Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent

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Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent

Reagent | Alkaline Phosphatase (DEA Method)

Benefits of the Randox Alkaline Phosphatase reagent

Suitable for use on a range of analysers

Alkaline phosphatase can be used on third-party analysers. To enquire about an Instrument Specific Application (ISA), please contact us.

Liquid ready-to-use reagents

 Available in liquid format which is more convenient as the reagent does not need to be reconstituted which aids in reducing the risk of misdiagnosis.

Excellent stability

Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8°C

DEA method

  • Available as liquid and lyophilised reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8⁰C
  • Measuring range 16.3 – 2183 U/l

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize    
AP9764R1 7 x 38ml (L)
R2 7 x 11.7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP3803R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP30710 x 10mlEnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

AMP method

  • Available as liquid and lyophilised reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8⁰C
  • Measuring range 18 – 1273 U/l

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize    
AP3802R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP7927R1 5 x 100ml (L)
R2 5 x 20ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP8002R1 7 x 20ml (L)
R2 7 x 8ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP8302R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is this assay used for?

Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found in the liver, bone, kidney, digestive system and bowel tissues. The highest concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase are contained within the tissues that make up the bone and liver.

The Alkaline Phosphatase test can be used to diagnose and monitor liver disease and damage including liver cancer, cirrhosis and hepatitis. This assay can also be used to diagnose and monitor bone damage and disease including cancers that have spread to the bone, Paget’s disease which affects how the bones grow, and issues associated with Vitamin D deficiencies.

For more information on the incidence and natural history of Paget’s disease of the bone in England and Wales, please click here.

The Randox tests can also be carried out to determine the root cause of elevated alkaline phosphatase in the blood as well as to monitor liver damage as the result of therapeutic treatment or prescribed drugs that can have implications on the liver.

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Soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR) Assay

Soluble Transferrin Receptor (sTfR)

A Valuable Marker in the Differential Diagnosis of Anaemia

Benefits of the Randox sTfR Assay

Superior Performance

Superior method

The Randox sTfR assay utilises the latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method, facilitating testing on clinical chemistry analysers.

Precision

Excellent precision

The Randox sTfR assay displayed a within run precision of <3.2% CV.

Correlation

Excellent correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=0.977 was displayed when the Randox sTfR assay was compared to commercially available methods.

Measuring range

Excellent measuring range

The Randox sTfR assay has a measuring range of 0.5 – 11.77mg/dl enabling the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Calibrator & Controls

Dedicated sTfR calibrator and control

Dedicated sTfR calibrator and controls available for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox sTfR assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
  • ANAEMIA TESTING PANEL
  • ANAEMIA
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • YOUNG CHILDREN
  • WOMEN
Cat NoSize    
TF10159R1 1 x 9ml
R2 1 x 5.8ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Ferritin remains the traditional marker of iron deficiency (ID), however, patient results can be compromised in acute phase reactions as ferritin levels can be influenced by inflammatory conditions. In the presence of inflammation, ferritin testing can produce higher values, leading to a false interpretation of iron stores in the body. Consequently, sTfR should be measured when the reliability of ferritin testing is compromised 1.

In addition to ferritin and sTfR assays, Randox also offer:

Iron which is utilised to determine the amount of iron in transit in the blood (iron bound to ferritin) 2.

Transferrin which is utilised to assess iron levels with transferrin levels increasing when iron stores are low 3.

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) which is utilised to assess iron stores with TIBC levels inversely correlating with iron stores 4.

As there are different types of anaemia and many triggers and conditions contributing to the development of anaemia, a single test cannot diagnose an individual with anaemia whilst also identifying the cause. Additionally, patient symptoms can provide an indication, however utilising the full anaemia toolbox in the assessment of anaemia will provide a definitive medical diagnosis enabling the effective implementation of treatment plans 5.

Anaemia, one of the main global deficiency diseases, is described as a severe public health issue, affecting approximately 1.62 billion people worldwide with ID increasing 2.5-fold 6. Anaemia is characterised by decreased total haemoglobin or red blood cells (RBC) 7.

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), a form of anaemia, is the result of insufficient iron to form normal RBC, typically caused by an inadequate intake of iron, chronic blood loss, or a combination of both 7.

As the most common nutritional deficiency globally, it is believed that IDA affects 15% – 20% of the global population. ID results in non-haematological disturbances including: depressed immune function in infants, growth & development disturbances, reduced physical work capacity, and decreased cognitive function in infants and adolescents 6.

The transferrin receptor (TfR) is the conventional pathway by which various organ cellular constituents acquire iron, especially the erythroid precursors in the bone marrow to produce haemoglobin as well as the placenta for the transportation of iron to the foetus. Transferrin transports iron around the body, donating iron to bodily cells by binding to the the TfR. Cell surface TfR concentrations reflect the iron requirements of the cell. When the intracellular iron becomes diminished, the cell surface TfR is upregulated in an effort to acquire more iron for the cell’s metabolic requirements 8.

Serum contains a soluble form of TfR (sTfR) that circulates bound to transferrin and is a truncated form of the whole TfR molecule. Circulating sTfR levels reflect the total body TfR concentrations, the major source of sTfR being bone marrow erythroid precursors 8.

sTfR testing is valuable in the differential diagnosis of anaemia as sTfR levels increase in IDA but remain within the normal range in anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) as sTfR is unaffected by acute phase reactants unlike ferritin 6.

The highest prevalence rates of anaemia have been identified in young children <5 years of age. It is estimated that 42% of young children globally are anaemic 9. Geographically, the highest prevalence rates of anaemia in young children <5 years of age have been identified in some African countries, including: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Chad representing 86.18%, 83.39%, 77.28% and 73.27% respectively. High prevalence rates of anaemia in children <5 years of age have also been identified in Yemen (83.51%), Pakistan (58.82%), India (57.29%) and Myanmar (52.93%) 10.

IDA in childhood is associated with delays in early childhood cognitive development which could be irreversible. Moreover, severe IDA in young children is associated with congestive heart failure, stroke and death. The prevalence of IDA in young children is believed to peak during the toddler years (1 to 3 years of age) which is largely due to nutritional factors 11.

The second highest prevalence rates of anaemia have been identified in women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years of age). 40% of pregnant women globally are affected by anaemia and it is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, including: decreased iron stores for the baby, preterm delivery, low birth weight, which in turn could lead to impaired development.

The concentration levels of serum haemoglobin are affected by numerous factors, including: smoking, altitude, age and trimester of pregnancy 9, 5.

The highest prevalence rates of anaemia among women of reproductive age geographically are similar to that of young children, such as African markets, including: Gabon(59.06%) and Mali (51.26 %), as well as Yemen (69.6%) and India (51.53%) [8]. WHO estimate that one-third of all women of reproductive age are anaemic globally 9.

Want to know more?

Contact us or download the superior performance & unique tests brochure to learn more.

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sTfR Calibrator

sTfR Control

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AST Assay

Reagent | Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

A Marker of Hepatocellular Injury

Benefits of the Randox Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) assay

Precision

Excellent precision

The Randox AST assay displayed a within run precision of < 4.96%.

Measuring range

Wide measuring range

The Randox AST assay has a measuring range of 4.42 – 657U/l for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Stability

Excellent stability

The Randox AST assay is stable to expiry when stored at +2oC to +8oC.

Liquid ready-to-use

Liquid ready-to-use

The Randox AST assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Calibrator & Controls

Calibrator and controls available

Calibrator and controls available offering a complete testing package.

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Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox AST assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Ordering Information

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Cat NoSize    
AS3804R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AS101R1 1 x 100ml (L)
R2 1 x 100ml
(Colorimetric, manual only)
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AS8005R1 6 x 56ml (L)
R2 6 x 20ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AS8306R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option (S) Indicates standard included in kit

Clinical Significance

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Hepatic Function
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • COVID-19

Enzymes are organic molecules responsible for the acceleration of biochemical reactions, however, emerge unchanged following the reaction. Aminotransferases are a family of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of amino acids to 2-oxo-acids by the transfer of amino acids 1. AST is present in mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes (80% and 20% of activity respectively), found in brain, cardiac muscle, kidneys, leucocytes, liver, lungs, red blood cells and skeletal muscle 2.

AST is a marker of hepatocellular injury, predominantly alcohol-related liver injury (chronic hepatitis C) and cirrhosis (chronic hepatitis B). In alcoholic liver disease, P-5-P becomes deficient, which is greater on ALT activity compared to AST activity. Consequently, ALT activity is reduced, whereas AST activity is increased 2. The hallmark finding for alcohol liver disease is the AST to ALT ratio of at least 2:1 3. The marked laboratory findings for ischaemic hepatitis is an elevated bilirubin level, however, AST levels are > 10 times the upper reference range limit 2. Acute viral hepatitis, drug or toxin induced liver disease and ischaemic liver injury are characterised by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels 3.

Muscular dystrophy, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterised by hypertransaminasemia. Elevations in both ALT and AST are most striking in the early stages of muscular disease, prior to the onset or only when subtle symptoms are present. Consequently, during these initial stages, ALT/AST testing can enable the early identification of disease and so the early intervention of treatment plans 4.

The diagnosis of liver disease in COVID-19 patients can be challenging for the clinician. There is often uncertainty as to whether there was a pre-existing undiagnosed liver disease. Also, many medications utilised to treat moderate and severe disease have their own profiles of liver toxicity. Elevations of aminotransferase is the most common abnormality in patients presenting with COVID-19. It was identified that AST is more frequently elevated in comparison to ALT 5. AST showed statistically significant elevations in severe COVID-19 in comparison to mild cases 6.

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Albumin Assay

Reagent | Albumin

A Marker of Hepatic Dysfunction

Benefits of the Randox Albumin Assay

Exceptional measuring range

The Randox albumin assay has a measuring range 2.87 – 75.5g/l for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Excellent precision

The Randox albumin assay displayed a within run precision of < 1.97%.

Stable to expiry date

Stable to expiry date when stored at +15oC to +25oC.

Liquid ready-to-use

Available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Calibrator and controls available

Calibrator and controls available for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox albumin assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Ordering information

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Clinical Significance

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • MORTALITY
  • DIABETES
  • HEPATIC FUNCTION
  • COVID-19

Albumin is the most abundant circulating protein found in plasma, representing approximately half of the total protein content in health human plasma. Synthesised by liver hepatocytes, it is rapidly excreted into the bloodstream, approximately 10gm – 15gm per day, with little remaining in the liver 1. It is responsible for the maintenance of colloidal osmotic pressure, provision of the majority of plasma antioxidant activity, and the binding of a variety of compounds 2.

A correlation between serum albumin concentrations and ill-health has been identified, with an astonishingly strong inverse correlation between serum albumin and mortality risk 2. The association of it with other confounding variables increase mortality (fig 1). The concentration is related to the rates of synthesis and catabolism, but also influenced by state of hydration, lymphatic return, external losses (burns), and rates of transcapillary escape. In starvation, both the synthesis and catabolism fall, whereas in nephrotic syndrome, synthesis rises and catabolism falls 3.

Fig. 1. Potential associations between serum albumin and mortality 3
Fig. 1. Potential associations between serum albumin and mortality

A direct, casual relationship between serum albumin and mortality is represented by arrow a or the sequence b, a. A non-casual, confounding relationship is represented by arrows b and c. A co-causal relationship is represented by arrows a and c.

Low circulating albumin is associated with an adverse metabolic profile characterised by increased adipose tissue inflammation, glucose concentrations, and adiposity. It inversely correlates with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk 4. Moreover, serum albumin concentrations are inversely correlated with the risk of ketosis in hospitalised patients with T2DM and may require the early initiation of insulin therapy to prevent complications. It is a promising prognostic marker in hospitalised diabetic patients with acute hyperglycaemia 5.

Low levels of serum albumin is common in cirrhosis and is associated with a reduced survival rate. In this setting, the native isoform can be severely reduced as a result of several post-transcriptional changes that impair the non-oncotic properties of the molecule 6.

Hypoalbuminemia status has been associated with the critically ill and mortality across several clinical settings. Hypoalbuminemia can potentially lead to the early recognition of severe disease associated with COVID-19 and can assist clinicians in making informed decisions for their patients 7.

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sPLA₂-IIA Reagent

Key benefits of the Randox sPLA₂-IIA reagent

A niche product

The Randox sPLA2-llA mass assay is a niche product from Randox meaning that we are one of the only manufacturers to offer the sPLA2-llA test in an automated biochemistry format

Superior methodology

The latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method delivers exceptional performance and confidence in results

Exceptional correlation

The Randox methodology was compared against other commercially available methods and the Randox sPLA2-llA assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.95

Other features of the Randox sPLA₂-IIA reagent

  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of-use
  • Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox sPLA2-llA assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers
  • Complementary controls and calibrators available offering a complete testing package
  • Automated assay eliminating the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing
  • FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY
Cat NoSize   
PLA8380R1 1 x 12.7ml
R2 1 x 12.7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDS

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is sPLA₂-IIA assay used for?

Biological Significance of sPLA2-llA

The Secretory phospholipase A 2 family comprises a large range of enzymes with their main function being to hydrolyse phospholipids from the cell membrane surface and lipoproteins. sPLA2-llA is already expressed in the arterial wall and its expression is readily up-regulated by inflammatory stimuli. sPLA2-llA is thought to be the most highly expressed of the enzymes with observational studies indicating that higher circulating sPLA2-llA mass is associated with increased risk of incident and major vascular event (MVE). Its association with the production of fatty acids and biologically active phospholipids plays important roles in platelet, monocyte, and endothelial activation, processes known to be critical steps in atherogenesis.

Clinical Significance of sPLA2-llA

sPLA2-llA is a novel cardiac biomarker which acts as a predictor of coronary risk and aids in the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular events. It is a strong predictor of adverse outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and heart failure. Unlike traditional cardiac biomarkers used to predict adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), sPLA2-llA has been shown to act at multiple pathways involved in atherogenesis, from lipid oxidation to modulation of vascular & inflammatory cell activation and apoptosis.

Cardiology & Cardiac Risk Panel

For more information or to view more reagents within the cardiology & cardiac risk panel, please click here

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