Point of Care Testing (POCT) Explained

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Point of Care Testing (POCT) Explained

Point of Care Testing (POCT) is the delivery of a test at the point in time at which the result will be used to make a decision and taking appropriate action resulting in an improved health outcome. It is also known as near patient, bed-side, extra-laboratory, decentralised, and ancillary testing [1]. It has been shown to reduce hospital stay time, reduce complications, and improve adherence to treatment [2].

Point of care testing is not a recent practice; many early diagnostic tests were administered at the bedside. However, analytical technology has progressed and multiple tests can be performed within minutes in a laboratory. Recently, this technology has been put into the hands of the staff near the patients [2]. There are two types of technology, benchtop analysers and hand held devices. Bench top systems are just smaller versions of laboratory analysers but some steps are automated. Hand held devices are simple in appearance but complex internally, they can manage several tasks including, adding reagents, separating cells from plasma, and reading colour or other measures.

BENEFITS OF POINT OF CARE TESTING

Results can be obtained faster, allowing for more immediate decisions meaning treatment can begin sooner. Patients can live a longer and higher quality life, helped by a reduction in the length of hospital stays.

Some benefits of POCT [2]:

•    Reduced number of clinic visits
•    Earlier discharge from hospital
•    Fewer unnecessary hospital admissions
•    Optimised drug treatment
•    More appropriate use of drugs
•    Reduced use of blood products
•    Reduced use of staff, equipment and space

Key objective

The main objective of Point of Care Testing is to generate results more quickly so that appropriate treatment can be provided, resulting in an improved patient outcome.

EFFECTIVE POINT OF CARE TESTING

Management

Accurate and reliable results can only be obtained if the patient and sample are treated correctly. Point of care testing is likely to be performed by staff with a limited technical background, so training and quality control are vital.

Outcomes

Proper analysis technique alone is not enough to ensure an accurate decision; any test will only be beneficial if the appropriate action is taken based on the result. The effectiveness of POCT is assessed in terms of the overall outcome of the patient.

WHERE DOES IT GO WRONG?

There are three phases in the POCT cycle: pre-analytical phase, analytical phase, and post-analytical phase. About 90% of quality issues are attributed to the pre-analytical and post-analytical phases [3]. These errors are mainly attributed to user error and can be caused by a number of issues including, selecting the wrong POCT device, not following manufacturer instructions, inadequate training, not adhering to appropriate QC practices, and many more.

The errors can usually be mitigated by implementing an action plan and ensuring it is executed exactly as designed, deviation from the action plan will lead to errors. Errors in POCT diagnostics can lead to misdiagnosis, improper treatment, costly follow-up procedures, and death.

Some strategies for improvement:

•    Ensure the POCT analyser is suitable for the kind of testing being undertaken
•    Ensure adequate QC to ensure your device is accurate and reliable
•    Develop a comprehensive training programme
•    Periodically carry out audits of POCT practices
THE NEED FOR QUALITY CONTROL

Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment is conducted to monitor the stability of the analytical measurement system and to alert the operator to a change that may lead to a medically significant error [6].

A study by Price, Smith and Bruel [8] was conducted on a number of labs over a period of time of up to 15 years. They discovered that test result performance improved with time and was associated with regular participation in External Quality Assessment (EQA) schemes and with the use of internal quality control (IQC) procedures.

Internal Quality Control

Internal Quality Control (IQC) is used to assess the day-to-day consistency of assay performance, providing quality assurance for patient results. IQC activities are among the ten most common POCT deficiencies. These may include performing and documenting quality control testing and taking the correct action for outliers [4]. This poor performance could be attributed to how IQC is viewed in POCT; users may lack appreciation of the potential for errors and may see the analyser as infallible, they likely see IQC as an additional workload as opposed to part of their testing routine.

CLSI regulations require risk assessment for each stage of patient testing alongside an implementation of a quality control plan. Below are some suggestions for how IQC should be conducted for POCT.

Conduct

IQC should be conducted when: a new lot of consumable is used; a patient result is queried; after maintenance; the device has been physically insulted. IQC should be conducted by the usual device operator so assurance can be provided for the whole testing process.

Training

ISO 22870 requires POCT users should be trained in the theory and practice of IQC [5]. Staff should be trained in every aspect of POCT including storage, preparation, frequency, documentation and basic troubleshooting.

Material

QC material for POCT should be obtained from a third party provider and not rely on material provided by the device manufacturer, the benefits of which are well documented. It should also contain analytes at clinically relevant concentrations, be provided ready-to-use, and be stable at ambient temperatures.

Results

All IQC results must be recorded with the date, time, user, decision to accept or reject, and any actions taken as appropriate. Locally assigned ranges alongside analyte-specific rules should be used to maximise error detection. An example of how IQC could be recorded and an action flowchart can be seen in Fig. A below.

Troubleshooting

There should be a protocol for required actions following a failed IQC. Any troubleshooting should be developed with knowledge of the most common errors and user capability.

Review

A monthly review should be conducted to identify persistent failures and trends.

The cost of IQC may also be a factor in resistance to IQC, however, while it is difficult to quantify, the cost of not conducting it may be greater in terms of human harm. A whitepaper is available detailing IQC in POCT (download).

Fig. A Examples of a manual IQC documentation, adapted from the Australian Government’s POCT General Practice [4]

Fig. A Examples of a manual IQC documentation, adapted from the Australian Government’s POCT General Practice  [4]. (Click to expand)

External Quality Assessment

External Quality Assessment (EQA) or Proficiency Testing (PT) involves running blind patient-like samples and comparing your results to peer results, in order to retrospectively monitor the accuracy of reporting. EQA samples should be treated as if they were a patient sample and therefore must be run by personnel who would normally use the device. This provides confidence in the reliability of patient test results. (Learn more about EQA)

Benefits of participation in an EQA programme include assessment of result accuracy, assessment over time, comparisons with instruments, methods and peers, and providing confidence in test results.

EQA for POCT is, in theory, similar to EQA in a large laboratory. There is a significant difference however, the POCT participants are usually health care professionals with little knowledge of laboratory medicine. A lack of understanding of the importance of EQA had led to a smaller percentage of sites participating than large laboratories.

A Good EQA Scheme

A good EQA scheme should offer:

•      Enables a comparison of performance between laboratories
•      Frequent reporting and rapid report turnaround time to minimise the amount of time an error can go unnoticed
•      High quality material in a format that works for you
•      Well-designed reports that allow for quick and easy troubleshooting of erroneous results at a glance
•      A sample matrix similar to a real patient sample
•      Large participant numbers to provide a large peer group to compare results to
•      A realistic range of analyte concentrations
•      Your entire range of tests in consolidated programmes, saving you time and money

“EQA should, as far as possible, cover the entire range of tests, and the entire examination process, from sample reception, preparation and analysis to interpretation and reporting.” [9]

ISO 15189

Conducting EQA in POCT

Below are some suggestions for how EQA should be conducted for POCT.

Conduct

EQA should be conducted by the operator who normally conducts patient testing to ensure the true workflow is assessed [6].

Material

EQA samples should be commutable, meaning they have the same numeric relationship between measurements procedures as is observed for a panel of patient samples (reacts the same as a real patient sample).

Report Frequency

Challenges / surveys should be frequent enough to identify systematic errors in a timely manner, affecting the fewest patient results [10].

Report Turnaround

A fast turnaround time allows test system errors to be identified sooner and necessary corrective actions to be taken immediately with minimum disruption to the lab.

Review

A regular review of past EQA results should be part of the cycle of quality.

Guidance

A POCT EQA provider should be able to provide assistance when the user is having difficulties.

Results

Individuals carrying out testing should have the correct knowledge to interpret results, choosing a scheme with easy to interpret results can help.

RANDOX POCT QUALITY CONTROL SOLUTIONS

Internal Quality Control

Randox offer a number of controls suitable for Point of Care Testing applications:

  • Acusera Blood Gas Control

    The Randox Acusera Blood Gas Quality Controls contain assayed target values for ten parameters, covering pH, pCO2, pO2, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. The material is provided in easy to open ampoules for added convenience and ease-of-use. The liquid ready-to-use nature of the control makes it ideal for use in point-of-care testing and on a wide range of blood gas instruments.

  • Acusera Liquid Cardiac Control

    The Randox Acusera Liquid Cardiac control is designed to be both convenient and easy to use. The liquid ready-to-use format makes it ideal for both clinical laboratories and point-of-care testing. Assayed, instrument specific values are provided for an impressive 8 cardiac markers including, NT-ProBNP, D-dimer and Troponin ensuring consolidation and flexibility. Furthermore, an open vial stability of 30 days for all analytes helps to keep waste and costs to a minimum.

  • Acusera Liquid HbA1c Control

    Conveniently supplied liquid ready-to-use the Liquid HbA1c control is ideally suited to both clinical laboratories and POCT helping to significantly reduce preparation time. With a stability of 30 days, waste and costs are also kept to a minimum.

  • Liquid Urine Control

    The Randox Acusera Liquid Urine quality control is designed to be both convenient and easy to use. The liquid ready-to-use format eliminates issues with pipetting and allows convenient storage at 2℃ – 8℃. Assayed instrument and method specific target values and ranges are provided for 18 commonly tested urine chemistry parameters.

External Quality Assessment

Randox offers RIQAS Point of Care, a simple EQA scheme designed for use in point of care settings. It is a single sample, single scheme programme featuring whole blood samples for authentic patient sample assessment.

Learn More
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RIQAS

RIQAS Point of Care

Acusera

References

[1] C. Price, A. St john and J. Hicks, “Point-of-care testing”, 2004. [Online]. Available: http://mldt.hu/upload/labor/document/PRICEP.pdf. [Accessed: 23- Jul- 2018].

[2] C. Price, “Point of care testing”, BMJ, vol. 322, pp. 1285-1288, 2001.

[3] A. Okorodudu, “Optimizing accuracy and precision for point-of-care tests”, Acutecaretesting.org, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://acutecaretesting.org/en/articles/optimizing-accuracy-and-precision-for-point-of-care-tests. [Accessed: 24- Jul- 2018].

[4] H. Holt and D. Freedman, “Internal quality control in point-of-care testing: where’s the evidence?”, Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 233-239, 2016.

[5] “ISO 22870:2016 – Point-of-care testing (POCT) — Requirements for quality and competence”, Iso.org, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/standard/71119.html. [Accessed: 25- Jul- 2018].

[6] J. Gill and M. Shephard, “The Conduct of Quality Control and Quality Assurance Testing for PoCT Outside the Laboratory”, Clin Biochem Rev., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 85-88, 2010.

[7] A. Stavelin and S. Sandberg, “Essential aspects of external quality assurance for point-of-care testing”, Biochemia Medica, pp. 81-85, 2017.

[8] C. Price, I. Smith and A. Van den Bruel, “Improving the quality of point-of-care testing”, Family Practice, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 358-364, 2017.

[9] “ISO 15189:2012 – Medical laboratories — Requirements for quality and competence”, Iso.org, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/standard/56115.html. [Accessed: 31- Jul- 2018].

[10] J. Crilly, “Mythbusting: Frequency of EQA Reports”, Randox Laboratories, 2017.

[11] G. Kristensen and P. Meijer, “Interpretation of EQA results and EQA-based trouble shooting”, Biochemia Medica, pp. 49-62, 2017.

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