Diabetes is a life-long condition causing blood sugar levels to become too high. Whilst the condition cannot be cured, it can be controlled and monitored. A variety of assays have been developed for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes; these include Fructosamine, Glucose and HbA1c. In addition, there are a variety of assays for monitoring associated complications of diabetes; these include Albumin, Beta-2 Microglobulin, Cystatin C, D-3-Hydroxybutyrate, Microalbumin and Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA).
To discover more about our range of diabetes assays select an option from the drop-down menu. Alternatively, read on to learn more about diabetes, its effects and the relevance of Randox diabetes assays.
Diabetes products available from Randox
Diagnosis and Monitoring
7 million people worldwide are diagnosed with diabetes each year…
Diabetes is a chronic disease which causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high. It occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This is because insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat. It is a vital part of metabolism necessary for turning glucose into energy, and required to remove harmful excess glucose from the blood. Without sufficient insulin, the body cannot make proper use of glucose meaning it can’t be used as fuel, and it builds up in the blood.
There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2:
Type 1 diabetes manifests in childhood and is caused by deficient (inherited or acquired) production of insulin by the pancreas. It requires daily monitoring and administration of insulin.
Type 2 diabetes manifests later in life and occurs when the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively (known as insulin resistance). It is more common than type 1 diabetes and is usually caused by excess body weight and lack of physical activity.
Type 2 diabetes can occur in any individual despite their weight; in addition to excess body fat as a causal link, abdominal visceral fat has also been correlated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in addition to heart disease, hypertension, stroke and some cancers. Abdominal visceral fat is deep belly fat, of which high levels can occur even in those with a ‘normal’ BMI.
If you are worried about your abdominal visceral fat levels ask your doctor for the Adiponectin test!
A few signs and symptoms of diabetes…
Signs and symptoms of diabetes include unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, tiredness and lack of energy, excessive thirst, blurred vision, tingling sensation/numbness in the hands or feet and slow-healing wounds.
Ask your doctor to check your blood sugar levels!
If you are worried about your blood sugar levels ask for these simple tests which are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes…
- Glucose – a major source of energy for most cells in the body and obtained through carbohydrate foods. Insulin helps control blood glucose levels to ensure they do not get too high, and as such high levels of glucose in the blood is an indicator of diabetes
- HbA1c – this test is used to identify the average amount of glucose in the blood over a 2-3 month time-frame. It is a good indicator of diabetes, as well as enabling diabetic patients to understand how well their diabetes is being controlled
- Fructosamine – this test is used in the monitoring of diabetes and is particularly useful in reviewing the effectiveness of medication adjustments. This is because it enables average glucose levels to be obtained over a 2-3 week period. In addition it is used to monitor glucose levels of pregnant woman suffering from gestational diabetes; monitoring mother and baby glucose levels is crucial in decreasing risks such as premature birth, immediate infant health problems, miscarriage or stillbirth.
If you have diabetes take control and monitor your treatment to ensure you are safe from complications…
Many complications associated with diabetes include kidney disease, eye disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetic ketoacidosis (a life threatening condition that can develop in insulin dependent diabetics). It is important to control and monitor the condition.
A few simple routine tests that may be carried out upon diabetes diagnosis include Microalbumin to ensure normal kidney function and Albumin to ensure normal liver function. Other speciality tests which can be requested include:
- Cystatin C, a sensitive marker of kidney function used for detection of early renal dysfunction in diabetic patients. It is important to note that Creatinine is the routine test for renal dysfunction, however it has a blind range which means it is unable to detect elevated Creatinine levels found in stage 2 and halfway through stage 3 renal dysfunction; as a result 50% of kidney function can be lost before elevated Creatinine levels can be seen. The Cystatin C test is a much more sensitive marker and can detect early stages of renal dysfunction, allowing treatment to begin before it is too late
- Beta-2 Microglobulin – this test is used when kidney damage has occurred to distinguish between the two most commonly affected sites, glomeruli and renal tubules
- D-3-Hydroxybutyrate – this test is used in the identification of diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious complication of diabetes which occurs when blood sugar levels are consistently high and insulin levels are severely low. Quick diagnosis is vital as the condition can lead to coma or death if not treated immediately; symptoms include nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
- Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) – NEFA is linked to an increased risk of developing diabetes. In relation to diabetic patients, measurement of NEFA is important in cases where insulin deficiency results in the metabolism of fat. An increase in NEFA concentration has also been associated with adiposity (high level of body fat), malignant disease (progressive disease) and other metabolic syndromes such as high blood pressure and abdominal obesity
Diabetes represents one of the biggest challenges for healthcare today…
The number of people both at risk of developing diabetes, as well as living with the disease, continues to increase across the world. Early diagnosis and monitoring of type 1 and type 2 diabetes is crucial to ensure associated complications do not occur. In addition the diagnosis and monitoring of gestational diabetes is vital for health of mother and baby. Complications of diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis, eye disease, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and neuropathy (sensory, autonomic and motor).
A few simple assays can be used to diagnose diabetes and assist in the monitoring of diabetes and its associated complications. Carrying out such tests increases the chances of early diagnosis of diabetes and its associated diseases, and will assist in efforts to minimise the effects of diabetes to the healthcare industry.
You can help support efforts to minimise the effects of diabetes by asking your laboratory for these simple tests:
Routine tests including:
- Glucose, HbA1c and Fructosamine for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. Fructosamine is an alternative option to HbA1c and offers a much earlier indicator of diabetic control. Providing information on a person’s average blood glucose levels over a 2-3 week period, Fructosamine is useful in evaluating the effectiveness of medication changes and to monitor the treatment of gestational diabetes
- Routine tests used in the monitoring of associated complications such as Microalbumin to ensure normal kidney function and Albumin to ensure normal liver function
Speciality tests for the monitoring of associated complications including:
- Cystatin C, a more sensitive marker of kidney function than Creatinine; routine Creatinine has a blind range which means it is unable to detect elevated Creatinine levels found in stage 2 and halfway through stage 3 renal dysfunction. As a result your patient could suffer the loss of 50% kidney function before elevated Creatinine levels are seen. Using the Cystatin C test enables early detection of renal dysfunction, allowing treatment to begin before it is too late
- Beta-2 Microglobulin to distinguish if kidney damage has occurred in the glomeruli or renal tubules (the two most commonly affected sites)
- D-3-Hydroxybutyrate to identify diabetic ketoacidosis (vital for quick diagnosis as this condition can lead to coma or death if not treated immediately)
- Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) to assess diabetic patients risk of developing adiposity (high level of body fat), malignant disease (progressive disease) and other metabolic syndromes such as high blood pressure and abdominal obesity (NEFA test is important in cases where insulin deficiency results in the metabolism of fat)
Related biomarkers including:
- Adiponectin, a protein which regulates the metabolism of lipids and glucose and influences the body’s response to insulin. Low levels of Adiponectin are correlated with increased CRP (increased inflammation), higher levels of triglycerides and insulin resistance. As a result of increased insulin resistance and inflammation, low levels of Adiponectin can indicate metabolic syndrome and pre-diabetes. In addition Adiponectin is used to assess level of visceral fat carried on the abdominal area around the organs. Visceral fat contributes to high risk of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and some cancers. It is important to note that high visceral fat levels can occur even in those with a ‘normal’ BMI
Randox diabetes reagents cover the full spectrum of laboratory testing requirements from risk assessment, to disease diagnosis and monitoring of associated complications. Our routine tests for diabetes diagnosis and monitoring include Glucose, HbA1c and Fructosamine. To ensure effective complications monitoring we have a range of routine tests including Microalbumin and Albumin, in addition to specialised tests such as Beta-2 Microglobulin, D-3 Hydroxybutyrate, NEFA and Cystatin C. Cystatin C is a much earlier indicator of renal dysfunction than routine Creatinine; this is because due to the Creatinine blind range, elevated Creatinine levels found in stage 2 and halfway through stage 3 renal dysfunction cannot be detected. Therefore patients can suffer 50% kidney dysfunction before elevated levels are detected. Using the Cystatin C test enables more accurate patient results, and allows time for treatment to begin before it is too late.
Randox also provide Adiponectin, a related biomarker used to assess the level of abdominal visceral fat which has been found to correlate with increased risk of diabetes. Offering the Adiponectin test will expand your portfolio of unique reagents and ensure a competitive edge in the marketplace.
Randox reagents have various benefits including:
- High quality for accurate results
- A range of methods, kits and ranges for enhanced suitability of all labs
- A range of liquid and lyophilised formats for convenience
- High stability to ensure cost effectiveness for even small throughput labs
- Controls and calibrators available
- Applications available for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers
To order your diabetes test kits visit our online store or contact firstname.lastname@example.org to get in touch with your local sales representative. Alternatively, contact us to request a kit insert or refer to our individual product pages for further information.