COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients – CKD & AKI

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COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients – CKD & AKI

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COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients

Randox CKD & AKI Array’s

COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients

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    Simultaneous and quantitative detection of multiple kidney function markers from a single patient sample for complete patient profiling
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    Identify early stage renal impairment and improve patient risk stratification
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    Unique combination of analytes ensures better sensitivity and accuracy compared to traditional serum creatinine measurement
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    Monitor the effectiveness of treatment in COVID-19 patients
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    Arrays available for identifying and monitoring both acute and chronic renal impairment
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    Utilising patented Biochip Technology, both arrays are currently available on the Evidence Investigator

Analysis of COVID-19 patients revealed that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common and associated with a very high mortality rate highlighting the need for more accurate patient testing.  Further to this the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that all COVID-19 patients are assessed for AKI on admission to hospital and their condition monitored throughout their stay. The complications with serum creatinine measurement alone for the detection of impaired kidney function are well known. To address this issue, Randox have developed three multi marker kidney function arrays for early detection of renal impairment.  Individuals with pre-existing kidney injury are at an increased risk of COVID-19, those with severe CKD (stages 3-5) are at a higher risk of complications.

Utilising patented Biochip Technology, the Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) arrays could improve COVID-19 risk stratification whilst monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

 

Biochip

Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Array I (7-plex)

  • EGF
  • IL-8
  • sTNFR1
  • FABP1
  • sTNFR2
  • D-Dimer
  • MIP-1 alpha

EGF regulates renal cell proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation and is produced in response to renal injury.

IL-8 endothelial-derived chemokine involved in recruiting neutrophils to sites of injury and stimulating their response.

sTNFR1 is used to identify an increase in inflammatory conditions such as CKD.

FABP1 binds long-chain fatty acids, contributing to reducing oxidative stress in the kidneys.

sTNFR2 is used to identify an increase in inflammatory conditions such as CKD.

D-Dimer is a fibrin degradation product, and an index of both coagulation and fibrinolysis.

MIP-1 alpha plays a roles in inflammatory responses at sites of injury or infection.

Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Array II (4-plex)

  • CRP
  • Cystatin C
  • C3a Des Arg
  • NGAL

CRP is an acute phase reactant involved in inflammation.

Cystatin C is well recognised marker of kidney filtration dysfunction and injury.

C3a des Arg is a representative of complement component C3a which produces local inflammatory responses.

NGAL is among the current state-of-the-art in CKD biomarkers.

Randox Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Array (4-plex)

  • Lipocalin (NGAL)
  • Cystatin C
  • Clusterin
  • Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1)

This marker is highly upregulated in kidney tubule cells following nephrotoxic injury severe enough to result in acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis or acute tubulo-interstitial nephropathy.

Due to its small size and basic pH, Cystatin C is freely filtered by the glomerulus. It is then reabsorbed by tubular epithelial cells and subsequently metabolized. Accumulation of Cystatin C in urine is specific for tubular kidney damage and suggests reduced reabsorption at the proximal tubules as a result of toxicant-induced kidney injury.

Expression of Clusterin is upregulated following a variety of renal injuries and is detectable in urine following acute kidney injury induced by administration of nephrotoxic agents. This occurs before the profound renal transformations that give rise to changes in creatinine and BUN.

KIM-1 is a 30kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein found on actvated CD4+ T cells. It is undetectable in healthy kidney tissue but is expressed at very high levels in proximal tubule epithelial cells in the kidney after toxic injury.

The Evidence Investigator

Meet the Evidence Investigator

The Randox CKD & AKI arrays have both been developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser.

The CKD & AKI array’s would improve COVID-19 risk stratification whilst monitoring the effectiveness of treatments by simultaneously and quantitatively detecting multiple serum biomarkers of kidney damage-related analytes from a single sample.

Evidence Investigator

Want to know more?

Contact us or visit our Investigator Webpage


Alzheimer’s Disease Array

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Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array

Rapid Alzheimer’s Disease Risk, Diagnosis & Prognosis

Rapid Alzheimer's Disease Risk, Diagnosis & Prognosis

  • Identification
    Identification of Alzheimer’s disease risk in under 3 hours
  • Direct ApoE
    Direct Apo E ‘genotyping’ from a simple plasma sample without the need for molecular genotyping
  • Better Outcomes
    Ensures better outcomes, guaranteeing timely therapeutic intervention
  • Biochip
    Patented biochip technology simultaneously detects Apo E and Apo E4 proteins from a single patient sample
  • Valuable Information
    Delivers valuable information for use in research, personalised medicine and development of novel therapeutics
  • Investigator
    Suitable for use on the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated analyser

The Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array is a rapid and highly sensitive blood test facilitating direct Apo E genotyping without the need for molecular testing.  Apo E is present in three common isoforms; Apo E2, Apo E3 and Apo E4.   As such, six common Apo E genotypes exist in the general population.  Alzheimer’s Disease risk is increased in individuals with the Apo E4 allele.  The following diagram provides an indication of risk based on the six common genotypes.

Biochip
Alzheimer's Disease Risk Table

Utilising revolutionary patented Biochip Technology, the Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array provides a unique solution for the measurement of both total apoE and the apo E4 isoform levels from a single patient sample, facilitating the fast and accurate classification of Alzheimer’s disease risk in comparison to brain scanning (CT and MRI).

Biomarkers Tested

  • Pan ApoE
  • Apo E4

Apo E is recognised as one of the most powerful genetic risk factors for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases.  For this reason, Apo E is widely studied in relation to Alzheimer’s disease.  There are three common isoforms of Apo E;  Apo E2, Apo E3, and Apo E4.

Apo E is a major cholesterol carrier, responsible for lipid homeostasis by mediating lipid transport from one tissue or cell type to another. In the central nervous system, Apo E is mainly produced by astrocytes, and transports cholesterol to neurons via Apo E receptors.

Apo E4 is one of three common isoforms of Apo E and is recognised as a major genetic risk factor the development of Alzheimer’s disease.   Apo E4 triggers inflammatory cascades that cause neurovascular dysfunction, including blood-brain barrier breakdown, leakage of blood-derived toxic proteins into the brain and reduction in the length of small vessels.

The Evidence Investigator

Meet the Evidence Investigator

The Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser.

The Alzheimer’s Disease Array measures both total Apo E and Apo E4 protein levels directly from plasma samples, to identify whether patients are Apo E4 heterozygous, homozygous or null. By using a ratio, it can classify patients as negative or positive for Apo E4. In turn, the patients risk for the development of Alzheimer’s Disease can be assessed.

Evidence Investigator

Publications

Want to know more?

Contact us or visit our Cerebral Array webpage.


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