nephelometry requires the use of dedicated instruments which are much slower, have higher consumable costs and require highly trained personnel, with the disadvantage of not being able to perform any other type of assay on a single platform.
The RX series improves laboratory efficiencies not just saving costs but also time. Our range of routine clinical chemistry analysers provide users with flexibility and versatility through consolidation of testing onto one single platform.
High Performing and Unique Testing Menu
The RX series of specific protein assays assist in the diagnosis and evaluation of various conditions each with excellent sensitivity and limited inference levels. Randox manufacture immunoturbidimetric kits for the study of a wide range of specific proteins including unique products such as Apolipoprotein C-II, Apolipoprotein C-III, Apolipoprotein E, Cystatin C and Microalbumin.
Most recently the RX series welcomed the addition of Direct HbA1c to our testing panel, available to be run on the RX Daytona +, RX imola and RX modena. If you are interested in running your protein assays on a routine biochemistry analyser, Randox offers a large range of high quality routine and niche protein assays that can be run on most automated analysers.
Click to discover more about our world leading RX series Testing menu or contact us today @theRXseries to find out how we can improve your laboratories testing capabilities.
Talking about diabetes can be tough, but it doesn’t have to be.
This month, we’re joining the conversation on diabetes to help raise awareness of the condition, and importantly, how it can be diagnosed, managed, and even prevented.
Today, our focus is on a lesser-known variant of the chronic illness and one which you may not have heard of – prediabetes.
A third of all adults in the UK have prediabetes and with the UK’s estimated 3.8million diabetics estimated to climb to 5million by 2025 – largely as a result of obesity and the ageing population – it’s more important than ever to check if you’re suffering from this pre-cursor to diabetes.
WHAT IS PREDIABETES?
Illness doesn’t just happen overnight. Over time, your body begins to display symptoms but, often, irregularly has been present for some time. Prediabetes is an early indicator of type 2 diabetes which is characterised by the presence of blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classed as diabetes.
For this reason, prediabetes is often described as the “grey area” between normal blood sugar and diabetic levels. In the UK, around 7 million people are estimated to have prediabetes and thus have a high risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PREDIABETES?
93% of the 60 million people with prediabetes globally are unaware they have it. This is because the condition often develops gradually without any warning signs or symptoms. In many cases, the sufferer only learns of their diabetic state once the symptoms of type 2 diabetes start to appear.
TESTING FOR PREDIABETES
Traditional biomarker tests used to diagnose type 2 diabetes include Fasting Plasma Glucose, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, and HbA1c. However, these cannot be utilised as tests for prediabetes, as beta cell damage has already occurred, and insulin insensitivity is already underway.
Adiponectin, a hormone responsible for regulating glucose metabolism has proven to be a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes at a crucial stage – before it has fully manifested.
Adiponectin’s ability to diagnose prediabetes is due to its relationship with a hazardous type of fat within the body which wraps around internal organs. This visceral fat is particularly dangerous because it can occur even within individuals deemed to have a healthy waist circumference, making them appear deceptively healthy simply because they are slim.
By measuring Adiponectin levels, clinicians can identify someone with high levels of visceral fat and therefore at risk of type 2 diabetes long before they would be identified by tests which measure blood sugar levels.
THE BENEFIT OF A PREDIABETES DIAGNOSIS
Whilst being diagnosed with prediabetes may come as a real shock, it offers a unique opportunity for lifestyle modification and prevention that is often not possible with other illnesses.
And this is because prediabetes is reversible. In fact, up to 80% of all cases of type 2 diabetes are preventable – if detected early. We want to help more and more people understand their health as early as possible so they can take reversible action now when there’s the best chance of a positive outcome.
With this information at your disposal, you can then take the necessary action to stop diabetes in its tracks.
For more information about Adiponectin; please visit https://www.randox.com/adiponectin/
To book the world’s most advanced health check which assess up to 350 different indicators of disease at their very earliest stage, including diabetes, visit www.randoxhealth.com
For further information, please contact Randox PR by emailing email@example.com or phoning 028 9442 2413.
Randox Laboratories is this month driving awareness of diabetes and the need for early and accurate diagnosis to enable patients to take preventive action before the condition worsens.
Diabetes UK have stated that diabetes is the fastest growing health threat of our times and an urgent public health issue. Statistics show that since 1996, the number of people living with diabetes has more than doubled. It has been estimated that there are 1.1 million people living with diabetes in the UK that have yet to be diagnosed, including 84,836 people in Northern Ireland.
According to Diabetes UK around 700 people a day are diagnosed with diabetes, which equates to one person every two minutes. If nothing changes, it is estimated that diabetes will affect one in ten people by 2040. This will raise diabetes prevalence from 415 million to 642 million by 2040. With current treatment taking up almost 9% of the annual NHS budget – roughly £8.8bn a year – the implications for future healthcare budgets are clear if this dangerous trend persists.
The good news however, is that recent research has found that type 2 diabetes is preventable through lifestyle changes. The NHS recently released the UK’s National Diabetes Prevention Programme which is aimed at tackling the increasing growing threat of diabetes.
However, following a warning raised by an Oxford University study, which looked into efforts of this Prevention Programme, it was found that it is unlikely to have much impact because the blood tests used were inaccurate at detecting pre-diabetes – the stage at which diabetes is reversible.
The blood tests used in the National Diabetes Prevention Programme were only effective at detecting diabetes at a stage when damage had already been done.
At Randox, we have developed a number of tests that can help detect the earliest possible signs of diabetes, often before symptoms have even manifested – including a pioneering test for the hormone Adiponectin.
Assessing Adiponectin levels allows doctors to calculate a patient’s levels of visceral fat – a dangerous, internal fat stored around organs. This deep fat, which is not visible to the naked eye, is linked to health problems including Type-2 diabetes.
Low levels of adiponectin equate to high levels of visceral fat which can be combated by improving your diet, exercise habits and even stress levels. Given that 70% of Type-2 diabetes can be prevented by lifestyle changes, there is strong correlation that by detecting low levels of Adiponectin and taking corrective and preventive action, it could result in a decrease in the numbers of people who develop the life-altering condition.
In addition to a test for the Adiponectin biomarker, Randox Biosciences have created a Metabolic Syndrome Array that measures 12 markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic Syndrome is a is a group of cardiovascular risk factors that affects over 20% of adults and results in a person being three times more likely to have a stroke or heart attack, and five times more likely to develop diabetes.
Ultimately, we would like to see all medical professionals who are at the forefront of patient care armed with the most accurate diagnostic tools available. Updating traditional practice may not be easy but we believe it is imperative to do so, if we are to effectively challenge this global epidemic.
Randox remains focused on providing early diagnoses and preventing illnesses by providing innovative diagnostics tests that will continue to revolutionise the healthcare landscape.
For further information, please contact Randox PR by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org or phoning 028 9442 2413.
Randox Toxicology offers the most comprehensive Drugs of Abuse (DoA) test menu across multiple forensic matrices. Our level of expertise in toxicology research and development allows us to adapt quickly to the ever-changing market influences and develop assays for current and novel drugs trends. Excellent assay precision and performance eliminates false reporting, therefore reducing unnecessary confirmatory tests and time lost in the laboratory as a result. Our Biochip Arrays offer CVs typically less than 10%, producing an accurate drug profile to ensure confidence in results.
The Evidence Series of immunoassay analysers are powered by Biochip Array Technology and combine the latest technological advances for drug residue detection using immunoassay principles. The Drugs of Abuse II panel is available for both the Evidence and the Evidence Investigator analysers. The Evidence has a throughput of 90 samples per hour, testing up to 44 tests per sample. The Evidence is a fully automated batch immunoanalyser, allowing for 3960 tests per hour, while the Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated, bench top analyser with testing capabilities of 2376 tests in 70 minutes.
Throughout November, we’ve been highlighting how the Randox clinical teams – Randox Rx series, Randox Reagents and Randox QC – are aiding the fight against drugs of abuse.
Drugs of Abuse are a growing problem worldwide and represent a significant burden to healthcare systems as well as creating problems in an individual’s lifestyle. It has been estimated by the WHO (World Health Organisation) that 31 million people globally suffer from drug use disorders and 3.3 million deaths each year are linked to the abuse of both drugs and alcohol.
The abuse of drugs is one of the most pressing issues in the United States of America. Drug abuse not only affects the individual, but also can have far-reaching consequences that affect family, employment, personal health, health care systems, local communities, and society as a whole.
- Misuse of illicit drugs affects society through secondary costs incurred such as crime, reduced productivity at work, and health care expenses.
- Substance abuse costs the US health care system about $11 billion, with overall costs reaching $193 billion.
- Substance abuse and addiction also affects other areas of life and can cause broken families, destroyed careers, death due to negligence or accident, domestic violence, physical abuse and child abuse.
- Drug abuse and addiction changes the chemistry of your brain. The longer you use your drug of choice, the more damage is caused and it becomes more difficult to return to ‘normal’ during drug rehabilitation.
- In 2013, 22.7 million Americans needed treatment for a substance use disorder – almost 9% of the population over the age of 12. Only about 2.5 million received treatment as a specialist facility with 20% of admissions for opiate addication treatment and 17% for the treatment of marijuana abuse.
To find out more about how Randox is helping in the fight against Drugs of Abuse, please visit https://www.randox.com/drugs-of-abuse/ or for more information about Randox RX, Randox Reagents or Randox QC, please email email@example.com.
Randox Food Diagnostics recently reported that the European Parliament has banned the use of antibiotics that are important for human medicine use on animals, and is prohibiting any antimicrobials in livestock without a vet prescription. The new legislation, that is to become law by 2022, states that antimicrobials cannot be used to improve performance or compensate for poor animal conditions.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) have now documented a significant drop in overall veterinary antibiotic sales across Europe. The EMA recognise that the reduction highlights the efforts made by the European Union (EU) and various stakeholders, promoting prudent use of antibiotics in the animal sector and its positive impact. The reduction of antibiotic use in food-producing animals is a key pillar to the EUs One Health Action Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), according to a report conducted by the University of Minnesota.
30 countries in total submitted data between 2011 and 2016. German antibiotic sales dropped by 58%. However, whilst the majority of countries saw a drop in sales, six countries reported an increase of more than 5%. Germany’s implementation of an antibiotic minimising programme has helped the country to minimise antibiotic use, by requiring farmers raising cattle, pigs, chickens, or turkeys to report the frequency of antibiotic treatment on their farm every 6 months. If animal treatment frequency is above the median of all farms, operators must evaluate their usage with a veterinarian.
This major step forward in public health has a direct impact on the environment and food. Randox Food Diagnostics recognise the importance of improving the global food safety chain, and continue to transform the landscape by developing high quality revolutionary screening products. Our reliable and economic testing methods enable the user to detect multiple drug and toxin residues from a single sample, including antimicrobials, growth promoting compounds, synthetic steroids, anthelmintics and coccidiostats. With an expanding range of 37 ELISAs, 21 multiplex screening arrays and 20 enzymatic/colourmetric reagents, our trusted solutions ensure that better science means safer food.
For any questions, email us directly at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Approximately 400,000 people in the UK are living with type 1 diabetes, with over 29,000 being children and young people . Type 1 diabetes affects 96% of all children with diabetes in England and Wales, with incidences increasing by approximately 4% each year.
Globally, the UK has the fifth highest rate of type 1 diabetes diagnosis in children (aged up to 14) with 85% of these children having no family history of the condition. Whilst the condition isn’t fatal and can be managed, it cannot be cured. Type 1 diabetes increases the risk of developing other health problems such as heart disease, stroke, foot and circulation problems, sight problems including blindness, nerve damage and kidney problems. However, many of these related conditions are preventable and it is recommended to stabilise blood sugar levels, attend diabetes appointments regularly and complete a diabetes course to educate patients and family members and prevent the risk of further help complications.
Diabetes in children
Children under five are at the highest risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis due to a late diagnosis and it is also thought to be due to of lack of public knowledge of the signs and symptoms attributed to type 1 diabetes. Such symptoms include:
- Frequent urination as the kidneys are trying to expel excess sugar in the blood, resulting in dehydration which leads to extreme thirst.
- Increased hunger or unexpected weight loss because the body is unable to attain enough energy from food
- Slow healing cuts as high blood sugar levels can affect blood flow which can cause nerve damage.
- Fatigue as the body is unable to convert sugar into energy
- Irritable behaviour combined with other symptoms can be a means of concern
Diabetes and the NHS
Diabetes costs the NHS approximately £9.8 billion per year, an estimate of 10% of total expenditures. Hospital admissions of children and young people with diabetes presents a considerable burden on themselves, their families and the NHS. It is estimated that approximately 80% of these cases are potentially avoidable.
A report produced by the National Paediatric Diabetes Audit found that although the numbers of admissions didn’t significantly differ year to year, it highlighted differences in terms of socio-economic risk factors:
- Living in a deprived area increases the risk of hospital admissions which can be attributed to lack of education in the community about diabetic symptoms and the management of diabetes.
- Children below 5 years of age have a 35% increased risk of hospitalisation compared to those aged 5-9
- Females have a 33% increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes compared to males.
- Children with poor diabetes control have a twelve-fold increased risk of hospital admission
- Insulin pump users have a 27% increased risk of hospital admission compared to those who use insulin injections.
Figure A. Number of preventable paediatric diabetes admissions 
There are campaigns in place to aid in the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes which mainly focus on raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of diabetes. On this World Diabetes Day, it is important to know that it is not just simply the responsibility of the diabetic patient to prevent admission but the main responsibility lies with the diabetic teams that inform the families with children who are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Paediatric diabetes teams should ensure that the families and the children receive structured education for self-management when diagnosed and throughout the illness. In doing so, the diabetic teams should implement blood ketone testing from diagnosis and utilise the nationally agreed hypoglycaemia management guidelines. It is also important that diabetic teams are fully aware of the patient characteristics associated with a greater risk of admission and that they use this knowledge to develop anti-admission strategies specifically tailored to the needs of each individual group.
Primary care practitioners should seek access to a specialist diabetic team who they can refer to when deciding if a patient requires admission to hospital. Furthermore, they should access blood glucose and ketone testing to identify patients at risk of diabetic ketoacidosis that require hospital admission.
How Randox can Help
Randox offer a range of assays to diagnosis and monitor diabetes and to monitor associated complications. Some of these tests are unique to Randox, including:
The Randox fructosamine assay employs the enzymatic method which offers improved specificity and reliability compared to conventional NBT-based methods. The Randox enzymatic method does not suffer from non-specific interferences unlike other commercially available fructosamine assays.
The Randox D-3-Hydroxybutyrate (Ranbut) assay detects the most abundant and sensitive ketone in the body, D-3-Hydroxybutyrate. The Randox Ranbut assay is used for the diagnosis of ketosis, more specifically diabetic ketoacidosis. Other commercially available tests, such as the nitroprusside method, are less sensitive as they only detect acetone and acetoacetate, not D-3-Hydroxybutyrate.
The Randox adiponectin assay is a biomarker in diabetes testing as adiponectin is a protein hormone responsible for regulating the metabolism of lipids and glucose and influences the body’s response to insulin. Adiponectin levels inversely correlates with abdominal visceral fat levels.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Diabetes panel page to learn more.
 National Paediatric Diabetes Audit and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, National Paediatric Diabetes Audit Report 2012-15: Part 2, 2017
 NHS, “Avoiding Complications” – Type 1 Diabetes, Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/type-1-diabetes/avoiding-complications/ [Accessed on 24th October 2018].
 “Potentially Preventable Pediatric Hospital Inpatient Stays for Asthma and Diabetes, 2003-2012”, www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov, 2015. [Online] Available: https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb192-Pediatric-Preventable-Hospitalizations-Asthma-Diabetes.jsp [Accessed 08-Nov-18]
The technological developments and scientific innovations in the field of clinical chemistry from the early 1950’s to date have been vast, enhancing laboratory capabilities and providing the necessary support to clinicians and laboratories to improve patient diagnosis and treatment. (1) Laboratory automation today is a complex integration of robotics, computers, liquid handling and numerous other technologies with a fundamental purpose of saving time and improving performance through the elimination of human error.
Complementing this, in the early 1950’s ready-to-use assay reagent kits, with instructions for use introduced a very significant innovation to the field of automation eliminating the process of manually preparing reagent. (2)
Despite the many advancements in automation many clinical laboratories continue to use manual methods such as ELISA for some specialised tests. (3)
Inefficiencies with ELISA based methods
Manual ELISA based techniques are notoriously inefficient and are particularly draining on time and personnel due to the manual intervention required. The manual nature of the method also means there is greater potential for human error ultimately resulting in lack of sensitivity and potential for cross-reactivity. (4,5)
For many laboratories, the transition from traditional ELISA techniques to an automated method for the detection of the same analyte will significantly improve both costs and time.
Renowned for quality and reliability the RX series range of clinical chemistry analysers ensures confidence in patient testing.
Expanding Capabilities and Performance
With patient care holding a primary focus on clinical chemistry testing, the RX series range of semi-automated and automated analysers offer versatility to suit all laboratory requirements. Expanding your laboratory’s capabilities with our world leading extensive dedicated test menu offers cost savings through consolidation of both routine and specialised tests. By transitioning analytes historically only available as an ELISA based test, laboratories can expand their offering with ease to both patients and clinicians.
Our open system approach to clinical testing offers unique opportunities for consolidation, most of our unique and high-performance assays may be run on any clinical chemistry instrument without the need for specialised equipment.
Outperforming ELISA methodology, the RX series delivers a testing platform that requires limited or no manual preparation. With ELISA, the test is run on a 96 well plate using only a single assay with recommendations to duplicate or triplicate samples to evacuate the extent of errors, therefore increasing time and costs. The RX series of analysers each have different levels of throughput to adapt to the requirements of all laboratories. Utilising robust hardware and intuitive software the RX series guarantees accurate and precise patient testing.
- Olsen K. The first 110 years of laboratory automation: technologies, applications, and the creative scientist. J Lab Autom. 2012; 17:469-80.
- Rosenfeld L. A golden age of clinical chemistry: 1948-1960. Clin Chem. 2000; 46:1705.14.
- Kricja LJ, Savory J. International year of chemistry 2011. A guide to the history of clinical chemistry. Clin Chem. 2011; 57:1118-26.
- Wild D, Sheehan C, Binder S. Introduction to immunoassay product technology in clinical diagnostic testing. In: Wild D, editor. Immunoassay Handbook: Theory and Applications of Ligand Binding, ELISA and Related Techniques. 4th Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013.
- Hawker CDED. Laboratory automation: total and subtotal. Clin Lab Med. 2007; 27:749-70.