Bordetella Detection & Species Identification Educational Guide

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Bordetella Detection & Species Identification Educational Guide

Bordetella Detection and Species Identification with the Vivalytic

Cases of Bordetella infections are rising across Europe. Bordetella species are responsible for whooping cough, or pertussis, which literally means violet cough. Vaccine deployment in the 1940s saw a reduction in the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections and now, healthy adults can be expected to make a full recovery. However, vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly and the immunocompromised, have been shown to be at increased risk of more severe and long-lasting side effects, including increased risk of mortality.

Traditional methods of identifying Bordetella infections take the form of culture, which can take up to 7 days due to the fastidious and slow-growing nature of these bacteria and provide limited sensitivity1,2. To provide a faster and more sensitive method for the identification of whooping cough pathogens, Randox, in partnership with Bosch, are proud to introduce the Vivalytic Bordetella Cartridge. This real-time PCR assay allows detection of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. holmesii on the Vivalytic system, a universal, fully automated, cartridge-based platform enabling high-plex and low-plex testing, providing an all-in-one solution for molecular diagnostics.

To help you understand the implications of Bordetella infections and those of the Vivalytic system, we have produced a new educational guide, covering the Bordetella species responsible for whooping cough; the pathophysiology and complications associated with these infections; the Vivalytic platform and the benefits it can bring to your laboratory; and finally, a summary of findings presented at ESCMID 2024 in which the Vivalytic Bordetella cartridge showed excellent results. Here, we present this educational guide and a summary of its contents. You can download this guide for free by clicking the download link below.

The Scale of the Bordetella Problem

The rates of positive identification of Bordetella infection are increasing throughout Europe. In England, between January and March 2024, there were 2793 laboratory confirmed cases of whooping cough causing the deaths of 5 infants, compared with a total of 858 cases in 20233. A rudimentary projection model estimates that without intervention, whooping cough cases in the England could total over 15,000 cases by the end of 2024. Rising cases are not isolated to the UK – increased rates of diagnosis have also been reported in Denmark, Spain, and Croatia4. Increased numbers of infections illustrate the need for novel and rapid diagnostics to identify those who have been infected and help reduce the transmission of these bacteria.

Figure 1. Whooping Cough Cases in the UK: 2023 vs 2024 Initial Projection: This bar chart illustrates the total number of whooping cough cases in the UK for 2023 and the projected number of cases for 2024. The total number of cases in 2023 was 858. For 2024, the confirmed cases from January to March were 2,793. The projection for the remaining quarters of 2024 was based on historical seasonal trends observed from the years 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2023, with projections estimating over 15000 cases by the end of 2024.
Whooping Cough Cases in the UK: 2023 vs 2024 Initial Projection: This bar chart illustrates the total number of whooping cough cases in the UK for 2023 and the projected number of cases for 2024. The total number of cases in 2023 was 858. For 2024, the confirmed cases from January to March were 2,793. The projection for the remaining quarters of 2024 was based on historical seasonal trends observed from the years 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2023.

Bordetella genus

Bacteria of the Bordetella genus are gram-negative coccobacilli5 which are important pathogens in human medicine as they colonise the respiratory tract leading to a range of pulmonary and bronchial infections6. There are 3 main species associated with whooping cough: of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis (Classical Bordetella) and B. holmesii (pertussis-like disease pathogen).

Pertussis is caused by Classical Bordetella: B. pertussis and B. parapertussis. Despite widespread vaccination cases are rising, partially due to waning immunity. Pertussis is highly contagious and particularly dangerous for infants, who account for most pertussis-related deaths. The disease progresses through three phases: catarrhal (cold-like symptoms), paroxysmal (severe coughing fits), and convalescent (persistent cough). Classical Bordetella species share over 98% DNA sequence similarity and share many crucial virulence factors like toxins adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), pertussis toxin (PXT), and dermonecrotic toxin5 yet there are variations in potential hosts and disease. For example, B. pertussis is an exclusively human pathogen, whereas B. parapertussis can infect both humans and sheep6.

Bordetella holmesii causes pertussis-like symptoms but is ofen less severe. Unlike classical Bordetella, B. holmesii can cause bacteraemia, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Accurate diagnosis of B. holmesii remains challenging due to its similarities with other Bordetella species.

Whooping cough can lead to complications such as pneumonia, which may develop if fever persists beyond the catarrhal phase2. CNS complications like seizures and encephalopathy occur in less than 2% of cases, often due to hypoxia, hypoglycaemia, toxins, or secondary infections2. Bordetella toxins, especially PXT, increase histamine sensitivity and insulin secretion. Infants are especially at risk of bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest.

Vivalytic Bordetella Cartridge

To enhance the detection and species identification of Bordetella, Randox introduces the Vivalytic Bordetella cartridge. This user-friendly assay is designed to detect B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii from a single nasopharyngeal swab or aspirate sample. Utilising Real-time PCR, it enables rapid and accurate detection up to four weeks after symptom onset, differentiating between human pathogenic Bordetella species. With a time to result of just 47 minutes, this assay is invaluable for patient diagnosis and the containment of Bordetella, helping to reduce aerogenic transmission.

Summary of Benefits:

  • Sample Volume – 300μl.
  • Sample Type – Nasopharyngeal swab sample or aspirates.
  • Real-time PCR detection.
  • Time to result – ~47 minutes.
  • Detection of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii.
Vivalytic Bordetella Cartridge

Rapid and Accurate Detection of Whooping Cough in Clinical Samples

Zimmerman, 2024

At the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) 2024 congress, the Vivalytic Bordetella array showed excellent performance, with a 97.7% concordance and a 97.9% positive percent agreement (PPA) with the reference method.7 It accurately identified all additional positive samples and maintained over 98% PPA across spiked samples, even at low levels. The system’s invalid result rate was notably low at 0.6%, compared to 2.9% with the BioGX assay7.

Sensitivity and invalid result rate of the Vivalytic Bordetella assay compared with BioGX Bordetella Speciation Plus Toxin-OSR

The conclusions drawn from this investigation are as follows:

  • The Vivalytic Bordetella cartridge provided excellent concordance with a sensitive reference method and delivered fast and accurate results.
  • This assay is ideal for both hospital laboratories and outpatient settings, thanks to its user-friendly design and quick turnaround times.
  • Early identification of infected patients will aid in preventing the spread of re-emerging whooping cough epidemics.


As Bordetella infections rise across Europe, rapid and accurate detection is crucial. The Vivalytic Bordetella Cartridge offers a fast, reliable solution, identifying B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. holmesii with high accuracy in just 47 minutes. This advanced diagnostic tool can help reduce transmission and manage whooping cough effectively.

Take control of your diagnostic capabilities and ensure the best care for your patients. Download our comprehensive educational guide to learn more about Bordetella infections and the benefits of the Vivalytic system.

For more information on the Vivalytic, the panels mentioned, or any of our products, don’t hesitate to reach out to us at

Combating Gastroenteritis – Advanced Diagnostic Techniques for Effective Management

Gastroenteritis, often referred to as stomach flu or a stomach bug, affects millions globally each year with symptoms such as diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. It is primarily caused by viral and bacterial infections, with rotavirus, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile being the main culprits.

At Randox, we’re dedicated to improving healthcare worldwide. That’s why we’ve produced an educational guide on gastroenteritis and the latest advancements in diagnostic techniques, including a range of novel gastroenteritis test for the Vivalytic POCT system. In this blog, we’ll look at a few of the key points raised in our latest educational guide. You can download this educational guide by clicking the below.

Why Gastroenteritis Matters

Gastroenteritis can lead to severe dehydration, especially in vulnerable groups like children and the elderly. It spreads mainly through the faecal-oral route, which includes consuming contaminated food and water. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is crucial for effective management.

Key Pathogens


Rotavirus is a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. Highly contagious, it leads to rapid dehydration, making rehydration and supportive care essential. Vaccines like Rotarix and RotaTeq are effective in preventing infections.


Norovirus is responsible for most viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Extremely contagious, it spreads quickly through direct contact and contaminated food. Symptoms include sudden vomiting and diarrhoea, often leading to dehydration. While there’s no specific treatment, staying hydrated is key.

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile, or C. diff, is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, particularly in healthcare settings. It produces toxins that cause inflammation and damage to the colon, requiring targeted antibiotic treatment for severe cases.

Advanced Diagnostics: The Vivalytic System

Accurate and timely detection of gastroenteritis pathogens is crucial for effective patient management. The Vivalytic Point of Care Testing (POCT) system, developed by Bosch Healthcare Solutions and Randox Laboratories, offers rapid and reliable diagnostics. This system helps healthcare professionals make quicker decisions, improving patient outcomes.

The Vivalytic Gastroenteritis Panels

The Vivalytic panels detailed in our guide include tests for rotavirus, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile. These panels utilise advanced molecular techniques to provide quick and accurate results, helping to streamline the diagnosis process and enhance patient care. By using these panels, healthcare providers can efficiently identify the specific pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis, allowing for targeted treatment and improved patient outcomes.

Features of the Vivalytic System

The Vivalytic system is user-friendly and efficient. It supports both High-Plex and Low-Plex testing, allowing for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens from a single sample. This versatility makes it an invaluable tool for healthcare professionals.


Gastroenteritis, caused by pathogens like rotavirus, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile, presents significant health challenges. Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as the Vivalytic system, are crucial in managing and controlling this condition. For a comprehensive understanding of gastroenteritis and innovative diagnostic techniques, download our detailed educational guide.

For more information on the Vivalytic, the panels mentioned, or any of our products, don’t hesitate to reach out to us at

Serum Indices – Product Spotlight

Serum Indices spotlight header

Errors can occur at any point in the pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical stages of a diagnostic test. It is general practice for errors in the analytical stage to be identified through quality control procedures. However, pre-analytical errors are often treated with less importance than those in later stages of testing. Interference caused by haemolysis, icterus and lipemia (HIL) are common forms of pre-analytical error which affect assay methods, yielding erroneous results. The Randox Acusera Serum Indices (SI) control is designed to monitor an IVD instrument’s response in the detection of HIL interferences.

HIL interference is not novel and has been historically identified through a series of visual assessments. While haemolytic, icteric and lipemic interference causes a visual change in the sample, these methods are not quantitative and are subject to interpretation by laboratory professionals. Modern analysers have built-in capabilities for the automated detection of HIL interference which can quantitatively or semi-quantitatively measure haemolysis, icterus and lipemia, and provide and an index for each. This data can then be used to determine if a sample should be accepted for testing or rejected due to intrinsic interference.

The pre-analytical phase of laboratory testing includes collection, handling, transportation, storage, and preparation of samples. Even when the highest level of care is taken to ensure that all aspects of the pre-analytical phase are suitable and correct, errors can occur, exhibiting the need for clear and efficient quality control processes.

As part of our Acusera quality control range, Randox has developed the Serum Indices quality control to aid in the detection of the common pre-analytical error’s haemolysis, icterus and lipemia, collectively known as HIL. HIL interference can have disastrous effects on the quantification of many analytes, and it is therefore vital to determine levels of interference to improve laboratory efficiency and reduce the frequency of erroneous results.

Serum Indices Table 1

The graph below shows the wavelengths at which each of these interferents may affect assays and the table below describes these forms of interference:

Serum Indices wavelengths

Classical determination of HIL interference took the form of a visual assessment. A sample was examined for tell-tale signs of one or more of these types of interference. However, these methods are subject to operator interpretation and lack harmonisation and uniformity across the industry.  These signs are detailed in the table and illustrated in the graphic below:

Serum Indices Table2
Serum Indices Vials

Modern clinical chemistry analysers have onboard HIL detection capabilities which offer objective, semi-qualitative or qualitative analysis of these forms of interference in a more precise and consistent manner. Automation of HIL detection improves laboratory throughput along with test turnaround times and enhances the reportability of the results.

Errors at any stage of the analytical process will result in retesting of the sample. Errors in the pre-analytical phase can have repercussions such as increased cost of repeated sample collection and testing, poor test turnaround times, and more seriously, delayed or incorrect diagnosis causing an exacerbation in the condition of the patient. To add to the adverse outcomes on patients, repeated testing places additional stress on laboratory resources and staff which ultimately affects every aspect of a laboratory’s daily activities.

To correctly analyse HIL interference, absorbance readings at different strategically selected wavelengths supplement the calculation of the interference indices. C56-A recommends laboratories consider several parameters when selecting an HIL interference analysis method:

Serum indices - HIL interference

Before implementing results obtained from any method detecting HIL in patient samples, it is imperative to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the method at a minimum of two clinically relevant concentrations. This assessment should encompass the sensitivity of the icterus index to haemoglobin and lipids, the haemolysis index to bilirubin and lipids, and the lipemic index to haemoglobin and bilirubin.

In instances of HIL interference, laboratories bear the responsibility of managing the associated results and samples. It is crucial never to utilise an HIL index for the correction of patient results. Typically, if a sample is determined to be affected by one or more of these interferences, the laboratory should reject the result and appropriately dispose of the sample. Nonetheless, in certain scenarios, threshold values can be established. For instance, haemolysis may exert a lesser impact on samples with elevated analyte concentrations. In such cases, laboratories may opt for a distinct procedure in handling these results compared to those exhibiting haemolytic interference at lower analyte concentrations.

Acusera Serum Indices Control

The Randox Acusera Serum Indices (SI) control is designed to be used to monitor an IVD instrument’s response in the detection of haemolyzed, icteric and lipemic (HIL) samples. This control can be utilised in laboratory interference testing to assist in improving error detection of pre-analytical errors affecting clinical chemistry testing. This control provides a full range of clinically relevant testing levels, including a negative (-) and three positives (+, ++ & +++).

The Randox Control offers a comprehensive solution with 3 levels for each form of interference and a negative control, providing a wider coverage compared to alternatives in the market. Our product is conveniently supplied in a lyophilized format, ensuring an extended shelf-life and ease of storage. Customers appreciate the stability of our control, as it consistently meets the 14-day open stability claims, minimizing waste and optimizing laboratory efficiency.

Typical Values

Serum indices typical values

RIQAS Serum Indices External Quality Assessment

The RIQAS Serum Indices EQA programme is designed for the pre-analytical assessment of Haemolytic, Icteric and Lipemic (HIL) interferences. Available in a bi-monthly format with the option to report either quantitative or semi-quantitative results for the HIL parameters, this programme also provides an assessment on how these interferences impact on up to 25 routine chemistry parameters. This provides invaluable information on whether a correct judgement is being made to report results.

• Lyophilised for enhanced stability
• Human based serum ensuring commutable sample matrix
• Bi-monthly reporting
• HIL parameters include the option of quantitative or semi-quantitative reporting
• Interpretation of chemistry parameter results
• Submit results and view reports online via

RIQAS - External Quality Assessment ( EQA ) - Logo

How can Randox help?

It is crucial laboratories test for haemolysis, icterus and lipemia to ensure the accuracy of their test processes are maintained. ISO 15189:2022 promotes the identification and control of non-conformities in the pre-analytical process, therefore, using Randox Serum Indices control and RIQAS Serum Indices EQA will help laboratories fulfil the requirements of the new edition of this standard.

Randox Serum Indices control displays improved consolidation, stability, and commutability to ensure laboratories are equipped to accurately determine pre-analytical interferences. Our Serum Indices control can be used with most major chemistry analysers including Roche, Abbot, Beckman, Ortho, and Siemens. When used in conjunction with Acusera 24.7, this control offers laboratories the ability to compare their HIL results with their peer group and identify potential failures in their pre-analytical process.

Simply send us an email by clicking the link below and we will get in touch!

Medical Laboratory Professionals Week 2024

Med Lab Professional Week 2024 - blog header

Medical Laboratory Professionals Week (MLPW) is recognised every year in the last full week of April. It’s an opportunity to increase the public understanding of, and appreciation for, the hard work of clinical laboratory staff around the world. It’s also an opportunity to inject a little fun into the laboratory. So, this year, we’ve created a Lab Professionals QC Bingo card. Have a go and see how many your laboratory can get!

How many boxes does your lab tick?

Medical Lab Professionals QC Bingo

If you’re calling Bingo! you must be an Acusera 24.7 customer. If not, keep reading to find out how you can make daily life in your laboratory more straightforward.

What are Medical Laboratory Professionals?

Medicine wouldn’t be where it is today without the work of these laboratory professionals. They’re on the frontline. Around 70% of medical decisions are based on results provided by medical laboratory staff. That’s a lot of pressure on the labs to make sure their results are accurate. Clinical laboratory staff not only perform the tests used to guide diagnosis and disease prevention, but they also check all the tests they use through rigorous quality control (QC) procedures.

This involves testing samples of known values to prove that the test system and its components perform as they should and provide accurate results. To do this, laboratories require QC material. It’s important that what’s in a QC is as similar to what you’d find in a patient sample as possible. This is known as commutability. Good commutability helps limit cross-reactivity in the test and inaccurate results.

It’s also important to make sure the QC material has concentrations of analytes at similar values to those used to make diagnostic decisions. If you wanted to validate the length of the ruler on your desk, it wouldn’t be helpful to set it down on a 100m running track. Similarly, when laboratory professionals want to ensure a test is producing accurate results, they want to test the system at the critical values used to make medical decisions so that they can be confident the results at these values are accurate.

Once lab staff have confirmed the accuracy of their tests, they can begin testing patient samples. For most people, what happens to a sample after it’s taken is a bit of a mystery. MLPW is the perfect opportunity to unravel this a little:

After your sample is collected, it gets sent over to the lab. Even just moving it there needs careful handling to make sure it’s still good for testing when it arrives. Once it’s in the lab, the team checks the equipment to make sure it’s working right and giving accurate results. The QC procedure varies depending on what they’re testing for, but they always make sure their tests are legitimate. Once they’ve checked everything and carried out the tests, a pathologist looks at the results to figure out what’s going on. They use this information to help decide on the best treatment plan for you.

Even this watered-down explanation makes it sound like a lot of work, right? At Randox, we recognise the vital role and dedicated efforts of medical laboratory professionals, and the invaluable contributions they make to society, and we hope that now, you do too.

Acusera 24.7

Bingo! That’s exactly how our customers feel when they realise how much time Acusera 24.7 can save them. Our innovative and intuitive QC data software is cloud-based, allowing you to log in from anywhere in the world to review your QC data.

Along with a wide range of interactive charts, including Levey-Jennings charts, Acusera 24.7 determines measurement uncertainty and sigma metrics for you, saving you the time and stress of manually calculating these tricky statistical analyses. And that’s just the beginning. Acusera 24.7 can link to LIMS for  automated data entry, meaning lab staff don’t have to manual type long datasets, unless they want to of course; we also provide both semi-automated data upload and manual data entry options.

Access to a range of reports has never been easier. Acusera 24.7 is particularly useful when gaining or renewing your accreditation, and live peer group QC data, to give additional confidence in the accuracy of your results.

But this article is supposed to be about laboratory professionals, so we won’t bang on about it anymore. We just want everyone to know about Acusera 24.7 so they can get that daily bingo! feeling for themselves. If you want to learn more about our reports, charts, advanced statistical analysis, Acusera 24.7 more generally, or how Acusera 24.7 can help you achieve your accreditation, you can follow the links to the relevant blog post.

Last year, we interviewed two of our laboratory staff, Dean and Meadhbh, to find out what a normal day looked like for them. To find out what a day in the life of a laboratory professional is like, take a look at the interviews here

If you’d like to get in touch with us to discuss the advantages of Acusera 24.7, or you’ve made up your mind and want to get in on the action, reach out to us at We’re always happy to brag about how great Acusera 24.7 is, and how we make life simpler for more and more laboratories every day.

Lp(a) Awareness Day 2024

Lp(a) Awareness Day

Novel and classical insights into Lp(a) concentration and the effects on various cardiovascular conditions.

Despite advances in understanding and technology, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain a major source of mortality across the world. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimate that 17.9 million people died due to CVDs in 2019, accounting for around 32% of deaths that year1. First described in 1963, Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a macromolecular lipoprotein complex2 which is thought to display proatherogenic, proinflammatory3 and prothrombotic4 potential and is considered an independent causal risk factor for various types of CVD5. These properties provide several mechanisms in which elevated Lp(a) levels may contribute to CVD however the true nature of Lp(a)s relationship to CVD remains largely enigmatic.

Lp(a) concentrations in plasma are principally regulated by variation in LPA gene and levels remain relatively stable throughout one’s lifetime with lifestyle factors having little effect on their concentration6. Due to the highly heritable nature of Lp(a) concentration, those with a family history of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH), elevated LDL-C levels, or Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) should be screened, their plasma Lp(a) concentration determined, and their risk of CVD established.

In the last 10 years, there have been many advances in the understanding of this ambiguous lipoprotein which support the causal association with CVD, clarify the established evidence and introduce novel mechanisms of action in relation to Lp(a), shedding light on its obscure pathophysiology. However, there are still diagnostic complications associated with Lp(a) measurement as there is little standardisation in methods of determination5.

Physiology and Genetics

Synthesised mainly in the liver, Lp(a), like LDL, is composed of a lipid centre made of cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols, surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and an apoB-100 molecule. The major difference between other LDL molecules and Lp(a) is the presence of a polymorphic glycoprotein, apo(a), bound to apoB-100 by a single disulphide bond5. It is this apo(a) molecule which contributes to Lp(a)s pathophysiology.

Apo(a) is thought to have evolved from the plasminogen gene (PLG) around 40 million years ago and shares 78-100% sequence homology within the untranslated and coding regions of the fibrinolytic enzyme2. Like plasminogen, apo(a) contains unique domains named kringles5. While plasminogen contains 5 different kringle structures (KI to KV), apo(a) has lost KI to KIII and instead contains several forms of KIV, namely, 1 copy of KIV1 and KIV3-10, 1-40 copies of KIV2, 1 copy of KV and an inactive protein domain at the carboxyl terminus of the molecule7. These hydrophilic subunits are highly polymorphic due to the variation in KIV2 repeats. Individuals may possess two different isoforms of apo(a) one of which will have been passed down from each parent and are expressed codominantly2. These isoforms are dependent on the number of KIV2 repeats they contain2. Isoforms with less KIV2 repeats produce smaller apo(a) isoforms which are found at a higher concentration compared with larger isoforms8 due to the increased rate at which the smaller molecules can be synthesised5. The polymorphisms in KIV2 repeats account for up to 70% of the variation seen in concentration between individuals, with the remainder being attributed to differences in protein folding, transport, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)5. SNPs are central in the heterogeneity of apo(a), effecting RNA splicing, nonsense mutations and 5’ untranslated region of the LPA gene resulting in shorter gene translation5,8.

Lp(a) vs LDL-C

Lp(a) Pathophysiology

Lp(a) is thought to contribute to the risk of CVD through multiple mechanisms. Firstly, Lp(a) molecules display all the same atherosclerotic risk as LDL-C molecules due to their similar fundamental composition, for example, their propensity for oxidisation upon entering the vessel wall, and promotion of atherosclerosis through inflammatory and immunogenic mechanisms 9. However, Lp(a) displays more proatherogenic potential due to the presence of the apo(a) molecule. The structure of apo(a) results in decreased fibrinolysis. Due to its structural similarities, apo(a) competes with plasminogen for binding sites, competitively inhibiting plasminogen, ultimately resulting in reduced fibrinolysis9.

Lp(a) is thought to be a preferential carrier of oxidised phospholipids2 (OxPLs) which covalently bind to apo(a), increase expression of inflammatory proteins, and stimulate the secretion of IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, enhancing its ability to cross the vessel wall9. Some claims require further investigation, however, studies have been carried out which show inhibition of plasminogen activation in the presence of Lp(a)10. It is this indirect mechanism that Lp(a) is thought to conduct its prothrombotic activity8,9.

Clinical Evidence

Many studies have been carried out to determine the association of Lp(a) concentration and CVD risk. Studies such as the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Dallas Heart Study, and Ischemic Heart Disease Studies provide strong evidence for Lp(a) as a causal risk factor for CVD. Data analysis of the Copenhagen General Population Study reveal that 20% of subjects displayed Lp(a) concentrations of more than 42mg/dl, or around 105nmol/L11, which is considered to result in increased risk of atherosclerotic disease5. It is important to note, there is no accepted conversion factor for converting Lp(a) concentration from mg/dl to nmol/L due to the variability of apo(a) kringles. The unitage will depend on the assay method used5. Another study in a healthcare organisation in Israel showed that Myocardial Infarction (MI) and Coronary Artery Disease was 2.5 times more common in those with high levels of Lp(a) than in the age and sex matched control group3. This study3, along with others5,6,12 describes a linear relationship between Lp(a) concentration and CVD risk, showing at least a 3-fold increase in ASCVD and MI events in adults with Lp(a) concentrations in the top 1% when compared with those in the with concentrations in the bottom 20%3.

The major variation in Lp(a) concentration seen throughout the population, is further evident between ethnicities and sexes. On average, Caucasian subjects display the lowest Lp(a) concentrations, with Black subjects displaying the highest concentrations5. However, the large number of functional variants are consistent across ethnicities suggesting that it is the KIV2 repeats and SNPs that are the major factors contributing to Lp(a) concentration regardless of ethnicity. Lp(a) concentrations are higher in women than men8 with levels increasing post-menopause thought to be caused by a decrease in oestrogen3.

Lp(a) Testing and Screening

The European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) recommend that all adults are tested at least once in their lifetime to identify individuals who have high levels of Lp(a) and therefore high CVD risk. Screening is also recommended in children who have a family history of Ischaemic stroke, premature ASCVD or high Lp(a) levels in the absence of other identifiable risk factors8. Testing has been associated with reduced mortality rates. This is thought to be because of increased and intensified therapy for those who are identified as high risk due to high plasma Lp(a) concentration6.

There are various assays available for the determination of Lp(a) concentration which vary in accuracy and precision. Many of these assays utilise polyclonal antibodies which recognise different antigenic determinants8. Due to the variability in apo(a) structure and KIV repeats, these assays often overestimate the concentration of large isoforms and underestimate concentration of small isoforms when determining the true Lp(a) levels9. This variation can be partially nullified by using a calibrator series and by selecting a method which is traceable to WHO/IFCC reference material. This allows laboratories to confidently identify individuals considered high risk but may still prove problematic when patients’ results report closer to the assay thresholds.

One study13 compared 5 commercially available Lp(a) assays on an automated clinical chemistry analyser. The assays tested were manufactured by Diazyme, Kamiya, MedTest, Roche, and Randox. The authors show that all the assays tested met the manufacturers claims for sensitivity, linearity, and precision. However, significant bias was observed in 4 out of 5 assays. The only assay which did not display significant bias was the Randox Lp(a) Assay which is traceable to WHO/IFCC reference material. This report highlights the importance of measuring and reporting Lp(a) in molar concentration rather than in mass units to facilitate standardisation and harmonisation in Lp(a) testing13.

Current and Emerging Therapies

Statins are one of the most potent treatments for the primary prevention of ASCVD through the reduction of LDL-C concentration. However, recent studies reveal that statins have no effect on Lp(a) concentration3 and others suggest that statin administration can increase Lp(a) concentration by up to 11%5,9. Nonetheless, EAS do not recommend statin therapy be halted as their strong ameliorative effects on CVD risk are well established and surmount the risk related to increased Lp(a) concentration8.

Niacin (Nicotinic acid) is another established treatment for the reduction of CVD events and act by increasing HDL levels. Niacin can reduce Lp(a) concentration though the reduction of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner5. However, Niacin therapy has not been proven to have beneficial effects on CVD risk8.

A recent metanalysis showed a 26% reduction in serum Lp(a) concentration through treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors. This is thought to be due to a shortage of apoB-100 molecules either because of reduced synthesis or competitive binding with other LDL receptors, resulting in reduced Lp(a) concentration5. Several studies show the efficacy of PCSK9 inhibitors in reducing CVD risk, but this is not yet an approved therapy5,8.

New therapeutic strategies aim to target hepatocytes, the site of apo(a) synthesis, to reduce Lp(a) concentration. Antisense Oligonucleotides (ASOs) inhibit apo(a) mRNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm, ultimately inhibiting Lp(a) secretion5 through the cleavage of the sense strand by ribonuclease H19. While still in clinical trials, ASO therapies show promise in the battle to reduce CVD risk with some studies displaying an overall reduction in Lp(a) concentration of more than 80%9.


There have been major advances in the understanding of Lp(a) pathophysiology in the last 10 years establishing this macromolecular complex as an independent causal risk factor for various forms of CVD, however, more investigation is required to fully understand the mechanisms responsible for this association. With many national healthcare organisations and the EAS recommending universal testing for Lp(a) in adults, more emphasis should be placed on raising awareness of the importance of Lp(a) screening. Finally, more research is needed into therapies which succeed at lowering Lp(a) concentration. While some therapies are in clinical trials, there are currently no approved therapies that achieve this goal.

The Randox Lp(a) assay is calibrated in nmol/L, traceable to the WHO/IFCC reference material, and displays an excellent correlation coefficient of r=0.995 with when compared with other commercially available methods. To accompany this liquid ready-to-use reagent we also offer a dedicated 5 point calibrator with accuracy-based assigned target values (in nmol/l) is available, accurately reflecting the heterogeneity of the apo(a) isoforms.

For more information on this revolutionary assay, visit or reach out to us at


  1. World Health Organization. Cardiovascular Diseases. World Health Organization. Published June 11, 2021.
  2. Schmidt K, Noureen A, Kronenberg F, Utermann G. Structure, function, and genetics of lipoprotein (a). Journal of Lipid Research. 2016;57(8):1339-1359. doi:
  3. Zafrir B, Aker A, Saliba W. Extreme lipoprotein(a) in clinical practice: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Cardiology Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention. 2023;16:200173. doi:
  4. Pino BD, Gorini F, Gaggini M, Landi P, Pingitore A, Vassalle C. Lipoprotein(a), Cardiovascular Events and Sex Differences: A Single Cardiological Unit Experience. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2023;12(3):764. doi:
  5. Stürzebecher PE, Schorr JJ, Klebs SHG, Laufs U. Trends and consequences of lipoprotein(a) testing: Cross-sectional and longitudinal health insurance claims database analyses. Atherosclerosis. 2023;367:24-33. doi:
  6. Lampsas S, Xenou M, Oikonomou E, et al. Lipoprotein(a) in Atherosclerotic Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Diagnosis and Treatment. Molecules. 2023;28(3):969. doi:
  7. Vuorio A, Watts GF, Schneider WJ, Tsimikas S, Kovanen PT. Familial hypercholesterolemia and elevated lipoprotein(a): double heritable risk and new therapeutic opportunities. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2019;287(1):2-18. doi:
  8. Kronenberg F, Mora S, Stroes ESG, et al. Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis: a European Atherosclerosis Society consensus statement. European Heart Journal. 2022;43(39):3925-3946. doi:
  9. Tsimikas S. A Test in Context: Lipoprotein(a): Diagnosis, Prognosis, Controversies, and Emerging Therapies. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017;69(6):692-711. doi:
  10. Boffa MB, Koschinsky ML. Lipoprotein (a): truly a direct prothrombotic factor in cardiovascular disease? Journal of Lipid Research. 2016;57(5):745-757. doi:
  11. Enkhmaa B, Anuurad E, Berglund L. Lipoprotein (a): impact by ethnicity and environmental and medical conditions. Journal of Lipid Research. 2016;57(7):1111-1125. doi:
  12. Svilaas T, Klemsdal TO, Bogsrud MP, et al. High levels of lipoprotein(a) – assessment and treatment. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. Published online January 12, 2023. doi:
  13. Wyness SP, Genzen JR. Performance evaluation of five lipoprotein(a) immunoassays on the Roche cobas c501 chemistry analyzer. Practical Laboratory Medicine. 2021;25:e00218. doi:

World Tuberculosis Day 2024

World Tuberculosis Day

Tuberculosis in Brief

When we think of Tuberculosis (TB) we tend to think of an old-timey disease. Doc Holliday, the famous gunslinger, died of consumption, the old-world name for TB. As did Fantine from Victor Hugo’s “Les Misérables” and Nicole Kidman’s, Santine, in the 2001 movie, Moulin Rouge! For the videogame fans out there, you might be familiar with Arthur Morgan from Red Dead Redemption 2 who, depending on how you played the game, may have suffered a similar fate. However, this disease is still prevalent around the world today. TB is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis estimated to infect around 10 million people and is responsible for up to 1.5 million deaths each year1.

Originally discovered in 1882, M. tuberculosis is an airborne pathogen which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body2. TB infection exists in 3 states: latent, subclinical, and active. A latent TB infection is asymptomatic and non-transmissible. Subclinical infections are also asymptomatic but transmissible and will produce a positive culture. Finally, active disease is a transmissible state associated with the symptoms of TB2. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around ¼ of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis3. Up to 15% of those infected with TB will progress to active disease, while those who do not are at a heightened risk of infection throughout the rest of their lives4. Compared with some other bacterial diseases, TB is not particularly infectious. An infected individual is estimated to infect between 3-10 people per year2. However, subclinical TB infections present a challenge in reducing transmission because asymptomatic individuals may unknowingly spread the disease – over 1/3 of TB infections are never formally diagnosed5.

The symptoms of an active TB infection include fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, weight loss, and where the infection effects the lungs, a persistent cough and haemoptysis (coughing up blood). HIV-infection is a major risk factor for TB infection and mortality. Up to 12% of all new cases and 25% of TB deaths occur in HIV-positive persons2. Other risk factors for the development of TB are, malnutrition, poor indoor air quality, Type 2 diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption and smoking1.

TB is present around the world. However, as you might expect from the risk factors, low-to-middle income and developing countries account for a disproportionate number of cases. According to WHO, half of all TB infections are found in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa.

Without effective treatment, TB will kill and estimated 50% of those infected2. Treatment for TB typically involves first-line antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, with second-line drugs including fluoroquinolones and injectable aminoglycosides6. Nonetheless, drug-resistant TB accounts for an inordinately large amount of the global AMR burden which can arise from both transmitted and acquired resistance. Resistant M. tuberculosis strains are classified as monoresistant – those resistant to 1 drug; multi-drug resistant (MDR) – those resistant to 2 or more first line treatments, commonly isoniazid and rifampicin; and extensively drug resistant (XDR) – MDR strains which are also resistant to second line therapies like fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides6.

Global rates of TB have been declining. An estimated 75 million lives have been saved since 20001. Furthermore, between 2015 and 2020, TB incidence fell by 13.5%7. However, the progress made over the last decade has been compromised by the COVID-19 pandemic, illustrated by a, 18% drop in diagnosis between 2019 and 20207. Explanations for this decline include delayed treatment because of lack of access to public transport and healthcare facilities, disruption of laboratory services, a personal desire to avoid the stigma of disease and misdiagnosis due to the similarities in symptoms between TB and COVID-19.

The theme for World Tuberculosis Day 2024 is “Yes, we can end TB!” The WHO have set targets of an 80% decline in new cases and a 90% drop in TB-related deaths by 2030. Screening and preventative treatments are crucial to achieving these goals. Therefore, novel methods of detection which are quick, inexpensive and include drug resistance identification are needed.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis EQA

It is important for those carrying out TB testing to ensure their instruments and methods are accurate and effective. External Quality Assessment (EQA) programmes are an essential part of this process. QCMD is an independent international EQA organisation primarily focused on molecular infectious diseases to over 2000 participants in over 100 countries.

QCMD offers 2 programmes for those testing for TB through molecular methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Drug Resistance.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA EQA Programme

Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA EQA Programme

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Drug Resistance EQA Programme

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Drug Resistance EQA Programme

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Quality Controls

Those conducting research into TB infections and new methods of detection, screening and drug resistance profiling need to be confident that the equipment they are using is up to the task. Qnostics is a leading provider of Quality Control solutions for molecular infectious disease testing. Our range comprises hundreds of characterised viral, bacterial, and fungal targets covering a wide range of diseases.

Q Controls

Our range of positive run, whole pathogen, third party controls are designed to monitor assay performance on a routine basis. As true third-party controls, assay drift is detected, monitored, and managed, helping to ensure accurate and reliable results. The use of third-party controls will also help to support ISO 15189:2012 regulatory requirements.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Q Control 01

Target Pathogen – Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)

Matrix – Synthetic Sputum

Stability – Single use control designed to be used immediately minimising the risk of contamination

Shelf Life – Up to 2 years from date of manufacture

Regulatory Status – Research Use Only

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Q Control 01

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Rifampicin Resistant Q Control

Compatible for use with Cepheid analysers, this whole pathogen positive control is designed to monitor the performance of molecular assays used in the detection of Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Target Pathogen – Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)

Target Genotype – Rifampicin Resistance

Matrix – Synthetic Sputum

Stability – Single use control designed to be used immediately minimising the risk of contamination

Shelf Life – Up to 2 years from date of manufacture

Regulatory Status – Research Use Only

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Rifampicin Resistant Q Control

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Evaluation Panel Control

QNOSTICS Evaluation Panels cover a range of genotypes and/or levels, and may be used to evaluate assay characteristics, confirm performance claims, and ultimately ensure the assay is fit for purpose. Evaluation Panels may also be used in the validation of clinical assays and the development of new diagnostic tests.

This dedicated MTB Evaluation Panel comprises 3 targets relating to Mycobacterium tuberculosis for validating a new assay or instrument to ensure that everything is working as expected. High and medium concentrations are provided alongside a negative sample.

Target Pathogens – MTB, M. bovis, Rifampicin (Rif) resistant MTB, Isoniazid (INH) resistant MTB, Negative

Matrix – Synthetic Sputum

Panel Members – 8 (Including a negative)

Stability – Single use. Once thawed, use immediately

Shelf Life – up to 2 years from date of manufacture

Regulatory Status – Research Use Only

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Evaluation Panel Control

If you are interested in any of the TB quality control products shown above, or any other products from our wide catalogue of molecular controls and EQA programmes, get in touch with us today at To learn more, see the links below which will take you to the relevant sites and brochures.

QNOSTICS Brochure Download


QCMD Brochure Download


  1. World Health Organisation. Tuberculosis. Fact Sheets. Published November 7, 2023. Accessed March 21, 2024.
  2. Pai M, Behr MA, Dowdy D, et al. Tuberculosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016;2(1):16076. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2016.76
  3. World Health Organisation. Tuberculosis.
  4. Andrews JR, Noubary F, Walensky RP, Cerda R, Losina E, Horsburgh CR. Risk of Progression to Active Tuberculosis Following Reinfection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012;54(6):784-791. doi:10.1093/cid/cir951
  5. Adigun R, Singh R. Tuberculosis. StatPearls Publishing; 2024.
  6. Liebenberg D, Gordhan BG, Kana BD. Drug resistant tuberculosis: Implications for transmission, diagnosis, and disease management. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022;12. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.943545
  7. World Health Organisation. Global Tuberculosis Report 2022.; 2022. Accessed March 21, 2024.


Patient-Centric, Smart Quality Controls for Immunoassays

In 2022, an updated version of ISO15189 was released, placing an emphasis on risk management with the aim of mitigating risk to patients. This updated document means that rigorous quality control (QC) procedures are more important than ever.

ISO15189:2022 cites the use of third-party controls with commutable matrices manufactured to provide concentrations close to clinical decision limits, among others, as crucial considerations. ISO15189:2022 also highlights the importance of identifying and minimising errors in the pre-analytical process. ‘Load & Go’ or ‘Smart’ quality controls are becoming increasingly popular in laboratories around the world to realise this objective.

Smart controls are designed to optimise laboratory workflows, allowing laboratorians to load the control onto an instrument where it can remain until its expiry date, bringing several advantages to laboratories who run immunoassays.

The first is the minimisation of human error and other pre-analytical errors. As these controls are ready-to-go out of the box, there is no chance of reconstitution errors which can result in deviations from target values and contamination which could lead to problematic cross-reactions. Smart quality controls reduce the risk of stability issues resulting from aliquoting or the repetitive opening of vials, and eliminate the possibility of mislabelled controls, while freeing up more storage space.

Smart controls also offer the possibility of improvements in other areas of the laboratory. The reduction in the preparation required for these controls allows laboratories to use this time improving other elements of their QC practices, such as QC analysis and process improvement. Less steps in the QC process not only means time saved in the process itself, but less paperwork for laboratory staff, further freeing up time for more useful practices.

Immunoassay Smart quality controls provide laboratories with an effective QC solution which aids in the optimisation of workflows and the reduction of test turnaround times and the risk of human error throughout the QC process. However, if considering a Smart quality controls for your laboratory, its important to remember the other factors which make a good QC including matrix, stability, and clinically relevant concentrations.

The New Acusera Smart range has been designed to streamline workflows, minimise human error and reduce the strain on your cold storage. The convenient design means these controls can be loaded directly onto the analyser allowing the automation of the QC process, reducing turnaround times and increasing efficiency.

As well as the Immunoassay control, the Acusera Smart range also includes Clinical Chemistry, Liquid Cardiac and Parathyroid Hormone controls. We offer two options: Acusera SmartScan and Acusera SmartLoad. Take a look at the graphic below for more details.

Acusera Smart Quality Controls - How it works

We will be adding more controls to our Smart range soon. To stay up to date with this and all our other product releases, join our mailing list. 

If you’d like some more information on any of the products in the Acusera range, don’t hesitate to get in touch. You can contact us at

A Peculiar Problem in Pregnancy and the Placenta

Complications and Diagnosis of Pre-eclampsia

When we consider our most important organ its intuitive to choose the heart, the lungs or even the kidneys. However, there’s another without which none of us would be here to have the discussion. This ephemeral organ provides us with the nutrients necessary for development, removes malevolent agents, provides our initial immunity and much more, before being cast off as we enter the world. We are, of course, talking about the placenta. Indeed, all our organs work together to support life and it’s arbitrary to imbue one with more importance than the others. Nevertheless, as our first organ, the significance of the placenta is irrefutable.

Placental dysfunction, along with several other factors, is known to contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia – a complex, multisystem hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. While the aetiology of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, the grave complications associated with it have driven development of novel methods for predicting its onset.

Pre-eclampsia and Epidemiology

Pre-eclampsia is traditionally defined as new onset hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy1, however, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics’ (FIGO) clinical definition describes it as sudden onset hypertension (>20 weeks of gestation) and at least one of the following: proteinuria, maternal organ dysfunction or uteroplacental dysfunction2. It is responsible for an estimated 70’000 maternal deaths, and 500’000 foetal deaths globally3. Pre-eclampsia affects around 4% of pregnancies in the US and is more common in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs), displaying an overall pooled incidence of 13% in a cohort from sub-Saharan Africa4. The risk factors for pre-eclampsia are shown in the graphic below.

Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the US, pre-eclampsia is the foremost cause of maternal death, severe maternal morbidity, maternal intensive care admissions and prematurity5.

Classical classification of pre-eclampsia included early-onset (<34 weeks gestation) and late-onset (>34 weeks gestation). However, this classification lacks clinical utility as it does not accurately illustrate maternal or foetal prognosis. Therefore, the International Society for the study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) and contemporary studies prefer to classify pre-eclampsia as preterm (delivery <37 weeks of gestation), term (delivery ≥37 weeks of gestation) and postpartum pre-eclampsia (after delivery).


Pre-eclampsia has been associated with acute and chronic complications for both mother and child. Worldwide risk of maternal and foetal morbidity displays adjusted odds ratios of 3.73 and 3.12, respectively (pre-eclampsia vs non pre-eclampsia)6.

Acute Maternal Complications

A range of neurological complications are associated with pre-eclampsia. The most obvious is eclampsia, defined as seizures in pregnant women commonly from 20 weeks of gestation or after birth7. Eclampsia has two proposed mechanisms: abnormal placentation reduces blood supply and causes oxidative stress, leading to endothelial damage; and elevated blood pressure in pre-eclampsia disrupts cerebral vasculature, causing hypoperfusion and damage8. In high-income countries (HICs), most women make a full recovery, however, more severe cases of eclampsia can result in permanent disability or brain damage7.

Stroke is a significant complication of pre-eclampsia, constituting 36% of strokes related to pregnancy9. The hypertension characteristic of pre-eclampsia can weaken the walls of blood vessels causing subarachnoid or intracerebral haemorrhage resulting in haemorrhagic stroke. Ischaemic stroke is also of concern due to blood clotting complications which will be discussed later.

Additonal neurological complications include visual scotoma, cortical blindness, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathic syndrome (PRES). Notably, the last three in this list frequently manifest postpartum without warning6.

HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome is a liver and blood clotting disorder and life-threatening complication of pre-eclampsia. HELLP syndrome most commonly presents immediately postpartum but can manifest any time after 20 weeks of gestation7. Microangiopathy, or small blood vessel disorder, leads to ischaemia and a subsequent increase in oxidative stress and inflammation, causing an increase in liver enzymes and participates in the initiation of HELLP. Thrombocytopenia, or platelet deficiency, is considered a product of platelet depletion resulting from heightened platelet activation triggered by widespread endothelial damage6.

Another blood clotting condition associated with pre-eclampsia is Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)7, described as the dysfunction of the maternal blood clotting system resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome10. DIC can cause excessive bleeding due to lack of clotting proteins, or the formation of clots due to overactive clotting proteins, ultimately causing organ damage10.

As described earlier, proteinuria is included in the diagnostic criteria for pre-eclampsia, suggesting involvement of the kidneys. This is caused by high concentrations of soluble FMS like Tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1), a placental angiogenic factor, which inhibits proteins of the podocyte slit diaphragm6; the machinery involved in preventing the leakage of proteins into the urine11. Reduced levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) stimulates Endothelin 1 expression6, known to promote podocyte detachment, further contributing to proteinuria12.

Finally, Pulmonary oedema, excessive fluid accumulation in the lungs, is an acute and life-threatening complication associated with pre-eclampsia, the likelihood of which is increased via administration of antihypertensive medications6.

Acute Neonatal Complications

There are several documented complications affecting the baby of a pre-eclamptic mother. Firstly, Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can result in underdevelopment of the foetus because of deficient transfer of oxygen and other nutrients from mother to child13. This can result in low birth weight, particularly when pre-eclampsia occurs prior to 37 weeks of gestation7. In pre-eclampsia with severe symptoms, delivery frequently occurs prematurely, either spontaneously or through induction. Preterm delivery can result in complications such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and neonates often require ICU admission7. Additionally, there is increased risk of stillbirth in pre-eclamptic pregnancies with relative risk shown to be 1.45 (95% Cl 1.20-1.76)14. Other complications documented in neonates born through pre-eclamptic pregnancies include neonatal thrombocytopenia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and a range of neurodevelopment outcomes15.

Long-term Complications

The only known cure for pre-eclampsia is delivery. However, the complications for both mother and child can last long after even an uncomplicated delivery. After a pre-eclamptic pregnancy, women are increased risk of end stage renal disease (4.7-fold), stroke (4-fold) and vascular dementia (3-fold) later in life5. Women are also at increased risk of other cardiovascular disease (CVD) including chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure5, and ischaemic heart disease13. In offspring, IUGR increases the risk of development of hypertension and other CVD13. Finally, offspring have been shown to be at higher risk of increased body mass index, changes in neuroanatomy, reductions in cognitive function, and hormonal abnormalities13.

sFLT-1/PlGF ratio

The pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia is complex and enigmatic. However, placental dysfunction is known to be a factor in pre-eclampsia development. The placental-related angiogenic factors, sFLT-1 (anti-angiogenic) and PlGF (pro-angiogenic), have been implicated in this development. This ratio provides a useful measure of placental dysfunction as a sharp increase in sFLT-1 and decrease in PlGF has been shown approximately 5 weeks before onset of pre-eclampsia16.

Until recently, diagnosis of pre-eclampsia was one of clinical manifestation. However, studies such as PROGNOSIS17 and PROGNOSIS Asia18, along with others19,20, have shown strong utility of this ratio. The PROGNOSIS study showed that a ratio cutoff of ≥38 was useful for ruling out pre-eclampsia within 1 week with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.3% or 4 weeks with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 36.7%17. The definitions of pre-eclampsia used by ICCHP and American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG) have a PPV of around 20%, but when used in combination with the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio, the PPV is enhanced to 65.5% for ruling in pre-eclampsia within 4 weeks.21.

Similar results have been shown in an Asian cohort in the PROGNOSIS Asia Study. Using the same cutoff value, this study reported an NPV of 98.9%18. Furthermore, in a sub analysis of this cohort that looked at Japanese participants, a cutoff of ≥38 displayed an NPV of 100% for ruling out pre-eclampsia within 1 week and a PPV of 32.4% for ruling in within 4 weeks22.

Accurate Identification is Essential

Like all clinical assays, those used to determine the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio are subject to rigorous quality control, essential to ensure accurate results and diagnosis. The complications of pre-eclampsia are severe and often life-threating for both mother and child. Early and accurate identification is imperative for optimal monitoring, management, and timely interventions to reduce the risk of the grave consequences associated with pre-eclampsia.

The utility of the sFLT-1/PlGF ratio has been shown over various large cohorts and provides improved identification when used in combination with established clinical definitions. While the enigma of pre-eclampsia persists, the dedication of the scientific community to unravel its complexities ensures a future where expectant mothers may benefit from more effective and tailored strategies to mitigate the risks associated with this puzzling condition. Continued research endeavours will undoubtedly shape the landscape of maternal-foetal medicine, fostering advancements that hold the promise of improved outcomes for both mothers and their unborn children.

At Randox Quality Control,  we’ve introduced our Pre-eclampsia Control to the Acusera IQC range for use with in vitro diagnostic assays for the quantitative determination of PlGF and sFlt-1 in human serum and plasma.

Our true third-party Pre-eclampsia control comes with clinically relevant, assayed target values, is liquid-frozen for user convenience, utilises a human-based, commutable matrix, and has a 30-day open vial stability.

For more information on this, or any of our other controls, browse our brochure, or reach out to us today at for more information.


  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2013;122(5):1122-1131. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000437382.03963.88
  2. Poon LC, Shennan A, Hyett JA, et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) initiative on pre‐eclampsia: A pragmatic guide for first‐trimester screening and prevention. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2019;145(S1):1-33. doi:10.1002/ijgo.12802
  3. Karrar SA, Hong PL. Preeclampsia. StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
  4. Jikamo B, Adefris M, Azale T, Alemu K. Incidence, trends and risk factors of preeclampsia in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PAMJ – One Health. 2023;11. doi:10.11604/pamj-oh.2023.11.1.39297
  5. Rana S, Lemoine E, Granger JP, Karumanchi SA. Preeclampsia. Circ Res. 2019;124(7):1094-1112. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313276
  6. Dimitriadis E, Rolnik DL, Zhou W, et al. Pre-eclampsia. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2023;9(1):8. doi:10.1038/s41572-023-00417-6
  7. NHS. Pre-eclampsia. Health A to Z. Published September 28, 2021. Accessed January 3, 2024.
  8. Magley M, Hinson MR. Eclampsia. StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
  9. Crovetto F, Somigliana E, Peguero A, Figueras F. Stroke during pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2013;25(6):425-432. doi:10.1097/GCO.0000000000000024
  10. Costello RA, Nehring SM. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation. StatPearls Publishing; 2023.
  11. Kawachi H, Fukusumi Y. New insight into podocyte slit diaphragm, a therapeutic target of proteinuria. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2020;24(3):193-204. doi:10.1007/s10157-020-01854-3
  12. Trimarchi H. Mechanisms of Podocyte Detachment, Podocyturia, and Risk of Progression of Glomerulopathies. Kidney Dis (Basel). 2020;6(5):324-329. doi:10.1159/000507997
  13. Turbeville HR, Sasser JM. Preeclampsia beyond pregnancy: long-term consequences for mother and child. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology. 2020;318(6):F1315-F1326. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00071.2020
  14. Harmon QE, Huang L, Umbach DM, et al. Risk of Fetal Death With Preeclampsia. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2015;125(3):628-635. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000696
  15. Backes CH, Markham K, Moorehead P, Cordero L, Nankervis CA, Giannone PJ. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes. J Pregnancy. 2011;2011:1-7. doi:10.1155/2011/214365
  16. Verlohren S, Galindo A, Schlembach D, et al. An automated method for the determination of the sFlt-1/PIGF ratio in the assessment of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(2):161.e1-161.e11. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2009.09.016
  17. Zeisler H, Llurba E, Chantraine F, et al. Predictive Value of the sFlt-1:PlGF Ratio in Women with Suspected Preeclampsia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;374(1):13-22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1414838
  18. Bian X, Biswas A, Huang X, et al. Short-Term Prediction of Adverse Outcomes Using the sFlt-1 (Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1)/PlGF (Placental Growth Factor) Ratio in Asian Women With Suspected Preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2019;74(1):164-172. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12760
  19. Hughes RCE, Phillips I, Florkowski CM, Gullam J. The predictive value of the sFlt‐1/PlGF ratio in suspected preeclampsia in a New Zealand population: A prospective cohort study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2023;63(1):34-41. doi:10.1111/ajo.13549
  20. Nikuei P, Rajaei M, Roozbeh N, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of sFlt1/PlGF ratio as a marker for preeclampsia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;20(1):80. doi:10.1186/s12884-020-2744-2
  21. Verlohren S, Brennecke SP, Galindo A, et al. Clinical interpretation and implementation of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the prediction, diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2022;27:42-50. doi:10.1016/j.preghy.2021.12.003
  22. Ohkuchi A, Saito S, Yamamoto T, et al. Short-term prediction of preeclampsia using the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio: a subanalysis of pregnant Japanese women from the PROGNOSIS Asia study. Hypertension Research. 2021;44(7):813-821. doi:10.1038/s41440-021-00629-x



Meeting Accreditation Guidelines with Acusera 24.7

At Randox Quality Control, we are never finished shouting about how great our interlaboratory comparison and peer group reporting software is. If you’ve had a look yourself, you’ll know exactly why. Acusera 24.7 is full of fetching, interactive charts, and useful, detailed reports, including measurement uncertainty, to help you streamline your QC procedure.

But Acusera 24.7 is so much more than this. Our team are constantly looking for innovative ways to update and improve our live, cloud-based software. Much of this comes from talking to our subscribers and finding out what they want and how they want to do it. Our team also happens to include some serious accreditation enthusiasts. So, we decided to put their passion to work. We’re regularly coming up with new measures to make meeting the guidelines set out by various accreditation bodies, including ISO15189, as simple for you as we can.

In this article, we’ll look at some of the accreditation requirements and the features we’ve included in Acusera 24.7 to simplify the process for you.

QC management tools

Its one thing to look at the features of Acusera 24.7, but what do the various guidelines have to say about QC management tools? Let’s look at some of the major accreditation literature.


The new version of ISO15189 includes updates which aim to place more emphasis on risk management and mitigating risk to the patient. Here’s what the 2022 version has to say about QC management tools:

“e) the resulting data shall be recorded in such a way that trends and shifts are detectable and, where applicable, statistical techniques shall be applied to review the results.

f) IQC data shall be reviewed with defined acceptability criteria at regular intervals, and in a timeframe that allows a meaningful indication of current performance.”

ISO15189:2022 section

The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments 1988 (CLIA)

CLIA ’88 regulations are federal standards applicable to all U.S. facilities or sites that test human specimens for health assessment or to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease. These regulations state the following related to QC management:

“Lab surveys by CLIA accreditation bodies will request quality control records including:

a) Remedial action information; …

c) Statistical limits; and

d) Instrument maintenance and function checks records.”

4.93.1105 Standard: Retention requirements (a)(3) Analytical system records.

“Retain quality control and patient test records (including instrument printouts, if applicable) … for at least 2 years. The records must include charts, graphs, printouts, transcribed data, and manufacturers’ assay information sheets for control and calibration materials.”

CLIA Amendments 1988

COLA Accreditation

The Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) is another recognised laboratory accreditation in the U.S. and is a third-party accreditation organisation that ensures laboratories comply with federal regulations, including those set by CLIA. I’m sure you’re catching the trend here:

“Identification of individuals performing QC should be available in the QC records.”

“The Surveyor will review QC records, corrective action logs, reagent logs and maintenance or service records to make sure that controls were tested and acceptable. Documentation should include date of testing, initials of the individual performing, actual results and indication of acceptability.”

“The Surveyor will look for QC in a graphic format. Data may be graphed as Levey-Jennings Chart or similar graphic representation and reviews of graphs should be performed at least every 5-7 days of testing. The graphs do not have to be printed.”

“If there are shifts or trends demonstrated in the data, the Surveyor will expect to see notation by the staff and should be able to follow the documentation trail to corrective action that is taken, as required by the laboratory’s QC policies.”

“Control charts, graphs, or statistical  parameters (i.e. mean, SD and CV) should be maintained for all quantitative tests performed by the laboratory. This data should be reviewed weekly or following every 5-7 data points if performed infrequently to detect changes such as shifts or trends that may be indicators of test system problems that need to be addressed.”

“The Surveyor will review QC records for evidence of review – including initials/signature and date of the review. Reviews should take place at least on a monthly basis. If data point(s) fall outside the acceptable ranges, notation, and corrective action, if necessary according to the laboratory’s QC procedures, needs to be include in the review.

Corrective actions may include such actions as opening a new bottle of QC, replacing the reagent, or recalibration. Trends and shifts in QC should be noted as well.”

COLA Accreditation Manual, Section 3 – QC

Meeting accreditation with Acusera 24.7

Acusera 24.7 offers a flexible approach to help laboratories meet all the QC accreditation requirements detailed above, including CLIA, COLA, CAP, and ISO15189.

Our user-friendly, cloud-based software allows users to effortless run statistical analysis including Coefficient of Variation Index (CVI), Standard Deviation Index (SDI), % Bias, Total Error, Sigma Metrics and more! Find out more about how we can aid you in your statistical analysis in our blog, Advanced Statistics with Acusera 24.7.

Acusera 24.7 can also create fully interactive Levey-Jennings charts, and a selection of histograms to provide a wide range of options for the graphical representation of your data. The interactive features of our charts allow you to record events such as lot changes and calibration events directly on to the chart, helping you achieve not just accreditation, but a better understanding of what is going on in your laboratory. You can read more about our charts and the insights you can gain from them at our blog, Charting the course to laboratory excellence

Acusera 24.7 can also provide you with a variety of reports to help you effortlessly achieve accreditation. From our Statistical Analysis and Exception reports to our Personalised Performance Summary Reports, we can help your laboratory to efficiently identify and document trends or shifts in performance. You can read all about our reports in our blog, Effortless Data Management: Acusera 24.7 Reports

Measurement Uncertainty

Anyone involved in laboratory quality control will be aware of measurement uncertainty (MU), although that doesn’t mean everyone understands this tricky requirement. MU is defined as a parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterises the dispersion of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measured quantity.

In other words, MU provides medical laboratories with an estimate of the overall variability in the values they report. The goal of MU is to quantify the doubt or range of possible values around the measurement result, helping to provide an understanding of the reliability and limitations of measurements. This helps ensure measured results are useful and not wildly inaccurate, allows meaningful comparisons with medical decision limits and previous results of the same kind in the same individual and finally, it’s a requirement of ISO15189:2022:

“a. The measurement uncertainty (MU) of measured quantity values shall be evaluated and maintained for its intended use. The MU shall be compared against performance specifications and documented.

b. MU evaluations shall be regularly reviewed.”

ISO15189:2022 Section 7.3.4

Calculating MU is no simple task and not one that can even be attempted without in depth know-how. These calculations can take a single member of staff 2 full working days to complete. That’s a lot of time away from their normal duties, especially if MU is to be reviewed regularly, as per ISO15189:2022.

Lucky for you, Acusera 24.7 can calculate you MU in seconds, rather than days, and provide you with a report. This report can be shown to your accreditation surveyor, and you can consider the MU box ticked. You can read more about Acusera 24.7 and MU in our Advanced Statistics blog, or in our educational guide How to Measure Uncertainty.

Peer Group Reporting

The peer group reporting features of Acusera 24.7 are much more than just an added extra. Peer group reporting can help speed up the troubleshooting process, allowing you to determine whether an issue you are seeing is unique to you, or evident in the QC data of your peers. It can also provide you with more confidence in assigned target values and help make significant savings by improving your analytical performance, and therefore, your EQA performance.

A peer group reporting programme can also help meet regulatory requirements, like ISO15189:2022:

“ a. The laboratory shall monitor its performance of examination methods by comparison with results of other laboratories. This includes participation in EQA programmes appropriate to the examinations and interpretation of examination results, including POCT examination methods.”

“f. When an EQA programme is either not available, or not considered suitable, the laboratory shall use alternative methodologies to monitor examination methods performance.

NOTE Acceptable alternatives include:

– Interlaboratory comparisons of the results of the examination of identical IQC materials, which evaluates individual laboratory IQC results against pooled results from participants using the same IQC material.”

ISO15189:2022 Section External quality assessment (EQA)

So, if you’re struggling to find a suitable EQA programme for your analytes, you might just be able to meet your accreditation with the peer group reporting features included in Acusera 24.7.

We’ve only begun to cover the features of this intuitive and efficient software. If you still aren’t convinced that Acusera 24.7 is right for QC data management in your laboratory, reach out to us today at We’re always delighted to hear from you, and we’ll be happy to discuss any of the features of Acusera 24.7, or any reservations you may have.

Our customers can’t believe the gulf in class between Acusera 24.7 and other QC data management programmes.

Don’t get left behind.

Reach out to us today!

International Day of Women and Girls in Science 2024

For the 9th consecutive year, the field of science has taken this day to celebrate women in the STEM industries and their achievements. The representation of women in STEM is climbing, however it remains low, with estimates claiming women make up only around 26% of the workforce. By celebrating the accomplishments of women in these fields, we hope to encourage more girls to enter the world of science and engineering and challenge the adversity women in STEM all too often face.

In honour of International Day of Women and Girls in Science 2024, we’ve looked at some of the most important achievements in the life sciences. Some of the names you’ll be familiar with, others may be new. We’ll travel to Ancient Greece where we will learn about the first female science writer and surgeon, before coming back to today to recognise some of the most groundbreaking innovations in medicine. For far too long the door to a career in the life sciences has been all but closed for women, as you will discover in this article. Yet some of the discoveries and triumphs over adversity we’ll look at are arguably some of the most important achieved by humanity.


In Ancient Greece, it was believed that science was derived directly from the gods. This meant, like other divine disciplines, women were not allowed to practice medicine. However, such a technicality did not stop our first heroine of science. Before her exploits in Greece, Metrodora was likely born and educated in Egypt where men and woman were equals, unlike much of the ancient world. In fact, some believe Metrodora to be an alias of the famous Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt. There is some debate about when Metrodora lived; some say between 200-400 CE, others claim it was more likely to be during the 7th century CE. The name Metrodora is particularly fitting for a woman of her accolades. In Greek, metro can be translated as womb, and dora means gift.

Metrodora was the author of a textbook, making her the first female science writer, spanning 2 volumes and 108 chapters entitled On the Disease and Cures of Women, in which she describes in detail her theories and findings on the topics of female health and the reproductive system. She is thought to have devised treatments for sterility, infections of the female reproductive system, menorrhagia (heavy periods) as well as a method for determining sexual abuse in women. Not to be limited by writing and medicine, Metrodora was also a surgeon, cited as removing dead embryos to save the lives of mothers who miscarried, removing cancers of the breast and uterus and was even among the first to perform cosmetic surgery. Metrodora reconciled this with her Hippocratic duty to help women who had been abused through aesthetic facial and breast reconstruction and the restructuring of the hymen of women who had suffered this fate.

Her pioneering work, however, was quite nearly forgotten forever as she was largely overlooked by her contemporaries. But thankfully, some of her texts are preserved in the Laurentian Library in Florence. Metrodora’s commitment to medicine and female health is summed up perfectly in the opening words of her text, “some of them are intricate to treat and others are fatal, by these notes we will recognise each one”.




Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910)

Elizabeth Blackwell was always destined to shake the status quo. Her father, Samuel, was a Quaker and an antislavery activist. Among her siblings are Henry, an abolitionist and women’s suffrage supporter; her sister, Emily, who followed Elizabeth into medicine; and her sister-in-law, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, who was the first female minister in mainstream Protestantism.

She was inspired into a life of medicine after a close friend had confessed embarrassment of her treatment by male doctors and suggested she’d have been more comfortable if attended to by a female physician. After a series of rejections from numerous medical schools, Elizabeth was finally accepted to Geneva College, New York. However, this acceptance was intended as a practical joke. Not to be discouraged, Elizabeth proved them all wrong, graduating top of her class in 1849 and becoming the first woman to graduate medical school. Dr Blackwell then practiced in London and Paris and was one of the first advocates for the importance of hygiene in medicine, noting that male doctors frequently failed to wash their hands, which led to the spread of epidemics.

In 1851, Elizabeth made the trip back to New York where discrimination was still rife. Once again, her persistence led to the opening of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children in 1857 with Dr Emily Blackwell and Dr Marie Zakrzewska. This institution was a haven for women who needed medical treatment but were often too poor to afford it, and for female physicians struggling to get work in the field. Among her laurels, she played a role in the inception of the National Health Society, established in 1871, which aimed to spread knowledge of public health, and is considered the predecessor to the National Health Service.



Marie Curie (1867-1934)

Marie Curie is among the most famous of the women in science, so we won’t spend too much time on her life and accomplishments here. However, its impossible to have the discussion without mentioning her invaluable contribution to science. In often poor laboratory conditions with worse equipment, she, and her husband Pierre Curie, made some pivotal discoveries including the isolation of polonium and radium. Marie Curie developed techniques to separate radium from radioactive residues which allowed it to be studied extensively and eventually, its use as a therapeutic agent.

In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics for their work on spontaneous radiation. Then, in 1911, Marie Curie was given a second Nobel Prize, this one for chemistry, for her work on radioactivity. In recognition of her groundbreaking work leading to novel cancer therapies, the charity Marie Curie was named in her honour, immortalising her and her contributions to the field.

Marie Curie, 1867-1934

Gerty Cori (1896-1957)

Here we find another woman whose name outshines that of her husband, Carl, with whom she collaborated for most of her scientific career. Gerty graduated from medical school in 1920, along with her husband, before they emigrated to America in 1922. Here, they initially delved into the fate of sugar within the animal body, exploring the impacts of insulin and epinephrine. They made groundbreaking discoveries, including the demonstration of glycolysis in tumours in vivo. Their research on carbohydrate metabolism evolved from whole animal studies to experiments on isolated tissues, and eventually to tissue extracts and isolated enzymes, including some in crystalline form. In a pivotal moment in 1936, they isolated glucose-1-phosphate, known as “Cori ester,” and linked its formation to the activity of phosphorylase, which plays a crucial role in the breakdown and synthesis of polysaccharides. This discovery paved the way for the enzymatic synthesis of glycogen and starch in vitro.

Their research extended into the realm of hormone action mechanisms, with several studies focusing on the pituitary gland. They observed significant changes in rats that have had their pituitary gland removed, including a marked decrease in glycogen and a drop in blood sugar levels, accompanied by an increased rate of glucose oxidation. Further investigations into the effects of hormones on hexokinase revealed that certain pituitary extracts could inhibit this enzyme both in vivo and in vitro, while insulin was found to counteract this inhibition.

Beyond their groundbreaking research, the Cori’s served as an endless source of inspiration to their peers in the vibrant hubs of biochemical research they led. Their contributions to The Journal of Biological Chemistry and numerous other scientific journals have left an indelible mark on the field, showcasing their innovative work and collaborative spirit throughout their careers.


Gertrude Belle Elion (1918-1999)

Gertrude provides us with another tale of the triumph over adversity. After graduating with a degree in biochemistry in 1937, she failed to obtain a graduate position because she was a woman. After roles in laboratories and teaching, she joined the Burroughs Wellcome Laboratories in 1944 and became the assistant to Dr George Hitchings. Over the following 40 years, the pair were successful in the development of a vast array of new drugs and treatments. Much of their success is attributed to their methods. At the time, normal practice is best described as trial and error. However, Hitchings and Elion studied and intimately understood the difference between normal and pathogenic biochemistry, allowing them to envision and create targeted treatments for, to name just a few, leukaemia, urinary-tract infection, gout, malaria and viral herpes.

Although she never achieved her doctorate, in 1967 Elion was promoted to Head of the Department of Experimental Therapy, where she remained until her retirement in 1983. But Elion didn’t let a silly old thing like retirement get in her way. She remained at the Burroughs Wellcome Laboratories as a Scientist Emeritus and Consultant, including overseeing the development of azidothymidine, the first drug used to treat AIDS. Elion also became a Research Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at Duke University, working with medical students in the field of tumour biochemistry and pharmacology, while continuing to write and lecture. Gertrude B. Elion passed away in 1999, bringing an end to a happy and fruitful career as one of the most influential women in science.


GSK Heritage Archives
GSK Heritage Archives

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)

Rosalind Franklin, another well-known name and one synonymous with the discovery of the DNA double helix, was an exceptional scientist whose meticulous work in X-ray crystallography laid the groundwork for one of the 20th century’s most significant scientific discoveries. Franklin graduated from Cambridge University in 1941, where she initially delved into the study of coal, gases, and carbon compounds, significantly contributing to the understanding of the molecular structures of these materials. Her early research not only showcased her exceptional skills in physical chemistry but also set the stage for her pioneering work in biology.

In 1951, Franklin joined King’s College London, where she was tasked with improving the X-ray crystallography unit. It was here that Franklin embarked on her most famous work: the study of the structure of DNA. Using her expertise in X-ray diffraction techniques, she captured Photograph 51, a critical piece of evidence revealing the helical structure of DNA. This image was crucial in identifying the double helix structure, although her contributions were not fully acknowledged until after her death.

Franklin’s research extended beyond DNA to the study of viruses, making significant strides in understanding the polio virus and the tobacco mosaic virus. Her work in virology, much like her work on DNA, was pioneering, employing her crystallography skills to uncover the detailed structure of viral particles. This work provided valuable insights into how viruses replicate and infect cells, contributing to the broader field of virology and paving the way for future research in virus structure and function.

Despite facing considerable challenges as a woman in a predominantly male scientific community, Franklin’s contributions were profound. Her relentless pursuit of scientific truth, combined with her exceptional experimental skills, left a legacy in the fields of chemistry, virology, and genetics. Beyond her scientific achievements, Franklin is remembered as a trailblazer who paved the way for future generations of women in science, demonstrating the critical role of perseverance and dedication in the pursuit of knowledge.







The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Rosalind Franklin, British Scientist," Encyclopaedia Britannica (article created 20 Jul 1998, accessed 08 Jan 2024); :
The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Rosalind Franklin, British Scientist," Encyclopaedia Britannica (article created 20 Jul 1998, accessed 08 Jan 2024); :

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (1947-)

When discussing women who changed science, it’s impossible not to mention Françoise Barré-Sinoussi. She was born in Paris in 1947 and attended university there. Her passion for science saw her skip class to work at the Pasteur Institute, participating in investigations of retroviruses that caused leukaemia in mice. Although, this didn’t seem to affect her exams scores, and she received her PhD in 1974.

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi is hailed as the woman who discovered the viral cause of the AIDS epidemic. In 1982, the Pasteur Institute was approached by a virologist from a hospital in Paris, seeking help in identifying the cause of a worrying new epidemic. In a mere 2 weeks, Barré-Sinoussi, and her colleagues at the Pasteur Institute, isolated and grew a retrovirus from a biopsied lymph node of a patient at risk of AIDS. The virus, later named HIV-1, was found to be the cause of the AIDS epidemic.

Barré-Sinoussi has been contributing to virology research ever since, including areas such as the function of the host’s innate immune defences in managing HIV/AIDS, the elements contributing to the transmission of HIV from mother to child, and traits enabling a select group of HIV-positive individuals to restrain HIV replication without the need for antiretroviral medications. In 1992, Barré-Sinoussi was appointed Head of the Biology of Retrovirus Unit, renamed the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit in 2005.

However, Barré-Sinoussi didn’t stop at the science. She became a prominent activist for public education about AIDS prevention and helped to establish centres for diagnosing and treating AIDS around the world. In 2006, Barré-Sinoussi was elected to the International AIDS Society (IAS) Governing Council and served as president of the IAS from 2012-2016.,_2008-1.jpg,_2008-1.jpg

Jennifer Douda and Emmanuelle Charpentier

Most people have heard of CRISPR-Cas9. But many aren’t aware that we have women to thank for this scientific innovation. In 2012, Jennifer Douda (left) and Emmanuelle Charpentier (right) discovered the ingenious CRISPR-Cas9 technology – a groundbreaking tool in genetic engineering, which holds the promise of revolutionising medicine and biology. By enabling precise editing of the DNA in the cells of living organisms, CRISPR-Cas9 could lead to cures for genetic disorders, enhance crop resistance to pests and diseases, and advance our understanding of complex genetic conditions. It offers the potential to correct genetic defects, combat infectious diseases, and even manipulate traits in plants and animals, paving the way for significant advancements in therapeutic treatments, agricultural productivity, and the study of genetics. This discovery saw both women share the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020.


Photograph by Christopher Michel

We’ve only looked at a subsection of science, but one where the importance of the innovations and discoveries is felt by people every day. The scientists we’ve discussed here are only a small sample of the inspirational women that have graced the STEM field. We hope that by elucidating some of their work, we can inspire more girls and women to pursue a career in STEM. Careers in this field are challenging and rewarding, perfect for those with a curious mind and those in whom discovery sparks delight.

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