World Heart Day 2018 – Randox Reagents

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World Heart Day 2018 – Randox Reagents

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally and more people die annually from CVD than any other disease state. On World Heart Day 2018, Randox Reagents are committed to developing niche and superior performance assays for the early detection of CVD risk with the hope to change this statistic and improve the heart health of millions worldwide.

There are a number of influencing factors that can lead to a patient experiencing a cardiovascular event. The risk factors for this multifactorial disease include: genetic predisposition, age, gender, smoking, hypertension, stress, dietary habits and physical inactivity. Little evidence exists explaining the mechanism of the Apolipoproteins in the body and their contribution to the causes of some of these cardiac diseases.

Apolipoprotein E

Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is a lipid transport and signalling protein found in the blood which is synthesized mostly by the liver. Apo E has been found to have many roles in the body including the promotion of antiatherogenic properties. Essentially the main function of Apo E is to act as a ligand to the LDL receptor. This relationship plays a critical role in metabolism by promoting cellular uptake of lipoproteins. Through this process Apo E acts as a major component of overall plasma cholesterol homeostasis which facilitates the hepatic uptake of lipoproteins by binding to their receptors. It works to stabilise the equilibrium of cholesterol in the blood by transporting the cholesterol between cells preventing platelet aggregation. Apo E deficiency can influence the plasma concentration and metabolic destination of LDL creating an increased risk of CVD.

Apolipoprotein C-III

Apolipoprotein C-III is another apolipoprotein found in the circulatory system. Its metabolic actions have been found to be actively different to ApoE. The Apo C-III has been found to prevent binding of VLDL cellular receptors resulting in the conversion of VLDL to LDL rather than promoting the clearance of the circulatory system. In addition, it specifically and directly encourages proatherogenic changes in monocytes and endothelial cells. Research has found that the plasma concentration of LDL with Apo C-III strongly predicts the incidence of recurrent cardiovascular events.

Working together to lower CVD Risk

The conflicting roles of Apo E and Apo C-III in the circulatory system has created interest amongst researchers and has raised the question ‘Could the ApoE content of LDL Cholesterol with Apo C-III reduce the proatherogenic nature of Apo C-III reducing a patient’s risk of a CVD event?’.

In fact, studies have now found that the presence of ApoE is associated with lower atherogenicity of LDL Cholesterol containing Apo C-III.  The abundance ApoE relative to the abundance of LDL Cholesterol with Apo C-III is a protective factor against coronary heart disease. This relationship is further supported by the antagonistic relationship between the two apolipoproteins. The idea that Apo E may be able to effectively protect against the effects of the combination of LDL Cholesterol with Apo C-III is important to consider due to their strong links with CVD.

The Randox Apolipoprotein E and Apolipoprotein C-III reagent allows for prompt and accurate diagnosis of Apolipoprotein levels, an influencing factor in cardiovascular disease.

The Randox Apolipoprotein E reagent

The benefits of the Randox Apo E assay includ:

  • Excellent working reagent stability when stored at +2 to +8 ̊C
  • A wide measuring range of 1.04 -12.3 mg/dl enabling the comfortable detection of levels outside of the health range, 2.7-4.5 mg/dl
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagent for convenience and ease-of-use
  • Immunoturbidimetric method

The Randox Apolipoprotein C-III reagent

The key benefits of the Randox C-III assay include:

  • Liquid ready-to-use reagent for convenience and ease-of-use
  • Excellent Linearity of 21.7 mg/dl. The approximate normal upper limit for Apo CIII is 9.5 mg/dl therefore the Randox assay will comfortably detect elevated, potentially harmful levels of Apo C-III
  • Limited interference from Bilirubin, Haemoglobin, Intralipid and Triglycerides for truly accurate results
  • Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for a wide range of clinical chemistry analyzers
  • Immunoturbidimetric method

References

  1. Apolipoprotein E in VLDL and LDL with Apolipoprotein C-III is Associated with a Lower Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Mendivil, Carlos, et al. s.l. : Journal of the American Heart Association , 2013.

If you are a cardiologist, clinician or laboratory who are interested in running assays for cardiovascular disease, Randox offer a range of high-quality routine and niche assays including: Adiponectin, Lp(a), H-FABP and HDL3, which can be used to diagnose conditions commonly affecting the heart.  These assays can be run on most automated biochemistry analysers.

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers. Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

For more information, visit: https://www.randox.com/apolipoprotein-e / or email: reagents@randox.com  


The scary facts about cholesterol!

Cholesterol is a fatty substance also known as a lipid. It is made by the liver but can also be found in some foods. It is essential to let the body function normally. You will be sad to hear that high levels can increase your risk of serious health conditions. There are two main types; high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). HDL is known as good cholesterol. It carries cholesterol back to the liver, where it is broken down. LDL on the other hand carries cholesterol to the cells however if there is a surplus it can build up in the artery walls increasing the chances of a heart attack or stroke occurring.

Here are some scary facts about cholesterol…

  1. You can’t live without it – Cholesterol has been in your body since the day you were born. It is a building block for all cells.  Not only that but all of our cells and hormones need it to function properly…unfortunately you are very unlikely to find good cholesterol in your typical trick-or-treat offerings.
  1. Not all patients on cholesterol-lowering medication respond optimally to it – In the recent past, aspirin (a drug used to reduce levels) was prescribed for people who had a perceived risk of a heart attack. However aspirin does not always work; up to 30% of patients could have a below optimum response to the drug and therefore be at a considerably increased risk of a recurrent cardiovascular event. This is may also be referred to as “aspirin resistance”.
  1. One third of adults have high cholesterol – Testing is advised every 5 years to monitor your levels to see any changes. To get the most accurate results tests should be carried out one week apart, however most testing facilities won’t follow this.
  1. High levels could be down to genetics – Diet you can change, genes you can’t! If your family has a history of high cholesterol then you are likely to have it as well. It has been suggested that 75% of cholesterol is due to genetics and the remaining 25% is down to diet and lifestyle choices.
  1. Women’s levels will fluctuate over their lifespan – Did you know that ladies? During the average woman’s lifespan, cholesterol levels will rise and fall due to pregnancy and menopause. During pregnancy levels will rise in order to help the baby develop. After birth the mother’s levels should return to normal however after menopause a woman’s LDL levels will rise to that higher of a man’s.

However it is not all doom and gloom this Halloween!  Randox are here to treat you to a vast range of specialised blood tests to allow the most accurate diagnosis of cholesterol levels, allowing you to gauge how many sweets you can sneak in this Halloween! We offer a large array of routine and niche tests. The most popular and widely tested are HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Some further risk assessment cholesterol tests which are not routinely run include sLDL, HDL3, Lp(a). These cholesterol biomarkers are also affected by the usual risk factors such as age, weight, smoking, etc.; however they can also be a result of one’s genes. As mentioned before aspirin resistance is a big problem affecting up to 30% of all patients on aspirin therapy. However Randox offer the TxBCardio™ test which is a unique test to diagnose and assess the effectiveness of aspirin therapy.

From all of us here at Randox we wish you a safe and happy Halloween!

 


For health professionals

Randox Laboratories manufacture a wide range of routine and niche biochemistry reagents suitable for both research and clinical use.  These include a wide variety of automated routine and niche cardiac tests and our new HDL3-C assay.  Please contact reagents@randox.com for further information.



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