BRAF melanoma cells secrete factors that activate stromal fibroblasts

BRAF melanoma cells secrete factors that activate stromal fibroblasts

BRAF mutations are thought to be a leading contributor to skin cancer which has been increasing year on year in the UK and the condition is now the most common form of cancer within the British population. In 2011, 13,348 people in the UK were diagnosed with malignant melanoma skin cancer (the most deadly form of the disease which is solely responsible for 80% of all skin cancer deaths).

Malignant melanoma is highly metastatic, reaching other organs by spreading through the lymph nodes. Previous studies have identified that the BRAF V600E gene is found to be mutated and results in constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

In new research published in 2014’s edition of the British Journal of Cancer(2), genetically engineered melanoma cell lines and xenograft mouse models were used to investigate how BRAF V600E affected cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in tumour cells and in human dermal fibroblasts.

Results suggested that BRAF V600E melanoma cells secreted higher levels of the cytokines and MMP-1 than their wild-type counterparts. It was also found that the conditioned medium from the BRAF V600E melanoma cells activated the stromal fibroblasts, inducing expression of SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4. This increase was mitigated when the conditioned medium was taken from melanoma cells treated with the BRAF V600E specific inhibitor, vemurafenib.

These results show that BRAF V600E plays a key role in activating the stroma and supports the theory that there is a mechanistic link between BRAF V600E and MMP-1 in mediating melanoma progression and in activating adjacent fibroblasts in the tumour microenvironment.

References:
1. Cancer Research
2. British Journal of Cancer

If your research is focused on oncology, you may benefit from Randox’s Evidence Investigator and the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA array. Find out more with our Oncology Research brochure or e-mail research@randox.com.


Randox launches White Paper on Quality Control in POCT

Randox has launched the first in a series of White Papers, focusing on the importance of quality control in point-of-care testing (POCT). The White Paper is free to download and will help laboratories define an appropriate QC procedure for all POCT devices.

Patient testing at the point-of-care has increased dramatically in recent years, as technology makes it more convenient to test patient samples at the bedside producing rapid results and allowing immediate action. However, the benefits of this are only true if the results are both accurate and reliable, making quality control vitally important in the POC setting, just as it is in the laboratory.

A recent survey* identified that POCT is the largest source of error when compared to other sources of laboratory testing errors. Furthermore, the most common phase for errors in POCT is in the analytical stage, whereas in laboratory-based testing this is the least common source for errors. This highlights how vital it is to have a robust QC procedure in place for POCT as the potential risk of harm to a patient appears to be far greater for POC tests compared to those performed in a laboratory.

The White Paper from Randox covers the fundamentals of developing a POCT QC strategy in line with ISO15189 requirements, looking at who is responsible for QC, what QC is appropriate for different types of POC devices and tips for choosing IQC material and an EQA scheme.

The Paper can be downloaded from the Randox website here.

Randox second White Paper, which studies the importance of using 100% human serum controls to avoid lot-to-lot variations in immunoassay testing, will be available in December.


Preventing Cancer- Various Effective Diets and Tests

People get confused about whether certain vitamins and foods prevent cancer? Cancer is not a single disease and can have many different causes that make it impossible for anyone nutrient to protect against all types of cancer. There is no guarantee that you’ll remain cancer free for your life time. But proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle like no smoking, not abusing alcohol, limited exposure to pollutants, eliminating food additives and exercise can lower your odds of developing cancer.

What is an anti-cancer diet?

Healthy food is like an anti-cancer agent, which helps people in reducing cancer growing properties. Some of the anti-cancer foods that people can add in their diet are:

  • A variety of fresh, natural and less processed foods that lowers the risk of cancer production in humans.
  • Fruits such as berries and kiwifruit are a good source of vitamins and nutrients.
  • Fish and chicken (organic) lays the foundation of lowering the risk of cancer development.
  • Fruits like nuts and whole grains are also a great source of anti-cancer diet.
  • Tomatoes are antioxidant that is rich in lycopene. These have the capability to reduce the possibilities of prostate, lung and stomach cancers.
  • Avoiding fast food, fried foods and packaged foods.
  • Spinach is full of iron and other antioxidants that protect cells from the type of damage that can create cancerous mutations.
  • You can also eat fish once or twice a week.

These are some of the anti-cancer precautions that people can add in their diet plan so as to prevent cancer developing agents.

Various tests for anti-cancer

There are only two main popular and effective tests for anti-cancer are

  • In-virto
  • In-vivo efficacy.

In-vitro anti-cancer efficacy testing

In-vitro anti-cancer is a test research that provides patients with various options and its effective capabilities include:

Medicines and drug radiation combination and scheduling studies

  • Cell cycle analysis
  • Apoptosis measurements
  • Custom assay
  • Angiogenesis assays
  • Caco-2 assays
  • Hollow fibre screening assay
  • Enzyme and receptor binding assays
  • Gene and protein expression
  • Imaging and cellular localization
  • Drug uptake/retention studies

In-vivo testing efficacy

This testing efficacy is the most clinically useful agents. Following are the In-vivo anti-cancer efficacy evaluations that are available to assist clients in advancing pharmaceutical products:

  • Anti-cancer efficacy models
  • Establishment of maximum tolerated dose
  • Determination of schedule dependency
  • Spectrum of activity analyses
  • Radiation treatments
  • Early vs. late-stage disease comparisons
  • Evaluation to maximize compound effectiveness
  • Cross-resistance profiles

Some cancers are treated primarily by a wide range of anti-cancer drugs, whereas many cancers are treated by a combination of surgery and radiotherapy.
Meggie is a niche writer who loves to write on hot and trending topics. She is currently writing for OnlineRxMEdicines.


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