Reagents | Zinc, Copper & Aldolase

Advancing Routine Testing with Randox Reagents

Randox offer an extensive range of 115 third party diagnostic reagents which are internationally recognised as being of the highest quality; producing accurate and precise results. Continually reinvesting in R&D, Randox continue to offer the opportunity to expand your test menu without expanding your lab. Not only does Randox offer superior performance assays, but also niche assays, meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer the test in an automated biochemistry format.

Zinc

 

  • Benefits of the Randox Zinc Assay
  • Biological Significance of Zinc
  • Clinical Significance of Zinc

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry zinc assay

Strong correlation with standard methods as the Randox zinc assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.9946 when compared against standard methods

A measuring range of 11.3 – 159 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of-use

Stable to expiry date when stored at +15 to +25°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox zinc assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

An essential trace metal and the only metal present in all enzyme classes, zinc is the second most abundant micronutrient in humans after iron. Zinc is required for a healthy immune system, a healthy growth rate during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence, wound health and synthesizing DNA. Zinc can modulate brain excitability and is vital in the synaptic plasticity of the brain which is thought to contribute towards memory and learning. Zinc has also been identified as a neurotoxin which suggests that zinc homeostasis is involved in the normal functioning of the central nervous system and the brain 1.

Zinc deficiency is identified as a malnutrition problem worldwide, especially in areas of high cereal intake and low animal food intake.  However, other factors may contribute to low zinc levels including: the bioavailability of zinc, chronic illnesses such as diabetes, malignancy, hepatic disease and sickle cell disease.  Higher zinc requirements have been identified in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women compared to adults.  During periods of growth, zinc deficiency can result in growth failure.  The most common organs affected by zinc deficiency clinically include: central nervous system, gastrointestinal, epidermal, skeletal, immune, and reproductive systems 2 3.

Copper

 

  • Benefits of the Randox Copper Assay
  • Biological Significance of Copper
  • Clinical Significance of Copper

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry copper assay

Exceptional correlation with standard methods as the Randox copper assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.99 when compared against standard methods

A wide measuring range of 6.6 – 86 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Lyophilised reagents for enhanced stability

Excellent stability of 2 weeks when stored at +2 to +8°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox copper assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

An essential trace metal, copper is the third most abundant micronutrient in humans after iron and zinc. Copper is mainly found in the brain, liver, kidneys, heart and skeletal muscle with the highest quantities found in the liver and muscles. It aids in some of the key bodily functions including: the production of red blood cells, the maintenance of nerve cells and the immune system, the formation of collagen to absorb iron for energy production, and the formation of melanin, bone and connective tissue. Ceruloplasmin is the protein responsible for the transportation of copper around the body 4.

 

There are various health problems that can cause abnormal copper levels, however deficiency is less likely than toxicity because a normal diet contains plenty of copper including: organic meats, beans and wholegrains. Deficiency is more likely to occur in those who are malnourished, more likely children.

Deficiency more commonly occurs in premature babies, resulting in bone abnormalities and fractures. Menkes Disease is a rare inherited genetic disorder of copper metabolism and is characterised by sparse and kinky hair as children with this disorder are unable to absorb enough copper 5.

Toxicity can be caused by consuming too many dietary supplements high in copper, from drinking contaminated water, or from fungicides containing copper sulphates. Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prohibits the liver from safely storing and excreting copper resulting in it seeping out of the liver and building up in the eyes, liver, kidneys and brain causing nerve damage, and if untreated, it can be fatal 6.

Aldolase

  • Benefits of the Randox Aldolase Assay
  • Biological Significance of Aldolase
  • Clinical Significance of Aldolase

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry aldolase assay

Excellent correlation coefficient of r=0.9917 when compared against other commercially available methods

A wide measuring range of 1.73 – 106 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Lyophilised reagents for enhanced stability

UV Method

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox aldolase assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

There are three types of Aldolase enzymes that can be can be found throughout the body: A, B and C.  It is responsible for converting glucose into energy.

A is primarily contained within the muscle and erythrocytes, whereas B is contained within the liver, enterocytes and kidney, and A and C can be found within the brain.  Despite the Aldolase enzyme existing throughout the body, the highest concentration levels of it can be found in the liver and the skeletal muscle, although testing this enzyme is routinely used for skeletal muscle damage 7.

 

Elevated levels of type A aldolase in the blood can be found in patients with damage to the skeletal muscle as the result of a trauma which includes dermatpmyositis, infectious mononucleosis, muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, hepatic cancer due to the damaged cells triggering the release of A into the blood. On the other hand, the concentration levels of A in the blood remain normal in situations where weakness is caused as the result of a neurological disease such as multiple sclerosis. Measuring A concentration levels in the blood can therefore be used to determine the root cause of muscle weakness, whether muscle trauma or neurological myopathy, in patients 7.

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Resource Hub

  • References

    [1] Osredkar, Josko and Sustar, Natasa. Copper and Zinc, Biological Role and Significance of Copper/Zinc Imbalance. 1, s.l. : Journal of Clinical Toxicology, 2011, Vol. 3.

    [2] Jockers, Dr. David. How To Test Zinc Levels At Home. DrJockers.com. [Online] 2019. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://drjockers.com/test-zinc-levels-home/..

    [3] Roohani, Nazanin, et al. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [Online] J Res Med Sci, February 18, 2013. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724376/..

    [4] Nordqvist, Joseph. What are the health benefits of zinc? Medical News Today. [Online] December 5, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263176.php.

    [5] Macfarlane, Susan. Understanding Nutrient Ratios: Zinc/Copper. Susan Macfarlane. [Online] October 29, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://susanmacfarlanenutrition.com/understanding-nutrient-ratios-zinccopper/.

    [6] National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Menkes disease. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. [Online] Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center, April 7, 2017. [Cited: November 30, 2018.] https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1521/menkes-disease.

    [7] Berridge, Brian R, Van Vleet, John F and Herman, Eugene. Chapter 46 – Cardiac, Vascular, and Skeletal Muscle Systems. 2013.

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