Overcoming the burden of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

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Overcoming the burden of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

The Prevalence 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally with more people dying annually from CVD than any other disease state. In 2018, according to the American Heart Association, CVD accounted for nearly 836,546 deaths in the USA (1) with over 17 million known deaths recorded worldwide. It is also proclaimed that around 1.5 million people globally die each year because of diabetes and diabetes related complications. (2) Is there a common link? Can this issue be controlled?

Studies have suggested that diabetes is one of the leading related conditions associated with increased risk of CVD death. A recent study undertaken in 2018 examined the association of many risk factors associated with CVD, the study was broken down by disease state with over 17,000 participants involved. The findings highlighted that 17.9% of these patients suffered from diabetes mellitus and death from a cardiovascular event. (3) Many other pilot and research studies discovered similar findings considering further risk factors such as high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol and high triglycerides, obesity, lack of exercise and lifestyle choices such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse. All of which are common with patients who suffer from diabetes, placing them at an increased risk of CVD.

Findings highlighted that over 68% of people aged over 65 living with diabetes die from some form of heart disease with 16% of individuals dying from an ischemic stroke. (4)   The ability to tackle the prevalence of increased death from CVD and diagnosis of diabetes has become a global burden with the international diabetes federation projecting that 592 million people worldwide will have diabetes by 2035. (5)

Worldwide, the increase of diabetes is becoming an economic burden on the patient and healthcare systems mainly due to the direct costs of medical care and the indirect costs of moderated productivity, tied to diabetes and CVD related morbidity and mortality. Many scholars have highlighted economic burden as a primary attribute to both macrovascular and microvascular complications such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, end-stage renal disease and neuropathy. (6)

DID YOU KNOW?

The RX Series offers the worlds largest clinical chemistry test menu

Overcoming the Burden

As CVD is the most prevalent cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes, effective treatment and analysis is required to control and decrease the number of CVD deaths across the globe. Tackling this issue head on, the Randox RX series introduce Direct HbA1c which refers to glycated haemoglobin which is a product of haemoglobin (a protein which can be found in red blood cells) and glucose from the blood making it glycated.

Testing for HbA1c provides an indication of what an individual’s average blood sugar level has been over recent weeks/months and is generally considered as an indicator of how well the patient is managing and controlling their diabetes. This is significant for those who suffer from diabetes because the higher the levels of HbA1c, the higher the chance of an individual suffering from further diabetes related issues, therefore testing for HbA1c improves the predictions of a CVD event occurring.

The Randox RX series have Direct HbA1c testing capabilities on the RX Daytona +, RX imola and RX modena. Our latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric method which the RX series utilises makes the test simple and quick to perform. The removal of the pre-dilution step removes the risk of human error compromising your results without the need for a separate HbA1c analyser.

Offering the world’s largest test menu, the RX series has an extensive range of cardiac, diabetes and lipid tests with excellent correlation to gold standard methodologies designed to allow laboratories to expand their testing capabilities onto one single platform, providing cost savings through consolidation.

References:

  1. American Heart Association. (2018). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2018 At-a-Glance.Available: https://www.heart.org/-/media/data-import/downloadables/heart-disease-and-stroke-statistics-2018—at-a-glance-ucm_498848.pdf. Last accessed 7th Feb 2019.
  2. World Heart Federation. (2017). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) – Global facts and figures.Available: https://www.world-heart-federation.org/resources/cardiovascular-diseases-cvds-global-facts-figures/. Last accessed 7th Feb 2019.
  3. Gomadam, P et al, (2018). Blood pressure indices and cardiovascular disease mortality in persons with or without diabetes mellitus. Journal of Hypertension. 36 (1), 1-5.
  4. Heart attack and stroke symptoms. (2018). Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.Available: https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/diabetes/why-diabetes-matters/cardiovascular-disease–diabetes. Last accessed 7th Feb 2019.
  5. Aguiree F, Brown A, Cho NH, Dahlquist G, Dodd S, Dunning T, Hirst M, Hwang C, Magliano D, Patterson C. (2013) IDF Diabetes Atlas.
  6. Bahia LR, Araujo DV, Schaan BD, Dib SA, Negrato CA, Leão MP, Ramos AJ, Forti AC, Gomes MB, Foss MC, Monteiro RA, Sartorelli D, Franco LJ, Value Health. (2011), 137-40.

The move from Nephelometry to Immunoturbidimetric Testing

Background

In clinical diagnostics, proteins are part of a wide range of biochemical markers used to identify health and disease in patient samples. Proteins play a key role in the human body, as they are involved in almost every process and can be associated to functions and regulatory pathways that are either signature for disease onset or a target for therapeutic intervention.

There are two main methods used to detect proteins in patient samples; nephelometry and immunoturbidimetry.  Nephelometry although traditionally thought to be more sensitive can be expensive due to higher consumable costs.  In addition to this nephelometers can be inefficient and are limited by their test menu.  Immunoturbidimetric tests are an increasingly accepted alternative to nephelometry for specific protein assays, and studies have shown a close correlation between Randox immunoturbidimetric tests and nephelometry. This particularly lies with the latex enhanced immunoturbidimetry methodology utilised by Randox.

Why the RX series?

Renowned for quality and reliability, the RX series excels in clinical testing combining robust hardware, intuitive software and a world leading test menu featuring routine and novel high performing reagents.

Running specific protein tests on the RX series provides laboratories with a wide range of advantages. The move from nephelometric testing to immunoturbidimetric lowers laboratory costs as nephelometry requires the use of dedicated instruments which are much slower, have higher consumable costs and require highly trained personnel, with the disadvantage of not being able to perform any other type of assay on a single platform.

The RX series improves laboratory efficiencies not just saving costs but also time. Our range of routine clinical chemistry analysers provide users with flexibility and versatility through consolidation of testing onto one single platform.

DID YOU KNOW?

The RX Series of analysers now welcomes the addition of Direct HbA1c Testing on the RX daytona +, RX imola & RX modena

High Performing and Unique Testing Menu

The RX series of specific protein assays assist in the diagnosis and evaluation of various conditions each with excellent sensitivity and limited inference levels. Randox manufacture immunoturbidimetric kits for the study of a wide range of specific proteins including unique products such as Apolipoprotein C-II, Apolipoprotein C-III, Apolipoprotein E, Cystatin C and Microalbumin.

Most recently the RX series welcomed the addition of Direct HbA1c to our testing panel, available to be run on the RX Daytona +, RX imola and RX modena. If you are interested in running your protein assays on a routine biochemistry analyser, Randox offers a large range of high quality routine and niche protein assays that can be run on most automated analysers.

Click to discover more about our world leading RX series Testing menu or contact us today @theRXseries to find out how we can improve your laboratories testing capabilities.


Automation vs. ELISA

Background

The technological developments and scientific innovations in the field of clinical chemistry from the early 1950’s to date have been vast, enhancing laboratory capabilities and providing the necessary support to clinicians and laboratories to improve patient diagnosis and treatment. (1) Laboratory automation today is a complex integration of robotics, computers, liquid handling and numerous other technologies with a fundamental purpose of saving time and improving performance through the elimination of human error.

Complementing this, in the early 1950’s ready-to-use assay reagent kits, with instructions for use introduced a very significant innovation to the field of automation eliminating the process of manually preparing reagent. (2)

Despite the many advancements in automation many clinical laboratories continue to use manual methods such as ELISA for some specialised tests. (3)

Inefficiencies with ELISA based methods

Manual ELISA based techniques are notoriously inefficient and are particularly draining on time and personnel due to the manual intervention required. The manual nature of the method also means there is greater potential for human error ultimately resulting in lack of sensitivity and potential for cross-reactivity. (4,5)

For many laboratories, the transition from traditional ELISA techniques to an automated method for the detection of the same analyte will significantly improve both costs and time.

Renowned for quality and reliability the RX series range of clinical chemistry analysers ensures confidence in patient testing.

DID YOU KNOW?

The RX Series of analysers allows for automation of specialised tests that previously would have only been possible via traditional ELISA methods e.g. Adiponectin, G-6PDH and Cystatin C.

 

Expanding Capabilities and Performance

With patient care holding a primary focus on clinical chemistry testing, the RX series range of semi-automated and automated analysers offer versatility to suit all laboratory requirements. Expanding your laboratory’s capabilities with our world leading extensive dedicated test menu offers cost savings through consolidation of both routine and specialised tests. By transitioning analytes historically only available as an ELISA based test, laboratories can expand their offering with ease to both patients and clinicians.

Our open system approach to clinical testing offers unique opportunities for consolidation, most of our unique and high-performance assays may be run on any clinical chemistry instrument without the need for specialised equipment.

Outperforming ELISA methodology, the RX series delivers a testing platform that requires limited or no manual preparation. With ELISA, the test is run on a 96 well plate using only a single assay with recommendations to duplicate or triplicate samples to evacuate the extent of errors, therefore increasing time and costs. The RX series of analysers each have different levels of throughput to adapt to the requirements of all laboratories.  Utilising robust hardware and intuitive software the RX series guarantees accurate and precise patient testing.

References:

  1. Olsen K. The first 110 years of laboratory automation: technologies, applications, and the creative scientist. J Lab Autom. 2012; 17:469-80.
  2. Rosenfeld L. A golden age of clinical chemistry: 1948-1960. Clin Chem. 2000; 46:1705.14.
  3. Kricja LJ, Savory J. International year of chemistry 2011. A guide to the history of clinical chemistry. Clin Chem. 2011; 57:1118-26.
  4. Wild D, Sheehan C, Binder S. Introduction to immunoassay product technology in clinical diagnostic testing. In: Wild D, editor. Immunoassay Handbook: Theory and Applications of Ligand Binding, ELISA and Related Techniques. 4th Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013.
  5. Hawker CDED. Laboratory automation: total and subtotal. Clin Lab Med. 2007; 27:749-70.

The RX series celebrate Biomedical Science Day

Biomedical Science Day is taking place this year on the 19th of July. This is an annual celebration with the aim of raising public awareness of the importance of biomedical science and the vital role it plays in the world.

To celebrate biomedical science day the RX series interviewed Aidan Murphy, one of our laboratory analysts at Randox to find out more about what his job in the lab entails day-to-day. Aidan works with the RX series of clinical chemistry analysers and Randox QC on a daily basis.

We asked Aidan a few questions about his life as a scientist. See what he gets up to in Randox on a daily basis … 

1. What attracted you to a career in laboratory science?

Science has always interested me in both my academic and personal life, I always aspired to get a science based degree and after achieving this I now hope to improve my laboratory skills to increase my employability.

2. What were your stronger subjects at school?

My strongest subjects in school were biology, chemistry, music and politics. Some of which are more applicable to my current role than others.

3. What does your job in Randox entail?

My job entails a variety of roles ranging from testing Randox diagnostic kits before they’re released to customers as well as maintenance and precision checks of the machines in our lab.

4. What aspects of your job do you enjoy the most?

The independence in my job is great. Knowing what I have to do at the start of each week and the deadlines to do these jobs requires me to organise and prioritise my work accordingly.

5. What are some common preconceived ideas the public have about what laboratory staff do?

From my friends’ ideas of what I do in the lab I have found that a stereotypical image of a lab is one of a dark quiet lab full of strange equipment and even stranger people. However fortunately my lab is a lively one and thankfully with normal people.

6. In your opinion, what are the most important aspects of laboratory work?

Following correct protocols and procedures are imperative in an efficient laboratory. As well as this, good lab practice and good hygiene can have a massive effect on the accuracy of our results.

7. What’s in your lab coat pocket?

My lab coat pockets are quite boring. I have a pair of safety goggles, some post-its and some pens and markers.

8. In what ways does your work make a difference to people’s lives?

Randox is dedicated to improving the quality of diagnostics globally, so knowing that the kits that I have tested are then sent to customers to be used in patient diagnosis gives me a level of job satisfaction that I haven’t got from previous jobs.

Aidan is a fundamental member of the Randox team and plays an essential role in the diagnosis and prevention of disease through his work. Without our valuable laboratory team working extremely hard behind the scenes the lifesaving work we do here at Randox would not be possible. 

To find out more about Randox products contact us at theRXseries@randox.com.

Check out our social media sites for more on Biomedical Science Day.

RX series 123

The RX series celebrate Medical Laboratory Professionals Week

Medical Laboratory Professionals Week is taking place this year from  22nd28th April 2018. This is an annual celebration of professionals working in the laboratory, highlighting and recognising their contributions to medicine and healthcare.

To celebrate Medical Laboratory Professionals Week the RX series interviewed Aidan Murphy, one of our laboratory analysts at Randox to find out more about what his job in the lab entails day-to-day. Aidan works with the RX series of clinical chemistry analysers and Randox QC on a daily basis.

We asked Aidan a few questions about his life as a scientist. See what he gets up to in Randox on a daily basis … 

1. What attracted you to a career in laboratory science?

Science has always interested me in both my academic and personal life, I always aspired to get a science based degree and after achieving this I now hope to improve my laboratory skills to increase my employability.

2. What were your stronger subjects at school?

My strongest subjects in school were biology, chemistry, music and politics. Some of which are more applicable to my current role than others.

3. What does your job in Randox entail?

My job entails a variety of roles ranging from testing Randox diagnostic kits before they’re released to customers as well as maintenance and precision checks of the machines in our lab.

4. What aspects of your job do you enjoy the most?

The independence in my job is great. Knowing what I have to do at the start of each week and the deadlines to do these jobs requires me to organise and prioritise my work accordingly.

5. What are some common preconceived ideas the public have about what laboratory staff do?

From my friends’ ideas of what I do in the lab I have found that a stereotypical image of a lab is one of a dark quiet lab full of strange equipment and even stranger people. However fortunately my lab is a lively one and thankfully with normal people.

6. In your opinion, what are the most important aspects of laboratory work?

Following correct protocols and procedures are imperative in an efficient laboratory. As well as this, good lab practice and good hygiene can have a massive effect on the accuracy of our results.

7. What’s in your lab coat pocket?

My lab coat pockets are quite boring. I have a pair of safety goggles, some post-its and some pens and markers.

8. In what ways does your work make a difference to people’s lives?

Randox is dedicated to improving the quality of diagnostics globally, so knowing that the kits that I have tested are then sent to customers to be used in patient diagnosis gives me a level of job satisfaction that I haven’t got from previous jobs.

Aidan is a fundamental member of the Randox team and plays an essential role in the diagnosis and prevention of disease through his work. Without our valuable laboratory team working extremely hard behind the scenes the lifesaving work we do here at Randox would not be possible.

To find out more about Randox products contact us at theRXseries@randox.com.

Check out our social media sites for more on Medical Laboratory Professionals Week.

RX series 123

Diagnosing diabetes with the RX series

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to become too high.

If you have diabetes, your body is unable to break down glucose into energy. This is because there’s either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly [1] which can lead to serious health complications.

The RX series range of analysers have one of the largest test menus available on the market which includes an extensive diabetes testing panel. Tests within the RX series diabetes panel allow for Diagnosis, Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Diabetes.

Adiponectin

An adiponectin test system is a device intended for the quantitative in vitro determination of adiponectin concentration in human serum or plasma.

Adiponectin is a protein hormone, produced and secreted by fat cells (adipocytes), which is normally found in reasonably high concentrations within the blood. Adiponectin regulates the metabolism of lipids and glucose and influences the body’s response to insulin and inflammation.

Adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with abdominal visceral fat (AVF) levels, which have proven to be a strong predictor of several pathologies including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is widely recognised that people who are overweight are at a higher risk of developing T2DM, however measure waist circumference and Body Mass Index (BMI) are not enough. As such adiponectin levels are a much more reliable indicator of at-risk patients.

A number of key publications have advocated the testing of adiponectin in clinical settings and concluded that higher adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk of T2DM across diverse populations.[2]

Fructosamine

A fructosamine test system is a device intended for the quantitative in vitro determination of glycated protein (fructosamine) concentration in human serum or plasma.

Fructosamine is a mid-term indicator of diabetic control as it can provide information on a person’s averge blood glucose levels over the preceding 14-21 days.

 Due to the shorter time span of fructosamine, it is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of medication changes and to monitor the treatment of gestational diabetes.

HbA1c

A Haemoglobin A1c test system is a device intended for the quantitative in vitro determination of Haemoglobin A1c concentration in whole blood.

 In a diabetic patient, where blood glucose levels are abnormally elevated, the level of HbA1c also increases proportionally to the level of glucose in the blood and has been widely accepted as an indicator of the mean daily blood glucose concentration over the preceding 6-8 weeks. It is therefore, a long term indicator of diabetic control.

Read our poster on Randox’s development of a new latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay for the rapid direct measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) applicable to RX series analysers by clicking here. 

 Diagnosing diabetes with the RX series

The RX series range of clinical chemistry analysers have many benefits when testing patients for diabetes. With analysers ranging from the RX misano semi-automated analyser to the RX modena which can perform up to 1200 tests per hour the RX series analysers offer a suitable platform for your laboratory, ensuring results are received in a time efficient manner. Windows based software and easily recognisable icons ensure that the RX series analysers are easy to use and allows for an enhanced laboratory productivity. Laboratory cost savings can also be achieved with a low water consumption available on each RX series analyser.

Other RX series analyser features include:

Diabetes Test Menu:

Consolidate your testing with a comprehensive diabetes testing panel available on the RX series analysers. A large number of tests can be carried out on one platform, including direct HbA1c testing, providing consolidation opportunities and real cost savings.

Accurate Testing:

High quality results are achieved first time, every time. This saves operator time and avoids unnecessary additional costs of repeat testing and reduces the possibility of patient misdiagnosis.

Unrivalled performance:

Built in inventory management system automatically calculates remaining reagent volume and the number of tests available. Superior performance means minimal downtime and swift reporting of results.

If you would like more information in relation to the RX series testing capabilities please contact us by emailing: theRXseries@randox.com


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