Featured Reagent – Microalbumin

Home - Cardiac Markers

Featured Reagent – Microalbumin

Featured Reagent | Microalbumin

What is Microalbumin?

Albumin is the most common protein found in the blood and is produced in the liver, it helps your body maintain fluid balance. To prevent fluid from leaking out of the blood vessels a proper balance of albumin is needed. Albumin also carries vital nutrients and hormones, and provides your body with the proteins it needs to maintain growth and repair tissues.

A urine microalbumin test is a test to detect very small levels of albumin in the urine. This test can detect early signs of kidney damage. Microalbumin tests are recommended for people with an increased risk of kidney disease, such as those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.

Healthy kidneys filter waste from your blood and hang on to the healthy components, including proteins such as albumin. Kidney damage can cause proteins to leak through your kidneys and exit your body in your urine. Albumin is one of the first proteins to leak when kidneys become damaged.

Features of Microalbumin

Immunoturbidimetric method
Liquid ready-to-use reagents
Stable to expiry at 2-8°C
Measuring range 5.11-234 mg/l

Applications available for a wide number of clinical chemistry analysers. Please contact us at reagents@randox.com for more information.

Did you know?

The Randox Microalbumin test can identify individuals with diabetic nephropathy approximately 5-10 years earlier than proteinuria tests.

Featured Reagents Homepage

For more featured reagents click VISIT


Featured Reagent – Acetaminophen

Featured Reagent | Acetaminophen

What is Acetaminophen?

Acetaminophen, commonly known as paracetamol, is a frequently used pain-relieving drug whose consumption is not normally associated with any adverse effects at therapeutic levels. However, long-term treatment and prolonged use of acetaminophen can cause liver and kidney damage. If it is left untreated or in the event of an overdose, hepatic failure can occur, which can be fatal. Possible side effects of acetaminophen include anaemia, thrombocytopenia (reduced number of platelets in the blood) and allergic reactions.

As part of our therapeutic drug monitoring panel, the acetaminophen test can therefore be used to determine if an overdose has taken place, to assess the risk of kidney and liver damage to the patient and to evaluate the type of treatment the patient will require.

Key Features of Randox Acetaminophen

Colorimetric method
Wide measuring range – 4.89-652 mg/l, comfortably detecting levels outside the therapeutic range of acetaminophen of 10-30 mg/l.
Liquid ready-to-use reagent – for convenience and ease of use
Excellent stability – Stable on board the analyser for seven days at approximately 10°C
Limited interference – from Bilirubin, Haemolysis, Intralipid® and Triglycerides
Liquid ready-to-use and calibrator included in the kit

Did you know?

In the United Kingdom, approximately 28% of all deaths by acute liver failure are due to an overdose of acetaminophen.

Applications available for a wide number of clinical chemistry analysers. Please contact us at reagents@randox.com for more information.

Featured Reagents Homepage

For more featured reagents click VISIT


Featured Reagent – Adiponectin

Featured Reagent | Adiponectin

Physiological Significance

Adiponectin (ADPN) (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30kDa (Acrp30)) is an adipokine (protein hormone) produced and secreted by the adipose tissue, an endocrine organ 1. ADPN acts as a messenger in the communication of adipose tissue and metabolic organs. In doing so, ADPN suppresses the production of glucose in the liver through inhibiting the genes involved in glucose production and enhances fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle 2.

Consequently, ADPN is a strong protector against several pathological events in various cells through inhibiting inflammation, suppressing cell death and enhancing cell survival 2.

ADPN has been identified as having pleiotropic functions widely associated with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. ADPN levels inversely correlate with insulin levels, BMI, triglyceride levels, insulin resistance (IR), glucose, and most importantly, visceral fat accumulation 3. Moreover, physiological functions of adiponectin have also been observed in inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in atherosclerosis 2.

Fig. 1. Proposed salutary effects of adiponectin 1

Did you know?

Obesity causes altercations in the adipose tissue promoting metabolic dysregulation. Consequently, these alterations are the precursors in the development of IR and CVD 4.

Benefits

Latex Enhanced Immunoturbidimetric Method
The automated latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method produces results in as little as ten minutes, facilitating faster patient diagnosis and treatment plan implementation compared to traditional ELISA based testing.

Exceptional correlation
A correlation coefficient of r=0.989 was displayed when compared to commercially available methods.

Extensive measuring range
The healthy range for adiponectin is 2 – 22μg/ml. The Randox adiponectin assay can comfortably detect levels outside of the healthy range, measuring between 0.32 – 23.8μg/ml.

Liquid ready-to-use assay
The Randox adiponectin assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Stability
The Randox adiponectin assay is stable to expiry date when stored at +2 to +8°C and has an onboard stability of 28 days when stored at +10oC.

Applications are available
Details of instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox adiponectin assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

 

Adiponectin Testing

  • Visceral Fat
  • T2DM
  • Metabolic & Insulin Concerns
  • Cardiac
  • Cancer
  • Obesity Risk

APDN has an inverse correlation with abdominal visceral fat (AVF). Low levels of ADPN increases the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Furthermore, excess adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is an important risk factor for IR, correlating with an increased risk of CVD 5.

The most commonly utilised methods for the assessment of AVF are waist circumference and BMI. Waist circumference does not measure total AVF reliably as the visceral fat / subcutaneous fat ratios vary by gender and ethnicity 6 and BMI cannot distinguish between muscle and fat and so classes those with high muscle and low fat mass as being overweight. Moreover, BMI also cannot distinguish between visceral fat and fat that sits beneath the skin 7.

Adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with AVF, proving to be a reliable indicator of at-risk patients.

The traditional biomarkers utilised in the assessment of T2DM risk include: oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. However, each of these tests are inadequate and a superior biomarker for T2DM risk assessment is vital.

1. JAMA (2009): Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis 8

Higher ADPN levels are associated with a lower risk of T2DM across diverse populations and is currently the strongest and most consistent biomarker of T2DM risk assessment.

2. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care (2016): Adiponectin levels predict prediabetes risk: The pathobiology in a biracial cohort (POP-ABC) study 9

Baseline ADPN levels were inversely related to the risk of pre-diabetes among the healthy African Americans and European Americans with a parental history of T2DM enrolled on the POP-ABC study. Despite gender and ethnic difference, this predictive relationship was evident.

The most commonly observed component of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is abdominal obesity. MetS encompasses several conditions
including: hypercholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, glycaemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and dyslipidaemia. The prevalence of MetS is 31% and is associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality, a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and a 5-fold increased risk of T2DM 10, 11, 12.

Adiponectin has been identified as a glucose regulator and lipid homeostasis through its insulin sensitising properties which are associated with MetS.

1. Nutrition and Diabetes (2011): Serum adiponectin level is not only decreased in metabolic syndrome but also in borderline metabolic abnormalities 13

Decreasing ADPN levels begins at an early stage before the onset of hypertension, diabetes, MetS or dyslipidaemia. Moreover, in those with metabolic abnormalities / physiological abnormalities, adiponectin is an important biomarker for the risk assessment of atherosclerosis, both independently and as a reflection of the accumulation of AVF.

2. Cardiovascular Diabetology (2015): Role of adiponectin and free fatty acids on the association between abdominal visceral fat and insulin    resistance 14

Subjects with high AVF or low ADPN had a 3-fold increased risk of IR. The combination of low ADPN with high AVF doubled this probability

It has been recognised that mRNA expression of the ADPN gene and the section of high molecular weight (HMW) oligomeric ADPN are impaired in adipose tissue of obese patients. Epidemiological studies undertaken in different ethnic groups established that low ADPN levels, especially in HMW oligomer, is an independent risk factor for CVD 15. Fig. 2 illustrates the pleiotropic role of adiponectin in the cardiovascular system.

1. PLOS ONE (2013): Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders 16

The risk of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) inversely correlates with ADPN levels in both genders. Adiponectin testing is a significant marker of atherosclerosis and can provide additional information in the assessment of atherosclerotic risk in both genders, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

2. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology (2015): Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk 17

Increasing ADPN levels in plasma is associated with a decreased risk of T2DM and subsequently, a reduced risk of CVD.

Fig. 2. The pleiotropic role of adiponectin in the cardiovascular system 15

Excess body fat is not only associated with T2DM and CVD, but also with various types of malignancies. Many cancer cell lines express ADPN receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Evidence exists supporting adiponectin as a novel risk marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer 17. Fig. 3 illustrates the association between obesity, low levels of adiponectin and cancer progression.

1. Medicine (2018): Serum adiponectin in breast cancer: A meta – analysis 19
The meta-analysis indicates an intriguing association between low levels of ADPN and an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Furthermore, APDN has the potential to serve as a biomarker of BC risk and aid in the identification of those at a high risk of developing BC.

2. International Brazilian Journal of Urology (2019): Role of adiponectin in prostate cancer 20
Oxidative stress has been identified as a key event in the initiation, development and progression of PC. ADPN increased cellular anti-oxidative defence mechanisms and inhibited oxidative stress through increasing the NADPH oxidase NOX2 and NOX4 expressions in human 22Rv1 and DU – 145 PC cell lines. The review support ADPN as a protective and safe factor to prevent the progression of PC.

Fig. 3. The association between obesity, low adiponectin levels and cancer progression 18

2. International Brazilian Journal of Urology (2019): Role of adiponectin in prostate cancer 20

Oxidative stress has been identified as a key event in the initiation, development and progression of PC. ADPN increased cellular anti-oxidative defence mechanisms and inhibited oxidative stress through increasing the NADPH oxidase NOX2 and NOX4 expressions in human 22Rv1 and DU – 145 PC cell lines. The review support ADPN as a protective and safe factor to prevent the progression of PC.

Obesity, a major global health epidemic that burdens on healthcare systems, has increased at an alarming rate with 39% of adults (18+) classed as overweight and 13% classed as obese in 2016. Moreover, in the same year, 340 million children aged between 5 and 16 were identified as overweight or obese and 41 million children under 5 years of age were also classed as overweight or obese. Worldwide, obesity prevalence rates have almost tripled between 1975 and 2016 21, 22.

The main reason obesity is a massive health problem is because of the secondary diseases that develop due to obesity. Obesity has contributed to 23% of ischaemic heart disease cases, 7 – 41% of specific cancer cases and 44% of diabetes cases. Obesity is now no longer confined to developed countries. As the industrialisation of developing countries continues to emerge, high calorie diets and subsequently obesity increases 23.

Obesity reduces the number of disease free years. It was uncovered that those who were mildly obese lost 3 – 4 more disease – free years and those who were severely obese lost 7-8 more disease free years than non-obese individuals. Consequently, at least 2.8 million deaths per year are attributed to obesity 24, 25.

Obesity is a major risk factor for T2DM, IR, CVD and various types of malignancies. These secondary health-related problems cost the economy “$2 trillion annually and roughly 2.8% of the global gross domestic product (GDP)”. Moreover, childhood obesity costs the economy $14.1 billion annually 26, 27, 23. Whilst there are numerous parties involved to aid in the prevention of obesity, urgent actions are required to prevent obesity and the subsequent secondary health – related problems.

References

[1] Genetic Influences of Adiponectin on Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease. Menzaghi, Claudia, Trischitta, Vincezo and Doria, Alessandro. s.l. : Diabetes, 2007.

[2] Adiponectin, the past two decades. Wang, Zhao V and Scherer, Philipp E. 2, Dallas : Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, 2016, Vol. 8.

[3] New Insight into Adiponectin Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases. Nigro, Ersilia, et al.Napoli : BioMed Research International, 2014, Vol. 2014.

[4] Adipose tissue changes in obesity and the impact on metabolic function. Sam, Susan and Mazzone, Theodore. 4, Chicago : The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 2014, Vol. 164.

Brochure

Whitepaper

Product Page

Contact Us

Featured Reagent Home

Visit the Featured Reagent Home to see past featured reagents


Product Focus: Randox Cardiac

With World Heart Month running throughout February, we have decided to focus this month on Cardiac Markers. Over the next few weeks, we will be taking a look at some of the QC solutions available from Randox.

The accurate diagnosis of a potentially life threatening cardiac event is essential in order to avoid misdiagnosis and/or incorrect treatment. Acusera True Third Party Cardiac Controls have been designed to cover a wide range of cardiac markers at clinical decision levels eliminating the need for additional low level controls at extra expense. Available in a choice of liquid ready-to-use and lyophilised formats, they are ideal for use at the point-of-care and in the lab. Manufactured from 100% human serum, a matrix similar to that of the patient is guaranteed.

Week 1- Acusera Tri-Level Cardiac Control

The Randox Acusera Tri-Level Cardiac control is designed for use in the routine monitoring of both accuracy and precision. Assayed instrument and method specific target values are provided for 7 cardiac markers along with temperature specific target values for CK and CK-MB.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided for 7 cardiac markers
  • Cut off levels for Troponin I and T in line with internationally recommended levels
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 5 days at 2°C – 8°C or 4 weeks at -20°C

Week 2- Acusera Liquid Cardiac Control

The Randox Acusera Liquid Cardiac control is designed to be both convenient and easy to use. The liquid ready-to-use format makes it ideal for both clinical laboratories and point-of-care testing. Assayed, instrument specific values are provided for an impressive 8 cardiac markers including, NT-ProBNP, D-dimer and Troponin ensuring consolidation and flexibility. Furthermore an open vial stability of 30 days for all analytes helps to keep waste and costs to a minimum.

Features & Benefits

  • Liquid ready-to-use
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided for 8 cardiac markers
  • Cut off levels for Troponin I and T in line with internationally recommended levels
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Open vial stability of 30 days at 2°C – 8°C for all analytes

Week 3 – RIQAS Cardiac Programme

RIQAS is the largest international External Quality Assessment Scheme, with more than 40,000 participants in over 124 countries. World renowned for reducing the number of individual programmes required by even the most demanding laboratories, RIQAS covers 360 parameters across 32 flexible multi-parameter programmes.  Effective consolidation in this way will not only deliver real cost savings but free up storage space and ultimately reduce the time spent preparing multiple samples at each survey.

The RIQAS Cardiac EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 7 clinically significant cardiac markers. Two flexible reporting options are available to suit the needs of all laboratory sizes.

Features & Benefits

  • Accredited to ISO/IEC 17043
  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Bi-weekly reporting
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost

Week 4 – Acusera 24.7 Live Online Version 2.0

Acusera 24•7 Live Online is an interlaboratory data management and peer group reporting package complementing the Acusera range of true third party quality controls. Designed to assist in the management of daily QC activities, Acusera 24•7 Live Online will help to meet regulatory requirements, improve error detection, reduce false rejections and ensure accurate patient results.

Delivering an online platform for effective QC data management, our software provides unique access to instantly updated real-time peer group data, automatically generated QC statistics, QC multi-rules, interactive charts and comprehensive reports.

Acusera 24•7 Live Online is an essential QC tool for laboratories of all sizes. By participating and implementing our software your laboratory will be able to do the following;

  • Quickly identify trends, system errors and reagent issues, minimising expensive repeat tests
  • Automatically calculate Measurement Uncertainty, Total Error and Sigma Metrics
  • Bridge the gap between daily quality control and external quality assessment
  • Improve EQA performance by eliminating any undetected bias
  • Facilitate regulatory compliance
  • Reduce false rejections through the use of QC multi-rules
  • Increase confidence in assigned QC target values
  • Speed up troubleshooting processes, shortening delays in reporting

Request a meeting
×
Make an Enquiry - RX series
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
×
Kit Insert Request - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Kit Insert Request - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
×
Make an Enquiry
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Biochip
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
×
Make an Enquiry - Molecular
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
×
Make an Enquiry - Future Diagnostics
×
Make an Enquiry - RX series (Product)
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Por favor, introduzca sus datos para ver nuestro último seminario
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje Polityki Prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
    Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności .
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
    Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
Downloads
×
Contact

<p>

    Randox Clinical Chemistry Products Join the Randox Laboratories Mailing List * I would like to receive emails with new product releases and updates from Randox Laboratories, market trends, and more. I do not want to receive email marketing from Randox. Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not want to send you any spam or junk emails, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promises never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
</p>

×
Enquire Now - Coronavirus Testing
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×