World Hepatitis Day, observed on July 28th, serves as a crucial reminder of the ongoing battle against hepatitis (HBV), a viral infection that affects millions of people worldwide. In 2019, it was estimated that 296 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B, resulting in over 800,000 fatalities1. In this article, we will delve into the intricate mechanisms behind hepatitis, explore the viral species responsible for its occurrence, discuss methods for diagnosis, and shed light on treatment and management strategies.
Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections. Among the primary hepatitis viruses are Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, each with distinct modes of transmission and characteristics2.
Mechanisms of Hepatitis Infection
Hepatitis A and E: Hepatitis A and E viruses are primarily transmitted via the faecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. Ingestion of these viruses leads to acute infection, and while self-limiting in most cases, they can cause significant morbidity and mortality in certain populations5,6.
Hepatitis B, C, and D: Hepatitis B, C, and D viruses are predominantly spread through blood and bodily fluids. Hepatitis B can also be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth which in endemic areas, HBV infection from mother to child transmission accounted for approximately half of chronic infections. These viruses can cause chronic infections, leading to long-term liver damage, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma7,8.
Diagnosis of Hepatitis
Accurate and timely diagnosis of hepatitis is crucial for appropriate management. Diagnostic methods include:
Serology: Serological tests, such as enzyme immunoassays, are employed to detect specific viral antigens or antibodies in blood samples, aiding in the identification of different hepatitis viruses and determining the stage of infection9.
Nucleic Acid Testing: Highly sensitive molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enable the detection and quantification of viral genetic material, aiding in the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic hepatitis10.
Treatment and Management of Hepatitis
The management of hepatitis depends on several factors, including the virus involved, the stage of infection, the presence of co-infections, and the individual patient’s health status. Treatment strategies encompass:
Antiviral Medications: For hepatitis B and C, antiviral drugs such as interferons and direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized the treatment landscape, offering higher cure rates and improved outcomes11,12.
Supportive Care: Hepatitis patients may require supportive care to alleviate symptoms, maintain proper nutrition, and manage complications. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is highly recommended for prevention13.
Liver Transplantation: In cases of end-stage liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma resulting from chronic hepatitis, liver transplantation may be considered a lifesaving option14.
Randox Hepatitis Solutions
Acusera provides a range of positive and negative serology controls comprising various infectious diseases including Hepatitis. The table below details the suitable controls, and more information can be found on our website: Serology Quality Controls – Randox Laboratories
The RIQAS HIV/Hepatitis EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of tests used to detect HIV/Hepatitis antibodies and specific antigens. All samples are conveniently supplied liquid ready-to-use and are suitable for qualitative methods of analysis.
- Anti-HTLV-1&2 (combined)
- Anti-HIV-1&2 (combined)
- Anti-HAV IgM
- Anti-HAV (Total)
- Anti-HBc (Total)
- Anti-HBe (Total)
- Anti-HBs (Total)
For more information, please visit our website at: HIV Hepatitis EQA | RIQAS (randox.com)
Monitoring for the presence of Blood Borne Virus (BBV) nucleic acid is an essential parameter in guiding clinical treatment and patient outcomes. The use of appropriate quality control measures is important in ensuring the appropriate daily performance of the molecular assay used in the laboratory independent of the technology.
Qnostics’ Blood Borne Virus Molecular Controls comprises a range of pathogens which are classically detected directly from the blood including those related to hepatitis. The table below lists the Qnostics products related to hepatitis testing. For more information visit our website: Qnostics | Molecular Infectious Disease Controls – Randox Laboratories
QCMD is a world-leading External Quality Assessment (EQA) / Proficiency Testing (PT) scheme, dedicated to improving the quality of molecular diagnostic assays used in the detection of infectious diseases. With an extensive database of over 2000 participants in over 100 countries, QCMD is one of the largest providers of molecular EQA in the field of molecular diagnostics. QCMD programmes related to hepatitis testing are listed below:
- HBV Drug resistance Typing EQA programme.
- HCV Drug resistance Typing EQA programme.
- Hepatitis B Virus DNA EQA Programme
- Hepatitis B Virus Dried Blood Spot EQA Pilot Study
- Hepatitis B virus Genotype EQA Programme
- Hepatitis C Virus Dried Blood Spot EQA Pilot Study
- Hepatitis C Virus RNA EQA Programme
- Hepatitis C virus Genotype EQA Programme
- Hepatitis D Virus EQA Programme
- Hepatitis E virus RNA EQA Programme
For more information on any of these EQA programmes please visit: QCMD – Molecular EQA Scheme | Randox Quality Control
World Hepatitis Day serves as a reminder of the global impact of hepatitis and the urgent need to raise awareness, prevent transmission, and improve the diagnosis and management of this disease. By understanding the mechanisms, bacterial species involved, diagnostic techniques, and treatment approaches, we can work towards a future free from the burden of hepatitis. Let us unite in our efforts to combat this disease and strive for a healthier world.
If you’d like to find out more about hepatitis or the diagnosis and testing of hepatitis, please visit our website. If you’d like more information on how Randox can improve hepatitis testing in your laboratory, please reach out to email@example.com.
- World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2023. World Health Organization; 2023. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240074323
- World Health Organization. Hepatitis. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-a. Published 2017. Accessed June 9, 2023.
- Wan Z, Wang X. Bacterial Hepatitis. In: Encyclopedia of Medical Microbiology. Elsevier; 2020:110-117.
- Russo TA, McFadden DC. Bacterial and fungal infections in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis. 2019;14(2):71-74.
- World Health Organization. Hepatitis E. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e. Published 2018. Accessed June 9, 2023.
- Rakesh S, Pekamwar SS. Hepatitis A. In: StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
- World Health Organization. Hepatitis B. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b. Published 2021. Accessed June 9, 2023.
- World Health Organization. Hepatitis D. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-d. Published 2021. Accessed June 9, 2023.
- Alfaresi MS, Elkoush AA, Khan AS. Serological diagnosis of viral hepatitis. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2017;5(4):343-359.
- European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2017;66(1):153-194.
- European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017;67(2):370-398.
- Vermehren J, Sarrazin C. New HCV therapies on the horizon. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(2):122-134.
- World Health Organization. Hepatitis A. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-a. Published 2020. Accessed June 9, 2023.
- Kim WR, Terrault NA. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Clin Liver Dis. 2018;22(2):381-394.
We are thrilled to announce the release of our latest educational guide, “Understanding Multi-rule QC,” which delves into the world of laboratory quality control. Designed for laboratory professionals, this comprehensive guide aims to empower you with knowledge and strategies to ensure accurate results and uphold patient safety.
Understanding the Significance of Multi-Rule QC
Laboratory quality control is paramount in maintaining the integrity of test results. The guide begins by exploring the various causes of deviations in laboratory testing processes. From instrument malfunctions to environmental factors, we shed light on potential sources of error that can impact result accuracy.
Next, we dive into the core of the guide: Multi-rule QC. This powerful framework encompasses a series of rules that serve as a robust screening tool for identifying outliers, shifts, and trends in data. Through an in-depth exploration of rules such as 1:2s, 1:3s, 2:2s, R4s, 3:1s, 4:1s, 10x, and 7T, we unveil their underlying principles and their significance in maintaining quality control within laboratory settings.
Applying the Multi-Rule QC Approach
The guide equips laboratory professionals with practical insights on applying the Multi-rule QC approach. By examining consecutive data points, analysing trends, and detecting systematic shifts, you gain the ability to proactively address issues before they compromise result accuracy. We highlight the importance of avoiding overreliance on individual rules for result rejection, emphasizing the need to consider additional factors such as clinical relevance and method performance.
Troubleshooting Out-of-Control Events
No laboratory is immune to out-of-control events. That’s why our guide goes beyond rule implementation and delves into effective troubleshooting strategies. We provide guidance on identifying root causes, implementing corrective actions, and re-establishing control in your laboratory environment. By embracing a culture of continuous improvement, you can minimize the impact of deviations and optimize laboratory performance.
Acusera 24.7 is a cloud-based inter-laboratory data management and peer-group reporting software designed to assist in the management of daily QC activities and aid continuous improvement in the laboratory. It includes multi-rule capabilities that can be utilized to monitor your QC data and index it as accepted, rejected, or trigger an alert, depending on the pre-defined multi-rules against which you want to check your data. These features enable the identification of nonconformities and reduce the need for laborious manual statistical analysis while enhancing the accuracy and precision of the laboratory.
In an era where accuracy and patient safety are paramount, the “Multi-rule QC” guide serves as an invaluable resource for laboratory professionals. By mastering the principles and applications of Multi-rule QC, you can enhance the quality control processes within your laboratory, mitigating risks and delivering reliable test results.
To explore the full potential of Multi-rule QC and embark on a journey of laboratory excellence, we invite you to download the guide today. Stay ahead of the curve and ensure the highest standards of quality and patient care in your laboratory!
If you’d like to find out more about what we can do to help your laboratory or view our range of Internal Quality Controls, don’t hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or feel free to browse the range on our website https://www.randox.com/laboratory-quality-control-acusera/.
An estimated 422 million people across the world are living with diabetes1. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) encompasses a collection of chronic diseases characterised by absent or ineffective insulin activity. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas responsible for a host of essential physiological processes related to glucose metabolism and protein synthesis.
There are two main forms of DM, named type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which result from different mechanisms and more importantly, require different therapeutic approaches. It is estimated that up to 40% of those diagnosed with T2DM after the age of 30 may have been misdiagnosed2. This misdiagnosis of T1DM as T2DM will result in poor glycaemic control, frequent healthcare contact for increased treatment, inappropriate insulin regimes and risk of life-threatening ketoacidosis.
In this article, we’ll look at the similarities and differences between these two forms of DM and investigate the mechanisms by which these common diseases arise.
The normal insulin signalling pathway, shown below, is responsible for the processing and transport of glucose in the body. Briefly, insulin binds to the insulin receptor and activates PI3K and, subsequently, serine-threonine kinase (AKT). AKT is responsible for the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK-3β), inhibiting its activity and promoting the synthesis of glycogen leading to a reduction in blood glucose concentration. Failing to inhibit GSK-3β will result in hyperglycaemia and eventually T2DM.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
T1DM is most commonly diagnosed at a young age. This form of DM is the result of an autoimmune reaction to proteins produced by the pancreas which results in a lack of insulin secretion. The antibodies responsible for this autoimmunity are detailed in the table below:
A key factor in T1DM pathogenesis is changes in the T cell-mediated immunoregulation, notably in the CD4+ T cell compartment. The activation of the CD4+ T cells is responsible for inflammation of the pancreatic cells which produce insulin, known as insulitis.
Changes in the expression of IL-1 and TNFα cause structural alterations in pancreatic β-cells which result in the suppression of insulin secretion. This insulin deficiency has subsequent effects on glucose metabolism and protein synthesis.
T1DM causes an increase in hepatic glucose levels when gluconeogenesis converts glycogen to glucose. A lack of insulin means the subsequent hepatic uptake of this glucose does not occur.
Insulin is also responsible for regulating the synthesis of many proteins. This regulation can be positive or negative but ultimately results in an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. Therefore, when hypoinsulinemia occurs, decreasing insulin concentration in the blood, protein catabolism is increased leading to increased plasma amino acid concentration.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
The pathogenesis of T2DM, detailed in the diagram below, is multi-factorial. It arises from a combination of genetic and environmental factors which affect insulin activity.
In T2DM, the regulatory mechanisms related to glucose metabolism fail resulting in impaired insulin activity or insulin resistance.
Mutations in genes involved in insulin production can cause the secretion of abnormal insulin molecules, known as insulinopathies. Insulinopathies are unable to effectively metabolise glucose which results in the accumulation of this sugar. Additionally, obesity is considered to be a causal factor in the development of T2DM.
Unlike those with T1DM, patients with T2DM can maintain circulating insulin levels. T2DM is characterised by glucose intolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes with minimal fasting hyperglycaemia, and DM in association with overt fasting hyperglycaemia.
Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance have hyperglycaemia despite preserving high levels of plasma insulin. These levels of insulin decline from impaired glucose tolerance to DM. It is insulin resistance is considered the primary cause of T2DM.
The misdiagnosis of these types of DM is common, due to similar symptoms. The simplest differentiating factor is when these symptoms manifest. T1DM is an autoimmune disorder and therefore, symptoms generally occur much earlier in one’s life. T2DM is typically diagnosed in later life. The common symptoms of DM are:
- Frequent urination, particularly throughout the night.
- Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
- Polyphagia (excessive hunger)
- Sudden weight loss
- Genital itching or thrush
- Blurred vision
The misdiagnosis of T2DM as T1DM results in unnecessary initial insulin therapy, higher drug and monitoring costs and often, an increase in the number and severity of symptoms. Conversely, the incorrect classification of T1DM as T2DM causes poor glycaemic control, frequent visits to healthcare services for treatment, inappropriate insulin regimes and risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
DKA is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by an accumulation of ketones in the body due to insulin deficiency, which is common in patients with T1DM, however, an increasing number of cases have been reported in patients with T2DM. Diagnosis of DKA consists of a high anion gap metabolic acidosis, ketone bodies present in serum and/or urine, and high blood glucose concentration. The symptoms of DKA include:
- Polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (thirst)
- Weight loss
- Dyspnoea (shortness of breath)
- Abdominal pain
- Polyphagia (excess hunger)
- Fruity-smelling breath caused by acetone accumulation.
Randox Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Genetic Risk Array
T1DM is largely genetic and is associated with over 50 distinct genetic signatures, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This is of great advantage in testing as unlike traditional biomarkers, genetic markers don’t change throughout one’s life, providing a robust method for diagnosis and risk stratification. Genetic data gathered can then be used to develop a genetic risk score, allowing an individual’s probability of developing the disease to be quantified.
Using this principle, together with our patented Biochip array technology, Randox have developed a T1DM GRS array. Using a combination of 10 SNPs from the HLA region and the non-HLA region commonly detected in T1DM patients, and a selection of other risk factors and biomarkers, this molecular array can accurately discriminate between T1DM and T2DM.
Misdiagnosis of DM can have life-threatening consequences. Both types of DM are very common and distinguishing between T1DM and T2DM is crucial.
T1DM is an autoimmune disorder with a lack of insulin secretion, while T2DM is primarily due to insulin resistance. Understanding their mechanisms is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Genetic testing, like the Randox Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Genetic Risk Array, can differentiate between T1DM and T2DM by analysing genetic markers and providing personalized treatment insights.
Accurate diabetes diagnosis is crucial for proper management, prevention of complications, and improving the lives of millions. Together, we can make a difference in the lives of those affected by diabetes!
If you’d like to learn more about the different types of DM, including the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and more, please take a look at our educational guide Diabetes Solutions.
Alternatively, feel free to reach out to our marketing team at email@example.com who will be happy to help you with any queries you may have.
- World Health Organization. Diabetes. World Health Organisation. Published April 5, 2023. Accessed April 25, 2023. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes
- The Misdiagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults. The Lancet Regional Health. 2023;29:100661-100661. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2023.100661
Urgency, Challenges and Advances in STI Testing
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major global health issue, with over 30 pathogens causing an estimated one million infections daily, a number that is rising. Surveillance programs in countries like the United States and Canada have reported an increase in STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia. STIs can have serious consequences for sexual health, including infertility and chronic pelvic pain, particularly affecting women. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised the urgency of addressing this problem and has recommended measures to end the STI healthcare issue by 2030. Integrated testing, including multiplex and point-of-care testing, is considered essential. However, implementation of these recommendations at regional and national levels is lacking. Rapid point-of-care PCR tests that can detect multiple pathogens simultaneously would greatly improve STI diagnosis and containment. Currently, Randox, in collaboration with Bosch offers two STI test panels on the Vivalytic POC system: Vivalytic STI and Vivalytic MG, MH, UP/UU panels, capable of detecting multiple pathogens in a single test run, with results available within hours.
The Global Burden
- The WHO estimates 374 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis annually.
- Chlamydia is the most frequently reported STI in Europe, followed by gonorrhoea and syphilis.
- Countries with comprehensive STI screening programs, like Denmark, have higher prevalence rates than the European average.
- The UK has a comprehensive screening program for chlamydia targeting 15-24-year-olds, with cases accounting for 60% of total cases in the European Region.
- The actual infection rate in countries without systematic screening is likely higher than official figures suggest.
- Reported cases of gonorrhoea and syphilis in the European Region have increased, particularly among certain age groups and higher numbers in men than women.
Gaps in Current STI Testing Strategies
The European Centre for Disease Prevention (ECDC) acknowledges the growing concern of STIs in Europe and emphasises the importance of testing in their recent report. While various European countries have screening programs for chlamydia, testing options for other STI pathogens are usually limited. The lack of accessible testing, combined with the prevalence of asymptomatic infections, increases the risk of STI transmission and hampers containment efforts. Prevention campaigns and low-threshold testing opportunities are crucial to address the spread of STIs. The UK’s chlamydia screening program, implemented in 2008, demonstrated the benefits of community-based testing services and led to a significant increase in diagnosed cases, reducing the number of unreported cases.
Infections and Co-Infections
- Co-infections, where multiple sexually transmitted pathogens are present simultaneously, are common but often go undetected due to limited testing.
- Symptoms of co-infections can be difficult to differentiate since different pathogens can cause similar or overlapping symptoms.
- However, most STIs, even in high-risk groups, are caused by a single sexually transmitted pathogen.
- In cases where co-infections need to be detected, a rapid and comprehensive differential diagnosis of sexually transmitted pathogens is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy promptly.
The Importance of Rapid Results at the Point of Care
- Rapid detection and treatment of STIs are crucial to prevent further spread.
- Traditional STI diagnostics in specialized laboratories can result in delays of several days or up to 1-2 weeks until test results are available to the physician.
- Delays occur due to transportation of samples, laboratory workflow, result transfer, and scheduling additional appointments.
- The delay in treatment initiation can lead to decreased patient compliance and missed appointments.
The Vivalytic STI test provides results directly at the point of care (POC) in less than two and a half hours. It eliminates the need for sample transportation to a central laboratory. In addition, patients can receive their test results on the same day of the visit, allowing for immediate initiation of appropriate treatment.
In a Nutshell
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) spread due to various factors. Many STIs do not show symptoms, resulting in numerous unreported and untreated cases that can have fatal consequences depending on the specific pathogen. Increasing awareness and implementing a decentralised low-threshold testing strategy can significantly reduce infections, particularly among high-risk groups. Speed and comprehensive testing of relevant pathogens are crucial for targeted therapy and containing STIs. Rapid PCR tests used at the point of care (POC) are emerging as important technologies due to their advantages. Patients receive same-day results and immediate treatment, providing clarity in just one visit. Clinicians can provide up-to-date diagnoses and treatments, even in decentralised or hospital settings, benefiting high-risk patients with limited access to healthcare.
The Bosch Vivalytic, is an advanced and automated platform for molecular diagnostics that utilises PCR to detect pathogens. It offers applications for various medical disciplines and requires only a few steps from sample collection to obtaining results. The patient sample is processed automatically within the Vivalytic analyser, and the test result is displayed on its integrated screen. The time it takes to get results depends on the specific Vivalytic application. For the STI Panel, which simultaneously detects 10 common sexually transmitted pathogens, the time to result is 2.5 hours. On the other hand, the Vivalytic MG, MH, UP/UU panel, used to detect mycoplasmas and/or ureaplasmas, provides results in approximately one hour.
By conducting fully automated analyses at the point of care, Vivalytic saves valuable time for hospitals, labs, genitourinary clinics and doctor’s offices during their routine processes.
|STI Panel||MG, MH, UP, UU Panel|
|Chlamydia trachomatis||Mycoplasma genitalium|
|Neisseria gonorrhoeae||Mycoplasma hominis|
|Trichomonas vaginalis||Ureaplasma parvum/Ureaplasma|
|Herpes simplex virus I|
|Herpes simplex virus II|
At a Glance
- The Vivalytic system allows fully automated sample analysis with minimal manual steps.
- It eliminates the need for expensive and complex laboratory equipment.
- Vivalytic supports both single and multiplex tests.
- The Vivalytic does not require peripheral equipment such as a laptop, keyboard, barcode scanner, or charging station.
- The cartridge used in the system ensures hygienic and safe operation as a closed system.
- Cartridges can be stored and used at room temperature.
- Vivasuite, a cloud-based solution, facilitates convenient device management.
- The Vivalytic can be seamlessly integrated into existing IT structures using HL7, Ethernet, USB, or WLAN.
Dementia Action Week is a national event that sees people across the UK taking action to improve the lives of people affected by dementia, as organized by the Alzheimer’s Society.
Dementia is an umbrella term for a range of progressive conditions that affect the brain.
Each type of dementia stops a person’s brain cells (neurons) working properly in specific area and affecting their ability to remember, think and speak cohesively.
It is estimated that one in three people born this year nationwide will develop some form of Dementia at some point in their lives.
A cure for Dementia has unfortunately not yet been developed. However, in the pursuit of a cure, there is things that have the potential to vastly improve the quality of life for those living with these conditions.
Here at Randox, there is a focus on preventative healthcare. Which is why it made sense when Randox partnered with Race Against Dementia for their nominated charity of 2023.
Race Against Dementia is a global charity founded by three-times Formula 1 World Champion Sir Jackie Stewart, OBE – with the aim of funding much needed pioneering research into the prevention and cure of Dementia.
Also, in our work of towards diagnosis and treatments for those living with Dementia conditions, Randox Laboratories have launched a CE marked Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Array.
Alzheimer’s is one of the most common forms of Dementia and is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, in which parts of the brain are damaged over time.
Randox Laboratories’ Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Array can be used for the direct determination of ApoE4 status from plasma, eliminating the need for genetic testing, assisting in clinical research and personalized medicine strategies.
At Randox, we believe the importance of measuring ApoE4 protein expression in plasma is the way forward to screen those individuals at increased risk of Alzheimer Disease, as new beta amyloid-targeting therapies for this condition are being expected.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array please email firstname.lastname@example.org
We are thrilled to present two educational guides that delve into the newly updated minimum performance specifications for Proficiency Testing by CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments). These regulations, set to be implemented by 2024, aim to enhance the accuracy and reliability of test results in clinical laboratories. Here, we introduce these invaluable resources designed to assist laboratories in navigating the evolving landscape of proficiency testing.
1. Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Microbiology):
Our first guide focuses on the specific regulations and requirements pertaining to microbiology proficiency testing. With a comprehensive exploration of these guidelines, this guide is a useful resource for microbiology labs striving to ensure precision and integrity in their testing procedures. From the required categories of testing to maintaining optimal testing conditions, the guide details the updates that promote adherence to the highest standards of quality and safety.
2. Proficiency Testing Regulations Related to Analytes and Acceptable Performance – A Final Rule (Non-Microbiology):
For non-microbiology laboratories, our second guide delves into the updated proficiency testing regulations concerning various analytes. From chemistry to haematology, molecular diagnostics to immunology, this guide offers a comprehensive overview of the new requirements and minimum performance specifications. By embracing these regulations, medical laboratories can uphold the utmost accuracy and reliability in their test results, ensuring optimal patient care and clinical decision-making.
Elevating Laboratory Practices:
These educational guides are indispensable tools that empower laboratories to navigate the changing landscape of proficiency testing regulations. By staying informed and adopting the updated minimum performance specifications, laboratories can maintain compliance, demonstrate excellence, and ultimately deliver the highest quality of care to their patients.
Accessing the Guides:
We invite you to access these comprehensive educational guides by following the link provided below. They offer a wealth of knowledge and practical insights, serving as essential references for laboratory professionals, quality managers, and anyone involved in clinical diagnostics.
With the implementation of updated CLIA proficiency testing regulations on the horizon, these educational guides come at a crucial time. By embracing the knowledge and guidance they provide, laboratories can navigate the changing landscape with confidence and ensure their adherence to the highest standards of proficiency testing. Together, let’s strive for excellence, precision, and patient-centric care in clinical laboratory practices.
#CLIARegulations #ProficiencyTesting #ClinicalLaboratories #QualityAssurance #PatientCare
As a major contributor to the IVD industry, like many of you, the trials and tribulations of quality control are an everyday consideration. It is for this reason we strive to make the process of IQC as straightforward as possible. We recognise how busy life in the laboratory can get and believe it is our duty to simplify your QC process as much as possible.
The Acusera range has been designed with this in mind. Our true third-party control range boasts unrivalled levels of consolidation, supplied at clinically relevant concentrations in a suitable, commutable matrix. When used in combination with Acusera 24.7, our interlaboratory management software, the Acusera range will help to reduce analytical errors and maximise precision in your laboratory.
With the recent updates to ISO 15189:2022, we understand that there will be added pressure on many laboratories who are trying to maintain their accreditation. To assist you with your gap analysis and transition to these updated standards, we have produced this accreditation guide, detailing all of the key points relating to this new version of the highly sought after accreditation.
If you’d like to find out more about what we can do to help your laboratory or view our range of Internal Quality Controls, don’t hesitate to contact us at email@example.com or feel free to browse the range on our website https://www.randox.com/laboratory-quality-control-acusera/.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis is characterised by an accumulation of ketone bodies in response to insulin deficiency, most commonly occurring in T1DM patients, but is becoming increasingly prevalent among sufferers of T2DM.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with symptoms such as polyuria, polydipsia, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and fatigue with the most severe cases resulting in disastrous consequences such as cerebral oedema and death.
D-3-Hydroxybutyrate is considered to be the predominant ketone bodies associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and novel methods of detection utilise this biomarker to provide robust and accurate quantification of ketone bodies and aid in confident diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.
This guide discusses the physiological and pathological processes associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and the relevant biomarkers, the complications associated with this condition and classic and novel detection methods.
To download this guide, simply click the image at the top of this post!
For more information on this assay visit https://www.randox.com/d-3-hydroxybutyrate-ranbut/
To read about some of our other superior performance reagents visit https://www.randox.com/superior-performance-and-unique-
Or, to view our wide range of diagnostic solutions visit https://www.randox.com/
The quantification of bilirubin has a wide range of diagnostic utility. In paediatric settings, bilirubin concentrations are commonly used to identify cases of bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus.
Historically, bilirubin quantification has been achieved through various techniques derived from the diazo method, first described by Van der Bergh and Muller in 1918. New technologies and novel methods, like the Vanadate Oxidation method, have emerged and have been shown to display superior diagnostic power, driven by its lower sensitivity to interference caused by haemolysis and lipemia when compared with other methods.
This week, we present our educational guide, ‘Determining bilirubin concentrations in paediatric facilities’ which details the key points relating to bilirubin quantification, along with descriptions and comparisons of the methods mentioned above.
To download this guide, simply click the image at the top of this post!
For more information on our Vanadate Oxidation Bilirubin assay visit: www.randox.com/bilirubin
To view our wide range of diagnostic solutions visit: www.randox.com/
Or, if you’d like to discuss this assay, or any of our other products, please contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Medical laboratory professionals must comply with stringent and robust standards in all aspects of their daily activities. The set of standards to which a laboratory must comply will differ depending on the scientific discipline of the laboratory, however, ISO 15189:2022 – Medical Laboratories – Requirements for quality and competence, applies to all medical laboratories. This recent version of the standard introduces increased focus on risk stratification and mitigation for patients and laboratory stakeholders, placing more emphasis on quality control to improve the accuracy and validity of the results obtained.
In a clinical chemistry laboratory, as in others, internal quality control is of upmost importance. Internal quality control (IQC) is the process used to ensure that all results produced are accurate, reliable, and reproducible. To achieve this, a laboratory must carry out checks on the pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases of testing.
The pre-analytical phase of laboratory testing includes collection, handling, transportation, storage, and preparation of samples. Even when the highest level of care is taken to ensure that all aspects of the pre-analytical phase are suitable and correct, errors can occur, exhibiting the need for clear and efficient quality control processes.
As part of our Acusera quality control range, Randox has developed the Serum Indices quality control to aid in the detection of the common pre-analytical error’s haemolysis, icterus and lipemia, collectively known as HIL. HIL interference can have disastrous effects on the quantification of many analytes, and it is therefore vital to determine levels of interference to improve laboratory efficiency and reduce the frequency of erroneous results. Figure 1 shows a graph of wavelengths at which each of these interferents may affect assays and the table below describes these forms of interference:
|Haemolysis||The degradation of red blood cells causes interference between 340-440nm and 540-580nm. Red blood cells experience membrane disruption due to tangential stress which results in degradation of cellular integrity and the release of interfering cellular components such as haemoglobin, K+ ions and aspartate aminotransferase. Haemolytic interference may be evident in assays such iron, lipase, albumin, and creatine kinase.|
|Icterus||Interference as a result of high bilirubin concentrations, affecting assays measured between 400-550nm. The high bilirubin levels result in a yellowish pigmentation of the sample, caused by hepatic necrosis, sepsis, or several other conditions. Most prevalent in neonatal departments, icteric interference can cause inaccuracies in assays for phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.|
|Lipemia||Interference caused by an aggregation of lipoproteins which affects the turbidity of samples. Lipemic interference can be cause by several mechanisms, the most common being the light scattering effect caused by aggregations of chylomicrons or other large forms of LDL. The larger the LDL molecule, the larger the lipemic effect. Lipemic interference is evident in assays measured between 300-700nm, however, interference increases as wavelength decreases.|
Classical determination of HIL interference took the form of a visual assessment. A sample was examined for tell-tale signs of one or more of these types of interference. However, these methods are subject to operator interpretation and lack harmonisation and uniformity across the industry. These signs are detailed in the table below and illustrated in figure 2.
|Haemolysis||Red discoloration of serum samples which is directly proportional to the concentration of haemoglobin and other interfering erythrocyte components.|
|Icterus||Yellow pigmentation of serum samples increases proportionally to the concentration of conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.|
|Lipemia||Increased sample turbidity proportional to lipid concentration.|
Modern clinical chemistry analysers have onboard HIL detection capabilities which offer objective, semi-qualitative or qualitative analysis of these forms of interference in a more precise and consistent manner. Automation of HIL detection improves laboratory throughput along with test turnaround times and enhances the reportability of the results.
Errors at any stage of the analytical process will result in retesting of the sample. Errors in the pre-analytical phase can have repercussions such as increased cost of repeated sample collection and testing, poor test turnaround times, and more seriously, delayed or incorrect diagnosis causing an exacerbation in the condition of the patient. To add to the adverse outcomes on patients, repeated testing places additional stress on laboratory resources and staff which ultimately affects every aspect of a laboratory’s daily activities.
We hope that by using the Acusera Serum Indices quality control and EQA scheme we can help to improve the accuracy of laboratory testing around the world and remove some of the excessive strain placed on laboratories and the professionals who continually strive for the highest levels of quality in all their work.
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