Featured Reagent – D-3-Hydroxybutyrate (Ranbut)

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Featured Reagent – D-3-Hydroxybutyrate (Ranbut)

Featured Reagent | D-3-Hydroxybutyrate

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Benefits of D-3-Hydroxybutyrate

Superior Methodology – The commercially available nitroprusside method is a semi-quantitative dipstick test which only detects acetone and acetoacetate. As the most abundant ketone produced during ketosis, D-3-hydroxybutyrate is more sensitive and specific.

Excellent precision – The Randox Ranbut assay displayed an excellent precision of <3.5%.

Exceptional correlation – A correlation coefficient of r=0.9954 was displayed when the Randox method was compared against other commercially available methods.

Wide Measuring Range – The Randox Ranbut assay has a measuring range of 0.100 – 5.75mmol/l for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Calibrator and controls available – Randox offer a complete testing package.

Applications available – Detail of instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox Ranbut assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Traditional Methods

Ketogenesis is a biochemical process whereby the body produces ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate). As ketone bodies are water soluble, they do not require lipoproteins for transport 1.

In healthy humans, small amounts of ketones are continuously made for the body to use an energy source. Ketone bodies increase in times of fasting and sleeping 1.

Physiological Significance

Urinalysis is an essential part of the diagnostic review for kidney disease and other renal impairments. Whilst the dipstick test allows for rapid and simultaneous chemical analyses of urine, including ketones, the chemical reactions on dipsticks are complicated and can be affected by oxidising, reducing, and discolouring substances in urine. Therefore, false positives and false negative results are common in dipstick testing 4.

Clinical Significance

When the carbohydrate stores are significantly decreased, or the fatty acid concentration is increased, there is an upregulation of the ketogenic pathway and consequently, an increased production of ketone bodies. This is commonly observed in alcoholism, type I diabetes and starvation. Most organs, including the brain, can utilise ketones whereas the heart utilises fatty acids as its source of energy, but can also use ketones. The liver however, cannot utilise ketones, despite producing them as the liver lacks the necessary enzyme ketoacyl-CoA transferase 1.

Ketosis is the presence of ketones. Whilst ketosis is not dangerous, if left untreated, especially in diabetes, ketoacidosis (high levels of ketones) develops 2.

In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the body is unable to produce insulin resulting in bodily cells not receiving energy from glucose, causing the body to release hormones to breakdown fat for energy, producing ketones. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis develops, a serious health condition. Diabetic ketoacidosis is commonly triggered by an illness, infection or missing insulin treatments 3.

Did you know?

Ketone bodies increase in times of fasting and sleeping 1 and is considered harmless, however, if left untreated, especially in diabetes, ketoacidosis occurs 2.

References

[1] Dhillon KK, Gupta S. Biochemistry, Ketogenesis. Treasure Island: StatPearls Publishing; 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493179/ (accessed 28 September 2020).

[2] Hecht M. Ketosis vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know. https://www.healthline.com/health/ketosis-vs-ketoacidosis (accessed 28 September 2020).

[3] Mayo Clinic. Diabetic ketoacidosis. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetic-ketoacidosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371551 (accessed 28 September 2020).

[4] Han TH. Urinalysis: The Usefulness and Limitations of Urine Dipstick Testing. Journal of the Korean Society if Pediatric Nephrology 2013; 17(2): 42-48.

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Featured Reagent – Microalbumin

Featured Reagent | Microalbumin

What is Microalbumin?

Albumin is the most common protein found in the blood and is produced in the liver, it helps your body maintain fluid balance. To prevent fluid from leaking out of the blood vessels a proper balance of albumin is needed. Albumin also carries vital nutrients and hormones, and provides your body with the proteins it needs to maintain growth and repair tissues.

A urine microalbumin test is a test to detect very small levels of albumin in the urine. This test can detect early signs of kidney damage. Microalbumin tests are recommended for people with an increased risk of kidney disease, such as those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.

Healthy kidneys filter waste from your blood and hang on to the healthy components, including proteins such as albumin. Kidney damage can cause proteins to leak through your kidneys and exit your body in your urine. Albumin is one of the first proteins to leak when kidneys become damaged.

Features of Microalbumin

Immunoturbidimetric method
Liquid ready-to-use reagents
Stable to expiry at 2-8°C
Measuring range 5.11-234 mg/l

Applications available for a wide number of clinical chemistry analysers. Please contact us at reagents@randox.com for more information.

Did you know?

The Randox Microalbumin test can identify individuals with diabetic nephropathy approximately 5-10 years earlier than proteinuria tests.

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Featured Reagent – Acetaminophen

Featured Reagent | Acetaminophen

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What is Acetaminophen?

Acetaminophen, commonly known as paracetamol, is a frequently used pain-relieving drug whose consumption is not normally associated with any adverse effects at therapeutic levels. However, long-term treatment and prolonged use of acetaminophen can cause liver and kidney damage. If it is left untreated or in the event of an overdose, hepatic failure can occur, which can be fatal. Possible side effects of acetaminophen include anaemia, thrombocytopenia (reduced number of platelets in the blood) and allergic reactions.

As part of our therapeutic drug monitoring panel, the acetaminophen test can therefore be used to determine if an overdose has taken place, to assess the risk of kidney and liver damage to the patient and to evaluate the type of treatment the patient will require.

Key Features of Randox Acetaminophen

Colorimetric method
Wide measuring range – 4.89-652 mg/l, comfortably detecting levels outside the therapeutic range of acetaminophen of 10-30 mg/l.
Liquid ready-to-use reagent – for convenience and ease of use
Excellent stability – Stable on board the analyser for seven days at approximately 10°C
Limited interference – from Bilirubin, Haemolysis, Intralipid® and Triglycerides
Liquid ready-to-use and calibrator included in the kit

Applications available for a wide number of clinical chemistry analysers. Please contact us at reagents@randox.com for more information.

Did you know?

In the United Kingdom, approximately 28% of all deaths by acute liver failure are due to an overdose of acetaminophen.

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Featured Reagent – Cystatin C

Featured Reagent | Cystatin C

Kidney Disease

Kidney disease is a huge global health crisis, increasing healthcare costs, mortality and morbidity rates.  The global prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has continued to rise during a short lifespan.  In 2016, 1 in 10, equivalent to 10 percent of the global population were identified with having CKD with the highest prevalence’s reported in Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and Latin America, estimated at 12 per cent and the lowest in South Asia, estimated at 7 percent1.

The early risk assessment of renal function is vital.  In 1990, CKD was ranked the 27th leading cause of death in the Global Burden of Disease study2, rising to 18th 3 in 2010, 13th in 20132 and 12th by 2015.  From 2005-2015, the overall CKD mortality rate has risen by 31.7 percent, accounting for 1.1 million deaths globally in 20154.

Inadequacies of Traditional CKD Biomarkers

The most commonly used screening test for renal impairment is creatinine.  When testing for CKD using creatinine, certain factors must be taken into consideration, including: age, gender, ethnicity, and muscle mass.  As such, black men and black women will present with higher creatinine levels compared to white men and white women respectively5.

Serum creatinine is not an adequate screening test for renal impairment in the elderly (65 years of age and over) due to their decreased muscle mass.  As such, patients are misdiagnosed, thus, patients with severe renal failure are receiving suboptimal care6.

The main disadvantage of using creatinine to screen for renal impairment is that up to 50 percent of renal function can be lost before significant creatinine levels become detectable as creatinine is insensitive to small changes in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).  Consequently, treatment is not provided at the appropriate time which can be fatal, thus, an earlier and more sensitive biomarker for renal function is vital7.

Biological Significance

Cystatin C is a small (13 kDa) cysteine proteinase inhibitor, produced by all nucleated cells at a constant rate.  Cystatin C travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys where it is freely filtered by the glomerular membrane, resorbed and fully catabolised by the proximal renal tubes.  Consequently, cystatin C is the ideal biomarker of GFR function8.

Clinical Significance of Cystatin C

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2014) guidelines recommend cystatin C testing due to its higher specificity for significant disease outcomes than those based on creatinine. As such, eGFR cystatin C measurements will significantly reduce the number of misdiagnosed patients, thus reducing the overall CKD burden9.

In 2017, a systematic literature search found 3,500 investigations into cystatin C as a marker of GFR. The study concluded that eGFRcystatinc was a significantly more superior than eGFRcreatinine10.

Benefits of Cystatin C

The Randox cystatin C assay utilises the latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method offering numerous key features:

A niche product from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to provide the cystatin C test in an automated biochemistry format

An automated assay which removes the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA testing

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox cystatin C assay on a wide range of biochemistry analysers

Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of-use

Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method delivering high performance

Extensive measuring range for the detection of clinically important results

Complementary controls and calibrators available offering a complete testing package

Limited interference from Bilirubin, Haemoglobin, Intralipid® and Triglycerides

Cystatin C does not suffer from a ‘blind area’ like creatinine due to cystatin C’s sensitivity to small changes in GFR enabling the early detection renal impairment

An exceptional correlation coefficient of r=1.00 when compared against standard methods

References

[1] Bello, AK, et al. Global Kidney Health Atlas: A report by the Internal Society of Nephrology on the current state of organization and structures for kidney care across the globe. Brussels : Internal Society of Nephrology, 2017.

[2] Bikbov, Boris. Chronic kidney disease: impact on the global burden of mortality and morbidity. The Lancet. [Online] 2015. http://www.thelancet.com/campaigns/kidney/updates/chronic-kidney-disease-impact-on-global-burden-of-mortality-and-morbidity.

[3] National Kidney Foundation. Global Facts: About Kidney Disease. National Kidney Foundation. [Online] National Kidney Foundation, 2015. https://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/global-facts-about-kidney-disease#_ENREF_1.

[4] Neuen, Brendon Lange, et al. Chronic kidney disease and the global NCDs agenda. s.l. : BMJ Global Health, 2017.

[5] Lascano, Martin E and Poggio, Emilio D. Kidney Function Assessment by Creatinine-Based Estimation Equations. Cleveland Clinic. [Online] August 2010. [Cited: May 16, 2018.] http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/nephrology/kidney-function/.

[6] Swedko, Peter J, et al. Serum Creatinine Is an Inadequate Screening Test for Renal Failure in Elderly Patients. Research Gate. [Online] February 2003. [Cited: May 6, 2018.] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8243393_Serum_Creatinine_Is_an_Inadequate_Screening_Test_for_Renal_Failure_in_Elderly_Patients.

[7] Mishra, Umashankar. New technique developed to detect chronic kidney disease. Business Line. [Online] May 07, 2018. [Cited: May 17, 2018.] https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/science/new-technique-to-detect-chronic-kidney-disease/article23803316.ece.

[8] Chew, Janice SC, et al. Cystatin C-A Paradigm of Evidence Based Laboratory Medicine. NCBI. [Online] May 29, 2008. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2533150/.

[9] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic kidney disease in adults: assessment and management: 2 Implementation: getting started. NICE. [Online] January 2015. [Cited: April 19, 2018.] https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg182/chapter/implementation-getting-started.

[10] Grubb, Anders. Cystatin C is Indispensable for Evaluation of Kidney Disease. NCBI. [Online] December 28, 2017. [Cited: April 19, 2018.] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746836/.

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Featured Reagent – G6PDH

Featured Reagent | G6PDH

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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydorgenase (G6PDH/G6PD) deficiency is an x-linked and sex-linked metabolic disorder, commonly affecting men more so than women1.  The G6PDH enzyme is critical for the proper functioning of red blood cells (RBC’s).  Depleated levels of G6PDH can cause the premature destruction of RBC’s (haemolysis).  If the bone marrow cannot compensate for the reduction in RBC’s, heamolyic anaemia can develop.  It is important to note that a deficiency in the G6PDH enzyme is not enough to promote the onset of haemolysis, but rather additional factors are required to promote the onset of symptoms2.

Some of the common side effects of G6PDH deficiency include: paleness, dark urine, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, a rapid heart rate and shortness of breath.  Common triggers for the development of haemolytic anaemia in those who are G6PDH deficient include: bacterial and viral infections, certain drugs (medications and antibiotics to treat malaria), and favism (inhaling the pollen from fava plants and ingesting fava beans)3

G6PDH deficiency has been recognised as a significant cause of mild to severe jaundice in newborns.  It has been noted that those with this disorder commonly will not experience any signs or symptoms making them unaware that they have the condition3.

Haemolytic Anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is an umbrella term used to describe the premature destruction of red blood cells (RBC’s). This disorder encompasses numerous conditions including: autoantibodies, medications, underlying malignancy, bone marrow failure, infection and heredity conditions including sickle cell disease or haemoglobinopathies4 5.

The severity of haemolytic anaemia depends on whether the onset of haemolysis is gradual or rapid and on the extent of RBC destruction. Patients with mild haemolysis can be asymptomatic whereas the anaemia in severe haemolysis can be life-threatening and can cause angina and cardiopulmonary decompensation.  Haemolytic anaemia is an intravascular phenomenon meaning that this type of haemolysis occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by the following conditions: prosthetic cardiac valves, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) deficiency, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, transfusion of ABO incompatible blood and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH)6.

Heredity disorders can also cause haemolysis due to the erythrocyte membrane and haemoglobin abnormalities, and enzymatic defects. Some hereditary disorders include: G6PDH deficiency, hereditary spherocytosis and sickle cell anaemia6.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is a cytosolic enzyme located on the X-chromosome found in bodily cells.  G6PDH is involved in the normal processing of carbohydrates and plays a critical role in RBC, protecting them from damage and premature destruction.  The two main products of G6PDH are ribose-5-phosphate which is important for DNA, the chemical cousin of RNA. The chemical reaction produces NADPH which protects bodily cells from reactive oxygen species1.

Benefits of the G6PDH Assay

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a G6PDH assay in an automated biochemistry format.

Superior stability of 4 weeks upon reconstitution and stored at +2°C to +8°C.  Many other commercially available assays offer only 5 days stability, leading to product wastage.

Minimal interference as the sample pre-wash step included in the Randox G6PDH testing method serves to purify the sample, leading to no known interferences being observed.

Excellent correlation coefficient of r=0.99 when compared against other commercially available methods.

Lyophilised reagent for enhanced stability.

UV method

G6PDH controls offering a complete testing package.

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox G6PDH assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analsyers.

Did you know?

It is estimated that 400 million people globally are G6PDH deficient3.

The condition most commonly occurs in parts of Africa, Asia , the Mediterranean and the Middle East3.

References

[1] Croom, Edward. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. 2012. ISBN 9780124158139 / ISSN 1877-1173.

[2] National Organization for Rare Disorders. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency. [Online] no date. [Cited: January 31, 2019.] https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency.

[3] U.S. National Library of Medicine. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. [Online] May 2017. [Cited: January 30, 2019.] https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency.

[4] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Hemolytic Anemia. [Online] no date. [Cited: January 28, 2019.] https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/hemolytic-anemia.

[5] BMJ Publishing Group. Hemolytic anemia. BMJ Best Practice. [Online] March 2018. [Cited: January 28, 2019.] https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/98.

[6] Schick, Paul. Hemolytic Anemia. Medscape. [Online] December 29, 2018. [Cited: Janaury 28, 2018.] https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/201066-overview.

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Featured Reagent – sPLA₂-IIA

Featured Reagent | sPLA2-IIA

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Benefits

A niche assay from Randox which means that Randox is one of the only manufacturers to offer an sPLA2-llA mass assay in an automated biochemistry format
Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox sPLA2-IIA assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers
Complementary controls and calibrators available offering a complete testing package
Automated assay which removes the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing
Excellent correlation coefficient of r = 0.95 when compared against other commercially available methods
Liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease of use
Latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method delivers high performance and confidence in results

Did you know?

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally and more people die annually from CVD than from any other cause.3

NOTE: sPLA2 -IIA Assay – For Research Use Only

Clinical Significance

sPLA2-llA production of fatty acids and biologically active phospholipids plays an important role in platelet, monocyte, and endothelial activation, processes known to be critical steps in atherogenesis.1

Unlike traditional cardiac biomarkers used to predict adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), sPLA2-llA has been shown to act at multiple pathways involved in atherogenesis, from lipid oxidation to modulation of vascular & inflammatory cell activation and apoptosis.2

Biological Significance of sPLA2-IIA 

Key observations through research has found that sPLA2-llA mediated modification of lipoproteins plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The surface of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is surrounded by phosphatidylcholine (PC) a type of phospholipid which has been scientifically proven to serve as a good extracellular target for several isoforms of sPLA2-llA. sPLA2-llA works by hydrolysing these phospholipids resulting in the production of free fatty acids and lysophophatidylcholine (LPC) which can generate pro-inflammatory actions, accelerating atherosclerosis.1

Hydrolysis of LDL-C correlates with the production of the more atherogenic, small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C). The sPLA2-llA -processed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) contains a large amount of lysophospholipids and exhibit the property of “small-dense” or “modified” LDL, which facilitates foam cell formation from macrophages. Research has shown that high plasma levels of sdLDL-C  compared to less dense, larger LDL-C create a higher risk of coronary heart disease.

Cardiovascular Disease

Regular cardiovascular screening is important to ensure that cardiac risk factors are detected at the earliest possible stages. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) encompasses a number of diseases of the heart and blood vessels.  Four of the main types of CVD include: coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVA), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and aortic disease.  It is vital that at risk patients are diagnosed as quickly and efficiently as possible to ensure effective treatment plan implementation.4

The early diagnosis of CVD aids in reducing the risk of a secondary cardiovascular event and to ensure the patient receives appropriate treatment to prevent premature deaths. Early risk assessment is particularly important in people who are at a greater risk of CVD. This is evaluated through the identification of one or more risk factors including: hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidaemia. 3 ,5

It is believed that by 2030, almost 23.6 million people will die from CVD, mainly CHD and CVA, and is projected to remain the single leading cause of death. This provides further confirmation that early diagnosis is vital to prevent and reduce the number of deaths attributed to CVD.3

Biological Significance of sPLA2-IIA 

Key observations through research has found that sPLA2-llA mediated modification of lipoproteins plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis. The surface of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is surrounded by phosphatidylcholine (PC) a type of phospholipid which has been scientifically proven to serve as a good extracellular target for several isoforms of sPLA2-llA. sPLA2-llA works by hydrolysing these phospholipids resulting in the production of free fatty acids and lysophophatidylcholine (LPC) which can generate pro-inflammatory actions, accelerating atherosclerosis.1

Hydrolysis of LDL-C correlates with the production of the more atherogenic, small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C). The sPLA2-llA -processed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) contains a large amount of lysophospholipids and exhibit the property of “small-dense” or “modified” LDL, which facilitates foam cell formation from macrophages. Research has shown that high plasma levels of sdLDL-C  compared to less dense, larger LDL-C create a higher risk of coronary heart disease.

Cardiovascular Disease

Regular cardiovascular screening is important to ensure that cardiac risk factors are detected at the earliest possible stages. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) encompasses a number of diseases of the heart and blood vessels.  Four of the main types of CVD include: coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVA), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and aortic disease.  It is vital that at risk patients are diagnosed as quickly and efficiently as possible to ensure effective treatment plan implementation.4

The early diagnosis of CVD aids in reducing the risk of a secondary cardiovascular event and to ensure the patient receives appropriate treatment to prevent premature deaths. Early risk assessment is particularly important in people who are at a greater risk of CVD. This is evaluated through the identification of one or more risk factors including: hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipidaemia. 3 ,5

It is believed that by 2030, almost 23.6 million people will die from CVD, mainly CHD and CVA, and is projected to remain the single leading cause of death. This provides further confirmation that early diagnosis is vital to prevent and reduce the number of deaths attributed to CVD.3

References

[1] Secreted phospholipase A2, lipoprotein hydrolysis, and atherosclerosis: integration with lipidomics. Kei, Yamamoto, et al. 7, s.l. : Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 400.

[2] Circulatory secretory phospholipase A2 activity predicts recurrent events in patients with severe acute coronary syndromes. . Mallat, Ziad, Steg, Gabriel and Benessiano, Joelle. 7, s.l. : Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2005, Vol. 46.

[3] World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases. World Health Organization. [Online] World Health Organization, May 17, 2017. [Cited: August 21, 2018.] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds).

[4] National Health Service (NHS). Cardiovascular disease. [Online] September 17, 2018. [Cited: November 30, 2018.] https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cardiovascular-disease/.

[5] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and prevention. [Online] no date. [Cited: ovember 30, 2018.] https://bnf.nice.org.uk/treatment-summary/cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-and-prevention.html.

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Niche Reagents – Zinc, Copper & Aldolase

Reagents | Zinc, Copper & Aldolase

Advancing Routine Testing with Randox Reagents

Randox offer an extensive range of 115 third party diagnostic reagents which are internationally recognised as being of the highest quality; producing accurate and precise results. Continually reinvesting in R&D, Randox continue to offer the opportunity to expand your test menu without expanding your lab. Not only does Randox offer superior performance assays, but also niche assays, meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer the test in an automated biochemistry format.

Zinc

 

  • Benefits of the Randox Zinc Assay
  • Biological Significance of Zinc
  • Clinical Significance of Zinc

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry zinc assay

Strong correlation with standard methods as the Randox zinc assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.9946 when compared against standard methods

A measuring range of 11.3 – 159 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of-use

Stable to expiry date when stored at +15 to +25°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox zinc assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

An essential trace metal and the only metal present in all enzyme classes, zinc is the second most abundant micronutrient in humans after iron. Zinc is required for a healthy immune system, a healthy growth rate during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence, wound health and synthesizing DNA. Zinc can modulate brain excitability and is vital in the synaptic plasticity of the brain which is thought to contribute towards memory and learning. Zinc has also been identified as a neurotoxin which suggests that zinc homeostasis is involved in the normal functioning of the central nervous system and the brain 1.

Zinc deficiency is identified as a malnutrition problem worldwide, especially in areas of high cereal intake and low animal food intake.  However, other factors may contribute to low zinc levels including: the bioavailability of zinc, chronic illnesses such as diabetes, malignancy, hepatic disease and sickle cell disease.  Higher zinc requirements have been identified in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women compared to adults.  During periods of growth, zinc deficiency can result in growth failure.  The most common organs affected by zinc deficiency clinically include: central nervous system, gastrointestinal, epidermal, skeletal, immune, and reproductive systems 2 3.

Copper

 

  • Benefits of the Randox Copper Assay
  • Biological Significance of Copper
  • Clinical Significance of Copper

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry copper assay

Exceptional correlation with standard methods as the Randox copper assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.99 when compared against standard methods

A wide measuring range of 6.6 – 86 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Lyophilised reagents for enhanced stability

Excellent stability of 2 weeks when stored at +2 to +8°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox copper assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

An essential trace metal, copper is the third most abundant micronutrient in humans after iron and zinc. Copper is mainly found in the brain, liver, kidneys, heart and skeletal muscle with the highest quantities found in the liver and muscles. It aids in some of the key bodily functions including: the production of red blood cells, the maintenance of nerve cells and the immune system, the formation of collagen to absorb iron for energy production, and the formation of melanin, bone and connective tissue. Ceruloplasmin is the protein responsible for the transportation of copper around the body 4.

 

There are various health problems that can cause abnormal copper levels, however deficiency is less likely than toxicity because a normal diet contains plenty of copper including: organic meats, beans and wholegrains. Deficiency is more likely to occur in those who are malnourished, more likely children.

Deficiency more commonly occurs in premature babies, resulting in bone abnormalities and fractures. Menkes Disease is a rare inherited genetic disorder of copper metabolism and is characterised by sparse and kinky hair as children with this disorder are unable to absorb enough copper 5.

Toxicity can be caused by consuming too many dietary supplements high in copper, from drinking contaminated water, or from fungicides containing copper sulphates. Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prohibits the liver from safely storing and excreting copper resulting in it seeping out of the liver and building up in the eyes, liver, kidneys and brain causing nerve damage, and if untreated, it can be fatal 6.

Aldolase

  • Benefits of the Randox Aldolase Assay
  • Biological Significance of Aldolase
  • Clinical Significance of Aldolase

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer a clinical chemistry aldolase assay

Excellent correlation coefficient of r=0.9917 when compared against other commercially available methods

A wide measuring range of 1.73 – 106 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Lyophilised reagents for enhanced stability

UV Method

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox aldolase assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

There are three types of Aldolase enzymes that can be can be found throughout the body: A, B and C.  It is responsible for converting glucose into energy.

A is primarily contained within the muscle and erythrocytes, whereas B is contained within the liver, enterocytes and kidney, and A and C can be found within the brain.  Despite the Aldolase enzyme existing throughout the body, the highest concentration levels of it can be found in the liver and the skeletal muscle, although testing this enzyme is routinely used for skeletal muscle damage 7.

 

Elevated levels of type A aldolase in the blood can be found in patients with damage to the skeletal muscle as the result of a trauma which includes dermatpmyositis, infectious mononucleosis, muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, hepatic cancer due to the damaged cells triggering the release of A into the blood. On the other hand, the concentration levels of A in the blood remain normal in situations where weakness is caused as the result of a neurological disease such as multiple sclerosis. Measuring A concentration levels in the blood can therefore be used to determine the root cause of muscle weakness, whether muscle trauma or neurological myopathy, in patients 7.

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  • References

    [1] Osredkar, Josko and Sustar, Natasa. Copper and Zinc, Biological Role and Significance of Copper/Zinc Imbalance. 1, s.l. : Journal of Clinical Toxicology, 2011, Vol. 3.

    [2] Jockers, Dr. David. How To Test Zinc Levels At Home. DrJockers.com. [Online] 2019. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://drjockers.com/test-zinc-levels-home/..

    [3] Roohani, Nazanin, et al. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [Online] J Res Med Sci, February 18, 2013. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724376/..

    [4] Nordqvist, Joseph. What are the health benefits of zinc? Medical News Today. [Online] December 5, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263176.php.

    [5] Macfarlane, Susan. Understanding Nutrient Ratios: Zinc/Copper. Susan Macfarlane. [Online] October 29, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://susanmacfarlanenutrition.com/understanding-nutrient-ratios-zinccopper/.

    [6] National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Menkes disease. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. [Online] Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center, April 7, 2017. [Cited: November 30, 2018.] https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1521/menkes-disease.

    [7] Berridge, Brian R, Van Vleet, John F and Herman, Eugene. Chapter 46 – Cardiac, Vascular, and Skeletal Muscle Systems. 2013.


Featured Reagent – Copper & Zinc

Featured Reagents | Copper & Zinc

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Nutrient Testing

Copper and zinc are essential trace minerals, found in all bodily cells and they are necessary for survival. Although, their roles within the body differ.  Copper is essential to produce red blood cells and zinc is essential for the proper function of the immune system (1) (2).  Whilst both of these nutrients exist naturally in the environment including water and food, both nutrients can exist in the body in higher or lower than normal concentrations which can cause major health complications (3).

Copper

  • Benefits
  • Biological Significance
  • Clinical Significance

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers of the clinical chemistry Copper assay

Exceptional correlation with standard methods as the Randox Copper assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.99 when compared against standard methods

A wide measuring range of 6.6 – 86 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Lyophilised reagents for enhanced stability

Excellent stability of 2 weeks when stored at +2 to +8°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox Copper assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

Copper is mainly found in the brain, liver, kidneys, heart and skeletal muscle with the highest quantities found in the liver and muscles. It aids in some of the key bodily functions including: the production of red blood cells, the maintenance of nerve cells and the immune system, the formation of collagen to absorb iron for energy production, and the formation of melanin, bone and connective tissue. Ceruloplasmin is the protein responsible for the transportation of Copper around the body (4).

There are various health problems that can cause abnormal copper levels, however deficiency is less likely than toxicity because a normal diet contains plenty of copper including: organ meats, beans and wholegrains. Deficiency is more likely to occur in those who are malnourished, more likely children.

Deficiency more commonly occurs in premature babies, resulting in bone abnormalities and fractures. Menkes Disease is a rare inherited genetic disorder of copper metabolism and is characterised by sparse and kinky hair as children with this disorder are unable to absorb enough copper (5).

Toxicity can be caused by consuming too many dietary supplements high in copper, from drinking contaminated water, or from fungicides containing copper sulphates. Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prohibits the liver from safely storing and excreting copper resulting in it seeping out of the liver and building up in the eyes, liver, kidneys and brain causing nerve damage, and if untreated, it can be fatal (6).

 

Zinc

  • Benefits
  • Biological Significance
  • Clinical Significance

A niche assay from Randox meaning that Randox are one of the only manufacturers of the clinical chemistry zinc assay

Strong correlation with standard methods as the Randox Zinc assay showed a correlation coefficient of r=0.9946 when compared against standard methods

A measuring range of 11.3 – 159 µmol/l for the comfortable and accurate detection of abnormal levels

Liquid ready-to-use reagents for convenience and ease-of-use

Stable to expiry date when stored at +15 to +25°C

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox Zinc assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

Zinc is required for various biological processes including: cell and enzyme production; the functionality of enzymes, metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and protein from dietary intake; wound healing; and the stabilisation of DNA (7) (8).

Zinc deficiency is identified as a malnutrition problem worldwide, especially in areas of high cereal intake and low animal food intake.  However, other factors may contribute to low zinc levels including: the bioavailability of zinc, chronic illnesses such as diabetes, malignancy, hepatic disease and sickle cell disease.  Higher zinc requirements have been identified in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women compared to adults.  During periods of growth, zinc deficiency can result in growth failure.  The most common organs affected by zinc deficiency clinically include: central nervous, gastrointestinal, epidermal, skeletal, immune, and reproductive systems (9) (10).

References

[1] Ware, Megan. Health benefits and risks of copper. Medical News Today. [Online] October 23, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288165.php.

[2] Medline Plus. Zinc in diet. Medline Plus. [Online] November 13, 2018. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002416.htm.

[3] Jockers, Dr. David. Do You Have A Copper and Zinc Imbalance? DrJockers.com. [Online] 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://drjockers.com/copper-zinc-imbalance/.

[4] Macfarlane, Susan. Understanding Nutrient Ratios: Zinc/Copper. Susan Macfarlane. [Online] October 29, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://susanmacfarlanenutrition.com/understanding-nutrient-ratios-zinccopper/.

[5] National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. Menkes disease. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. [Online] Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center, April 7, 2017. [Cited: November 30, 2018.] https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1521/menkes-disease.

[6] Mayo Clinic. Wilson’s disease. Mayo Clinic. [Online] March 7, 2018. [Cited: November 30, 2018.] https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wilsons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353251.

[7] Frassinetti, S, et al. The roel of zinc in life: a review. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [Online] J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2006. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073562..

[8] Jockers, Dr. David. How To Test Zinc Levels At Home. DrJockers.com. [Online] 2019. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://drjockers.com/test-zinc-levels-home/..

[9] Roohani, Nazanin, et al. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [Online] J Res Med Sci, February 18, 2013. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724376/..

[10] Nordqvist, Joseph. What are the health benefits of zinc? Medical News Today. [Online] December 5, 2017. [Cited: November 28, 2018.] https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263176.php.

 

 

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