Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Kidney Failure

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Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Kidney Failure

Acetaminophen is a commonly used medicine for pain-relief.  During cold and flu season, it is common to resort to pain-relief medicines to relieve headaches, and ache and pain symptoms associated with a cold or flu as there is no cure.  However, the therapeutic range for acetaminophen is 10-30 mg/l, which is small and very easy to go over.  During cold and flu season, it is important to monitor the amount of paracetamol entering your body as acetaminophen is more dangerous than suspected.  At therapeutic levels, acetaminophen does not produce any adverse effects, however, long-term treatment, prolonged use, and taking a few more than the recommended dose can be severely damaging and fatal.  Accidental acetaminophen overdose took the lives of 1,500 people in the U.S between 2001 and 2010.  The Randox Acetaminophen assay is used to determine the concentration levels of acetaminophen in the blood to determine if an overdose has taken place.

 

It is commonly recognised that acetaminophen overdose causes hepatotoxicity, but it is less commonly recognised that it can also cause nephrotoxicity in less than 2% of patients.  Nephrotoxicity is toxicity of the kidneys and is often associated with a reduced amount of glutathione which is important for normal cellular metabolism in the kidneys.  The Randox Glutathione Reductase assay is required for the regeneration of reduced glutathione.  Glutathione is often discussed in association with the Randox Glutathione Peroxidase, which requires reduced glutathione for activation.  Both Glutathione reagents are unique to Randox.

 

Acute renal failure due to acetaminophen manifests as acute tubular necrosis, which can occur alone or in combination with hepatic necrosis.  Nephrotoxicity can also occur when the therapeutic levels of acetaminophen are not exceeded.  This most commonly occurs when acetaminophen is taken in combination with alcohol.  Upon testing acetaminophen levels and the results fall within the therapeutic range, the Randox Ethanol assay can test alcohol levels to determine if a combination of alcohol and acetaminophen caused nephrotoxicity.  Renal impairment may be more common than previously suspected as acute renal failure occurs in 10-40% of patients with severe hepatic necrosis.  Upon testing acetaminophen to determine toxicity, Randox also offer the following renal tests to test for nephrotoxicity:

 

For more information visit: https://www.randox.com/acetaminophen

To request an application for your specific analyser, contact reagents@randox.com


Toxicology Control Calibrators

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

Analytes

  • Oxazepam

Drugs of Abuse Array I Plus Calibrator

Multi-analyte calibrator designed for use with the Drugs of Abuse Array I Plus.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Stable to expiry date at 2oC – 8oC
  • Urine- Reconstituted stability of 14 days at 2oC – 8oC
  • Whole Blood – Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2oC – 8oC or 14 days at -20oC
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Drugs of Abuse Assay I Plus (Urine) Calibrators9 x 1ml14EV3744

Analytes

  • Amphetamine
  • Barbiturates
  • Benzodiazepine 1
  • Benzodiazepine 2
  • Buprenorphine
  • Cannabinoids
  • Cocaine Metabolite
  • MDMA
  • Methadone
  • Methamphetamine
  • Opiates
  • Phencyclidine
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants
  • Creatinine

Drugs of Abuse Array II Calibrators

Dedicated calibrator designed for use the Drugs of Abuse Array II control.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Stable to expiry at 2oC – 8oC
  • Urine- Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2oC – 8oC or 28 days at -20oC
  • Whole Blood – Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2oC – 8oC or 28 days at -20oC
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Drugs of Abuse Array II (Whole Blood) Calibrator Series9 x 1ml11EV3687

Analytes

  • 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
  • Ketamine
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
  • Methaqualone
  • Buprenorphine
  • Fentanyl
  • Generic Opioids
  • Oxycodone I
  • Oxycodone II
  • Propoxyphene
  • Creatinine

Drugs of Abuse Array III Calibrators

Multi-analyte calibrator designed for use with the Drugs of Abuse Array III control.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability/li>
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Drugs of Abuse Array III (Urine) Calibrator Series9 x 1ml11EV3829
Drugs of Abuse Array III (Whole Blood) Calibrator Series9 x 1ml11EV3797

Analytes

  • Chloral Hydrate Metabolite
  • Ethyl Glucuronide
  • Fentanyl
  • Ketamine Metabolite
  • Meperidine
  • Meprobamate
  • Zaleplon
  • Zolpidem
  • Zopiclone
  • 7-amino Flunitrazepam
  • Creatinine

Drugs of Abuse Array IV Calibrator

Multi-analyte calibrator designed for use with the Drugs of Abuse Array IV control.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Drugs of Abuse Array IV (Whole Blood) Calibrator9 x 1ml14EV3808

Analytes

  • Acetaminophen
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Escitalopram
  • Fluoxetine
  • Haloperidol
  • Ibuprofen
  • Methylphenidate
  • Salicylate
  • Salicyluric Acid
  • Sertraline
  • Tramadol
  • Trazodone
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants
  • Creatinine

Drugs of Abuse Array V Calibrators

Multi-analyte calibrator designed for use with the Drugs of Abuse Array V control.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 7 days at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Drugs of Abuse Array V (Urine) Calibrator Series9 x 1ml10EV3815
Drugs of Abuse Array V (Whole Blood) Calibrator Series9 x 1ml10EV3847

Analytes

  • Bath Salts 1 (Methcathinone and Mephedrone)
  • Bath Salts 2 (MDPV)
  • Benzylpiperazines
  • Mescaline
  • Phenylpiperazines
  • Salvinorin
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids 1
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids 2
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids 3
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids 4

Ammonia Ethanol Quality Control

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

The Randox Acusera Ammonia/Ethanol control is designed to monitor the accuracy and precision of Ammonia and Ethanol assays on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers. The liquid ready-to-use format is convenient to use while an open vial stability of 30 days at 2°C – 8°C helps to keep waste and costs to a minimum.

Features & Benefits

  • Liquid ready-to-use
  • Aqueous material
  • Assayed target values provided for both Ammonia and Ethanol
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Open vial stability of 30 days at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Ammonia/Ethanol Control Level 16 x 2ml2EA1366
Ammonia/Ethanol Control Level 26 x 2ml2EA1367
Ammonia/Ethanol Control Level 36 x 2ml2EA1368

Analytes

  • Ammonia
  • Ethanol

Ammonia/Ethanol External Quality Assessment

Combining Ammonia and Ethanol in a single RIQAS programme, participants can consolidate their EQA requirements whilst reducing costs. All samples are supplied liquid ready-to-use at the start of the cycle for added convenience and will cover a range of clinically significant concentrations.

  • Liquid ready-to-use samples
  • Monthly reporting
  • Comprehensive yet user friendly reports for quick assessment of performance
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost

Not accredited to ISO/IEC 17043

Cat NoKit SizeFrequencyCycle StartParameters 
RQ916412 x 2mlMonthly (1 x 12 month cycle)September2

Parameters

  • Ammonia
  • Ethanol

Please note, product availability may vary country to country.


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