COVID-19 Cytokine Testing Solutions
COVID-19 Risk Stratification & Treatment Monitoring
Randox Cytokine Testing Solutions
COVID-19 Risk Stratification and Treatment Monitoring
Randox offer testing solutions for a comprehensive range of cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors designed to assist with COVID-19 risk stratification, monitoring of treatment efficacy and recovery. Utilising patented Biochip technology up to 12 cytokines and growth factors may be detected simultaneously from a single patient sample.
Cytokines play a vital role in the immune system and are known to be involved in the body’s response to a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The over stimulation of these cytokines in response to infection is referred to as a ‘cytokine storm’ and strongly correlates with poor disease outcomes.
Cytokine storms are a common complication of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection triggering viral sepsis, where viral replication and excessive, uncontrolled systemic inflammation may lead to pneumonitis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure, shock, multiple organ failure, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and potentially death.
Cytokine Array I (12-plex)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a regulatory and inflammatory cytokine, which exists in two forms, (IL-1α) and (IL-1β), which share 25% homology at amino acid level. IL-1α is produced as a biologically active 31 kDa precursor, which undergoes proteolytic cleavage yielding a 17 kDa protein of 159 amino acids.
There are two forms of IL-1, IL-1α and IL-1β ,which share 25% homology at amino acid level. IL-1β is synthesised as a biologically inactive precursor of 269 amino acids with a molecular mass of 31 kDa , which undergoes proteolytic cleavage by IL1 converting enzyme (ICE), which yields a 17kDa protein of 153 amino acids.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a 15 – 18 kDa protein which has varying degrees of glycosylation accounting for the observed molecular weight range. IL-2 regulates the activities of white blood cells (leukocytes, often lymphocytes) that are responsible for immunity.
IL-4 is a glycoprotein synthesised as a precursor protein of 153 amino acids. The first 24 amino acid residue signal peptide is cleaved to produce a 129 amino acid 15-19 kDa protein.
IL-6 is synthesised as a precursor protein of 212 amino acids. The N-terminal 28 amino acid residue signal peptide is cleaved to produce a 21kDa protein. It has two potential N-glycosylation sites which have no effect on bioactivity. Different post-translational alterations such as glycosylation and phosphorylation give various forms of IL-6 with molecular masses of 21.5-28 kDa. The IL-6 receptor is a strongly glycosylated 80 kDa protein of 449 amino acids. Two different forms of the receptor have been described that bind IL-6 with differing affinities, a soluble form of the IL-6 receptor has also been described. The IL-6 receptor is expressed on T cells, mitogen activated B cells, peripheral monocytes and some macrophage and B cell derived tumour cell types. IL-6 also influences antigen-specific immune responses and inflammatory reactions.
IL-8 is a member of a structurally similar family of cytokines called chemokines, which demonstrate chemotactic activity for neutrophils. IL-8 is a non-glycosylated protein of 8 kDa and consists of 99 amino acids with a 22 residue signal peptide that is cleaved to generate a 77 amino acid sequence. IL-8 is produced in response to proinflammatory stimuli. It is produced by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, hepatocytes, chondrocytes, T-cells, neutrophils, and astrocytes.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), alternatively known as B-cell-derived T-cell growth factor (B-TCGF), cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) or T-cell growth inhibitory factor is a homodimeric protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa. It is produced as a 178 amino acid residue precursor, which is cleaved to give a mature protein of 160 amino acids. IL-10’s primary function is as an anti-inflammatory agent, which inhibits cytokine production by T cells and natural killer cells caused by activation of monocytes/macrophages.
IFN-γ is a cytokine critical to both innate and adaptive immunity, and functions as the primary activator of macrophages, in addition to stimulating natural killer cells and neutrophils. Biologically active interferon gamma is a 20 or 25 kDa glycoprotein depending on its glycosylation state. This lymphokine is synthesised as a 166 amino acid sequence but is cleaved to give a 143 amino acid residue.
Human EGF is produced as a long precursor protein of 1207 amino acids which is released by proteolytic cleavage to give a globular protein of 6.4 kDa consisting of 53 amino acids. EGF is a common mitogenic factor that stimulates the proliferation of different types of cells, especially fibroblasts and epithelial cells. EGF activates the EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB), which initiates, in turn, intracellular signaling.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) is part of the chemotactic family of cytokines called chemokines. ). It is a 76 amino acid peptide and has a molecular weight of 8.6 kDa. MCP-1 in particular chondrocytes confirming its role in inflammatory responses. MCP-1 has been implicated in a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as artherosclerosis, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, rheumatoid arthritis, alveotitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a 157 amino acid 26 kDa transmembrane protein which is secreted as a soluble mature 233 amino acid homotrimer of 17 kDa by proteolytic cleavage. TNF-α is secreted by macrophages in response to stimuli for the induction of systemic inflammation. The binding of the ligand TNF-α to the TNF receptor (TNFR1) initiates the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling cascades.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is secreted as a glycosylated homodimeric protein of 46 kDa that is made up of two 24 kDa subunits linked by disulphide bonds. VEGF is expressed by vascularised tissue such as pituitary, brain, lungs, kidneys, heart and adrenal glands, although it is assumed that all tissues have the potential to produce the growth factor. VEGF is stimulated when cells become deficient in oxygen or glucose or under inflammatory conditions.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3508||Cytokine Array I Evidence||360 Biochips|
|EV3544||Cytokine Array I Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3513||Cytokine Array I Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
|EV3623||Cytokine Array I High Sensitivity Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array III (4-plex)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a disulphide linked homodimer and belongs to a family of structurally related proteins that includes: interleukin-2, interleukin-4, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and growth hormone. It is a glycoprotein with the apparent molecular weight of recombinant IL-5 produced by mammalian cells in the range 45 to 60 kDa. The large variation in the molecular weight caused predominantly by the addition of heterogeneous carbohydrate chains.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a 14 to 15 kDa protein of 114 amino acids. It contains 2 disulphide bonds and 2 N-linked glycosylation sites at the C-terminus1. IL-15 is expressed at the mRNA level in numerous normal human tissues in a broad range of cell types, including activated monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and fibroblasts. IL-15 has an essential role in natural killer (NK) cell development. It activates NK cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production and regulates NK cell/macrophage interaction. Studies have suggested that IL-15 may have a role in establishing innate immune responses and maintaining neutrophil-mediated inflammatory processes.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) isolated from human sources is glycosylated with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. The mature protein has 127 amino acids and is preceded by a hydrophobic leader sequence of 25 amino acids.
Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, CCL3) is a member of the CC chemokine subfamily whose members are known for chemotactic and proinflammatory effects and also for the promotion of homeostasis. MIP-1α is synthesised as a 92 amino acid precursor that is proteolytically processed to a mature protein of about 70 amino acids. MIP-1α has roles in inflammatory responses at sites of injury or infection by recruiting proinflammatory cells.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3680||Cytokine Array III Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3678||Cytokine Array III Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array IV (5-plex)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (gelatinase B) (92 kDa) is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMP-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis.
Soluble IL-2 receptor α (sIL-2Rα) results from the proteolytic cleavage of IL-2Rα at the cell surface by a membrane metalloproteinase; which is encoded by IL2RA on human chromosome. It’s widely noted in research that sIL-2Rα has been found in diseases caused by infections, autoimmune disease and organ transplantation.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates pleiotropic roles in immune regulation, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. The IL-6 receptor complex belongs to the haematopoietic receptor superfamily and mediates the biological activities of IL-6. It consists of two distinct membrane bound glycoproteins, an 80 kDa cognate receptor subunit (IL-6R) and a 130 kDa signal-transducing element (gp130). The gp130 subunit is expressed in almost all organs including heart, kidney, spleen, liver, lung, placenta and brain.
Tumour necrosis factor receptor I is one of two specific, high affinity cell surface receptors that function as transducing elements, providing the intracellular signal for cell responses to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly produced by stimulated monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocyte subsets. It has a key role in host defence and immunosurveillance, mediating complex cellular responses of a different, even contrasting nature. TNFRI has a molecular mass of 55 kDa1 and is expressed by almost all cell types2 especially those cells that are susceptible to the cytotoxic action of TNFI. TNFRs are detectable in normal serum, but their concentration increases significantly in inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases.
Tumour necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII) is one of two specific, high affinity cell surface receptors that function as transducing elements, providing the intracellular signal for cell responses to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly produced by stimulated monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocyte subsets. It has a key role in host defence and immunosurveillance, mediating complex cellular responses of a different, even contrasting nature. TNFRII has a molecular mass of 75 kDa1. Although TNFRII is expressed by almost all cell types, it is expressed primarily by cells of the immune system, cells of myeloid origin and endothelial cells.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3659||Cytokine Array IV Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3661||Cytokine Array IV Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array V (5-plex)
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) possesses diverse biological activities and was discovered independently in studies on its biological activities. IL-3 is a heavily glycosylated protein with a polypeptide chain of 133 amino acids. It occurs naturally in a diversity of glycoforms generated by the addition of carbohydrate groups which results in size heterogeneity from 28 to 45 kDa. The function of the extensive carbohydrate modifications of the IL-3 polypeptide is not known however IL-3 has been linked with various diseases including colorectal and pancreatic cancers.
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is classified as a type 1 short-chain cytokine of the haematopoietin family, a group that also includes IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, M-CSF, and stem cell factor. The human gene for IL-7 is located on chromosome 8q12-13. The amino acid sequence of IL-7 predicts a molecular weight of 17.4 kDa, but glycosylation results in an active protein of 25 kDa. IL-7 appears to be involved in the development of an effective immune system and also in the generation and maintenance of strong and effective cellular immune responses directed against cancer cells, or infectious diseases.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a 75 kDa heterodimeric glycoprotein cytokine composed of disulphide linked p40 (40 kDa) and p35 (35 kDa) subunits that are derived from separate genes1. p35 is expressed in a limiting and tightly regulated fashion by many different cell types, however the expression of p40, though in greater quantities than required for p70 formation, appears to be restricted to antigen presenting cells. IL-12 stimulates IFN production, which is essential in resistance to intracellular protozoan, fungal and bacterial infections and, in addition, tumours. Traditionally, IL-12 is accepted as an important mediator of autoimmunity and is involved in a number of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a 12 kDa protein that folds into four I-helical bundles. It contains four potential N-glycosylation sites and four cysteine residues that form two intramolecular disulphide bonds. IL-13 shares a number of structural features and functional characteristics with IL-4. The IL-13 protein is approximately 25% homologous1 with IL-4 and belongs to the same I-helix protein family. IL-13 plays a dominant role in resistance to most gastrointestinal nematodes and also modulates resistance to intracellular organisms by regulating cell mediated immunity. IL-13 is the central mediator of allergic asthma, where it regulates eosinophilic inflammation, mucus secretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Although IL-13 is associated primarily with the induction of airway disease, it also has anti-inflammatory properties.
Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is member of the IL-12 family. The IL-12 family consists of cytokines IL-12(p40p35), IL-23(p40p19) and IL-27(EBI13p28), and monomeric and homodimeric p401. IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of disulphide linked p19 and p40 subunits. IL-23 plays a role in a signaling pathway that triggers inflammation.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3666||Cytokine Array V Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our COVID-19 Monitoring & Management page
Cytokine Array I Control
Cytokine Array I High Sensitivity Control
Cytokine Array III Control
Cytokine Array IV Control
COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients
Randox CKD & AKI Array’s
COVID-19 Management of Kidney Injured Patients
Analysis of COVID-19 patients revealed that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common and associated with a very high mortality rate highlighting the need for more accurate patient testing. Further to this the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that all COVID-19 patients are assessed for AKI on admission to hospital and their condition monitored throughout their stay. The complications with serum creatinine measurement alone for the detection of impaired kidney function are well known. To address this issue, Randox have developed three multi marker kidney function arrays for early detection of renal impairment. Individuals with pre-existing kidney injury are at an increased risk of COVID-19, those with severe CKD (stages 3-5) are at a higher risk of complications.
Utilising patented Biochip Technology, the Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) arrays could improve COVID-19 risk stratification whilst monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.
Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Array I (7-plex)
EGF regulates renal cell proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation and is produced in response to renal injury.
IL-8 endothelial-derived chemokine involved in recruiting neutrophils to sites of injury and stimulating their response.
sTNFR1 is used to identify an increase in inflammatory conditions such as CKD.
FABP1 binds long-chain fatty acids, contributing to reducing oxidative stress in the kidneys.
sTNFR2 is used to identify an increase in inflammatory conditions such as CKD.
D-Dimer is a fibrin degradation product, and an index of both coagulation and fibrinolysis.
MIP-1 alpha plays a roles in inflammatory responses at sites of injury or infection.
Randox Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Array II (4-plex)
CRP is an acute phase reactant involved in inflammation.
Cystatin C is well recognised marker of kidney filtration dysfunction and injury.
C3a des Arg is a representative of complement component C3a which produces local inflammatory responses.
NGAL is among the current state-of-the-art in CKD biomarkers.
Randox Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Array (4-plex)
This marker is highly upregulated in kidney tubule cells following nephrotoxic injury severe enough to result in acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis or acute tubulo-interstitial nephropathy.
Due to its small size and basic pH, Cystatin C is freely filtered by the glomerulus. It is then reabsorbed by tubular epithelial cells and subsequently metabolized. Accumulation of Cystatin C in urine is specific for tubular kidney damage and suggests reduced reabsorption at the proximal tubules as a result of toxicant-induced kidney injury.
Expression of Clusterin is upregulated following a variety of renal injuries and is detectable in urine following acute kidney injury induced by administration of nephrotoxic agents. This occurs before the profound renal transformations that give rise to changes in creatinine and BUN.
KIM-1 is a 30kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein found on actvated CD4+ T cells. It is undetectable in healthy kidney tissue but is expressed at very high levels in proximal tubule epithelial cells in the kidney after toxic injury.
The Evidence Investigator
Meet the Evidence Investigator
The Randox CKD & AKI arrays have both been developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser.
The CKD & AKI array’s would improve COVID-19 risk stratification whilst monitoring the effectiveness of treatments by simultaneously and quantitatively detecting multiple serum biomarkers of kidney damage-related analytes from a single sample.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Investigator Webpage
Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array
Rapid Alzheimer’s Disease Risk, Diagnosis & Prognosis
Rapid Alzheimer's Disease Risk, Diagnosis & Prognosis
The Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array is a rapid and highly sensitive blood test facilitating direct Apo E genotyping without the need for molecular testing. Apo E is present in three common isoforms; Apo E2, Apo E3 and Apo E4. As such, six common Apo E genotypes exist in the general population. Alzheimer’s Disease risk is increased in individuals with the Apo E4 allele. The following diagram provides an indication of risk based on the six common genotypes.
Utilising revolutionary patented Biochip Technology, the Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array provides a unique solution for the measurement of both total apoE and the apo E4 isoform levels from a single patient sample, facilitating the fast and accurate classification of Alzheimer’s disease risk in comparison to brain scanning (CT and MRI).
Apo E is recognised as one of the most powerful genetic risk factors for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, Apo E is widely studied in relation to Alzheimer’s disease. There are three common isoforms of Apo E; Apo E2, Apo E3, and Apo E4.
Apo E is a major cholesterol carrier, responsible for lipid homeostasis by mediating lipid transport from one tissue or cell type to another. In the central nervous system, Apo E is mainly produced by astrocytes, and transports cholesterol to neurons via Apo E receptors.
Apo E4 is one of three common isoforms of Apo E and is recognised as a major genetic risk factor the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Apo E4 triggers inflammatory cascades that cause neurovascular dysfunction, including blood-brain barrier breakdown, leakage of blood-derived toxic proteins into the brain and reduction in the length of small vessels.
The Evidence Investigator
Meet the Evidence Investigator
The Randox Alzheimer’s Disease Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser.
The Alzheimer’s Disease Array measures both total Apo E and Apo E4 protein levels directly from plasma samples, to identify whether patients are Apo E4 heterozygous, homozygous or null. By using a ratio, it can classify patients as negative or positive for Apo E4. In turn, the patients risk for the development of Alzheimer’s Disease can be assessed.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Cerebral Array webpage.
Hospitals in Wuhan and Guangzhou roll out new coronavirus test developed by Randox scientists
Randox’s pioneering new test for coronavirus, which identifies COVID-19 and differentiates it from nine other respiratory infections, is to be used in Chinese hospitals.
The comprehensive test, which is being shipped this week to hospitals in Wuhan and Guangzhou, has been developed on Randox’s unique technology platform, the Biochip. This allows for each patient to be simultaneously tested for a range of respiratory infections inclusive of all known coronaviruses.
The Coronavirus Biochip tests each single patient sample for the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, as well as nine other respiratory viruses, including SARS, MERS, and Influenza A and B. This enables clinicians to quickly and efficiently differentiate between potentially lethal and non-lethal infections, prioritise patients and administer appropriate and timely treatment.
Dr Peter FitzGerald, Managing Director of Randox Laboratories, commented;
“Current technologies being used to diagnose COVID-19 are focused on simply detecting the presence or lack of this singular strain and therefore neglect to differentiate it from other respiratory infections. At Randox we have developed a multiplex Viral Respiratory Infection Array that tests for COVID-19 and nine other infections simultaneously, and are delighted that this new technology will be deployed in Wuhan and other cities across China.
“The Coronavirus Biochip will eliminate the need for multiple back-and-forth tests before the root cause of symptoms is found, thereby empowering clinicians to make faster and better-informed decisions.”
Due to be used in hospitals in Wuhan, the epicentre of the coronavirus outbreak, as well as in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, the new testing technology is capable of processing 324 patient samples, generating 3240 reportable results, in just 8 hours.
The panel includes two tests for COVID-19, a specific test (SARS-CoV-2) and a confirmatory test (Sarbecoviris) on the same panel, as recommended by the World Health Organisation. This avoids the need to repeat the test, and importantly, reduces the likelihood of incorrect diagnosis, ensuring appropriate containment and reducing the risk of further contamination. This faster and more comprehensive testing will ultimately support the health service in China by facilitating the efficient use of valuable healthcare resources.
Byron Wang, CEO of Beijing Promed, Randox’s partner in providing the new coronavirus test in China, commented;
“We welcome the support of the global community in assisting us combat COVID-19 at this time. Randox is a highly regarded In Vitro Diagnostic company in China and has supported our market with high quality products for many years. We look forward to supplying this test to hospitals located within the area of greatest need and believe it will make a real difference.”
Dr FitzGerald concluded;
“Randox is committed to saving and improving lives on a global scale and we know that this new COVID-19 test will make a significant contribution to the global coronavirus containment effort.”
The Coronavirus Biochip tests simultaneously for Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), Sarbecoviris (SARS, SARS like, COVID-19), Coronavirus 229E/NL63, Coronavirus OC43/HKUI, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Adenovirus A/B/C/D/E, Enterovirus A/B/C, Influenza A, Influenza B and Rhinovirus A/B.
The Randox Coronavirus Biochip complies with guidelines from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organisation.
For more information or to arrange interviews, please contact the Randox PR team on 028 9442 2413 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
The Evidence Investigator analyser is based on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology (BAT). Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated benchtop analyser which is tailored for the areas of research, forensic, clinical, molecular and veterinary testing. The key feature is the fast turn-around time the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2375 tests per hour. The Evidence Investigator saves time because it will carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample which in return will save time and resources. The machine is more suitable for medium throughput laboratories.
The technology offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which will benefit the research areas immunology, metabolic, Sport & Exercise, oncology and cardiovascular. Randox Research provides the Evidence Investigator to the five research areas to help their research become more efficient, cost effective and accurate.
Randox works extremely hard with their research and development, over 16% of turnover is reinvested in R&D. The current collaboration Randox works along with are Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University.
Randox Biosciences are dedicated to assisting research projects to completion and will make available the technology to ensure the universities receive highly accurate results for their research. Randox creates their products in-house therefore provides the flexibility of the research project. Randox can provide the university a full range of arrays, biomarkers and analysers to meet their requirements of the research.
Within Cardiovascular Research, Randox offer a comprehensive menu of cytokines. The combination of highly specific antibodies and advanced chemistries enables cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors to be detected simultaneously in a single sample, providing valuable information relating to each cytokine under test and possible associations between cytokines in each sample which will benefit the research. Randox offer excellent tools for universities and hospitals researchers such as routine and novel assays and can provide research analysers such as the Evidence Investigator which is suitable for medium sized laboratory.
Oncology Research has 20 biomarkers that can be custom-made to be used on the Biochip. Randox Biosciences offers a wide and extensive test menu to researchers to enable the specific product tailored to meet their clinical trail requirements.
Metabolic & Nutrition Research is another area Randox offers a wide-ranging range of tests specifically directed to Metabolic and Nutrition Research. Randox offers reagents and arrays on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology.
For more information on our Research areas and the tests that we can provide, contact us at – Info@RandoxBiosciences.com
World Alzheimer’s Month
World Alzheimer’s Month is a global campaign to raise awareness and highlight the challenge that surrounds the disease, hosted by the Alzheimer’s disease International (ADI) every September. During this month World Alzheimer’s Day also takes place, 21 September each year.
47 million people are living with Alzheimer’s worldwide, costing 604 billion USD per year. This number is expected to rise to 76 million people with the disease by 2030.1 The FDA have not approved a medication for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease since 2003. More than 400 clinical trials are currently looking at new treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and many of them are actively recruiting. Many still regard the amyloid hypothesis as a key explanation for Alzheimers disease development and progression.2
Alzheimer’s disease is not necessarily inherited as a single-gene mutation as the inheritance pattern is incredibly complex. Unlike familial Alzheimer’s disease, a multi-gene form usually affects those aged 65 and older. The gene with the greatest known effect on the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is called apolipoprotein E (APOE). It is found on chromosome 19 and the APOE protein plays a role in handling fats in the body, including cholesterol. 3
ApoE plays a key role in lipid metabolism and the scientific and medical community recognise it as one of the most powerful genetic risk factors for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. It has become one of the most widely studied gene variants in Alzheimer’s disease and constitutes a major consideration for preventive medicine.
ApoE exists in three common isoforms (ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4) which are coded by three co-dominant alleles (e2, e3, e4). As such, six common ApoE phenotypes exist within the general population: E2/E2, E3/E3, E4/E4 (homozygous) and E2/E3, E2/E4, E3/E4 (heterozygous). Medical professionals recognise the presence of the ApoE4 isoform as a major genetic risk factor for development of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, the availability of analytical methods for rapid and reliable ApoE4 classification is advantageous.
The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array is a research use only product developed for the Evidence Investigator. The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and using a ratio can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
2-plex Biochip Array
- Pan ApoE
An individual’s ApoE status has been shown to affect pre-symptomatic risk, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response for a variety of diseases, in particular Alzheimer’s disease. The ApoE4 Array can rapidly and accurately detect an individual’s ApoE4 status directly from a plasma sample. In combination with medical and family history, medication and lifestyle, this can deliver valuable information for personalised medicine approaches.
The 2-plex diagnostic Alzheimer’s test has the utility to detect the likelihood of a person’s chance of developing the disease to assist in the research and development of a potential drug to combat or slow down the process of Alzheimer’s.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array, please email email@example.com
In 2002, Randox invented a worlds first; Biochip Array Technology, instantly changing the landscape of diagnostic testing forever. Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte platform which provides an unrivalled increase in patient information per sample. Instead of a patient sample needing to be subdivided for each test result, or in some cases re-collected, Biochip Array Technology offers a diagnostic patient profile with each patient sample.
How does it work?
Biochip Array Technology is a precision multiplex testing platform allowing for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The biochip detection system is based on a chemiluminescent reaction. This is the emission of light, without heat, as a result of a chemical reaction. An enzyme is used to catalyse the chemical reaction on the biochip which generates the chemiluminescent signal. The light emitted from the chemiluminescent reaction that takes place in each DTR is simultaneously detected and quantified using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.
Each biochip has up to 49 Discrete Test Regions (DTR). This means that up to 44 tests can be carried out simultaneously. The additional DTR are reserved for internal quality control and visual reference, a unique Biochip Array Technology feature.
How is the technology applied?
With over £250 million invested into Biochip Array Technology research and development, Randox have launched a range of Biochip Array Technology immunoanalysers – The Evidence Series. This includes the Evidence, the Evidence Evolution, the Evidence Investigator and the Evidence MultiSTAT. Each analyser is developed with boundary pushing engineering, designed to make financial, labour and time savings for the end user.
The Evidence Series has truly revolutionised diagnostic testing forever. Offering unrivalled capabilities across all analysers, we truly believe that the Evidence Series range of immunoassay analysers can meet your diagnostic testing capabilities.
Powered by Biochip Array Technology
In 2002, Randox invented a world first, Biochip Array Technology (BAT), instantly changing the landscape of diagnostic testing forever. BAT is a multi-analyte platform which provides an unrivaled increase in patient information per sample. Instead of a patient sample needing to be subdivided for each test result, or in some cases re-collected, Biochip Array Technology offers a diagnostic patient profile with each patient sample. So now the patient’s needs become the focus, as BAT delivers the multiple results needed for improved diagnosis.
With over £250 million invested into Biochip Array Technology research and development, Randox have launched a range of Biochip Array Technology immunoanalysers – The Evidence Series. This includes the Evidence, the Evidence Investigator and the Evidence MultiSTAT. Each analyser is developed with boundary pushing engineering, designed to make financial, labour and time savings for the end user. Utilising this technology, the Evidence series guarantees cost-effective, highly accurate and flexible testing solutions.
Click on the immunoanalysers below for more information
Why choose the Evidence Series?
Biochip Array Technology Test Menu
|Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-I – ICAM-I||Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-I –VCAM-I|
|Apolipoprotein E4 –ApoE4||Pan Apolipoprotein E – Apo E|
|Carcinoembryonic Antigen – CEA||Free Prostate Specific Antigen − FPSA||Total Prostate Specific Antigen − TPSA|
|Cardiac Troponin I – cTnl||Creatine Kinase MB – CKMB||Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein – H-FABP||Myoglobin|
|Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor − BDNF||Neuron Specific Enolase − NSE|
|Epidermal Growth Factor − EGF||Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor||Interferon-γ − IFN-γ||Interleukin-1 alpha − IL-1α|
|Interleukin-1 beta − IL-1β||Interleukin-2 − IL-2||Interleukin-3 − IL-3||Interleukin-4 − IL-4|
|Interleukin-5 − IL 5||Interleukin-6 − IL-6||Interleukin-7 − IL-7||Interleukin-8 − IL-8|
|Interleukin-4 − IL-4||Interleukin-5 − IL 5||Interleukin-6 − IL-6||Interleukin-7 − IL-7|
|Interleukin-8 − IL-8||Interleukin-10 − IL-10||Interleukin-12p70 − IL-12p70||Interleukin-13 − IL-13|
|Interleukin-15 − IL 15||Interleukin-23 − IL-23||Macrophage Infl ammatory Protein-1α − MIP-1α||Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 − MMP 9|
|Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 − MCP-1||Soluble IL-2 Receptor Alpha − sIL-2Rα||Soluble IL-6 Receptor − sIL-6R||Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 − sTNFR1|
|Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 − sTNFR2||Tumour Necrosis Factor-α − TNF-α||Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor − VEGF|
Fertility / Pregnancy
|Estradiol||Follicle Stimulating Hormone − FSH||Luteinizing Hormone − LH||Progesterone|
|Prolactin||Sex Hormone Binding Globulin − SHBG||Testosterone|
|Gastrin 17 – GI7||Helicobacter pylori – H. pylori||Pepsinogen I – PGI||Pepsinogen II – PGII|
|Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor − PAI-1||Resistin|
|Adiponectin||Complement C3a des Arginine – C3a des Arg||CRP (C-Reactive Protein)||Cystatin C|
|D-Dimer||Epidermal Growth Factor − EGF||Fatty Acid Binding Protein-1 − FABP1||Interleukin-8 − IL-8|
|Macrophage Infl ammatory Protein-1α − MIP-1α||Neutrophil Gelatinase – Associated Lipocalin – NGAL||Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 − sTNFR1||Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 − sTNFR2|
|Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor − BDNF||D-Dimer||Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein − GFAP||Glutathione S – Transferase Pi – GSTPi|
|Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein – H-FABP||Interleukin-6 − IL-6||Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase – NDKA||Neuron Specifi c Enolase − NSE|
|Parkinson Protein 7 − PARK-7||Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 − sTNFR1|
|Anti-Thyroglobulin − Anti-Tg||Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase − Anti-TPO||Free Tri-iodothyronine − FT3||Free Thyroxine − FT4|
|Thyroid Stimulating Hormone − TSH||Thyroxine Binding Globulin − TBG||Total Tri-iodothyronine − TT3||Total Thyroxine − TT4|
|Amphetamine||Barbiturates||Benzodiazepines I||Benzodiazepines II|
|Buprenorphine||Cannabinoids – THC||Cocaine Metabolite||Dextromethorphan|
|Opiate||Oxycodone I||Oxycodone II||Phencyclidine – PCP|
|20 SNPs||Adenovirus A/B/C/D/E||APOB – 1 mutation||Bordetella pertussis|
|BRAF – 1 mutation||Chlamydia trachomatis – (CT)||Chlamydophila pneumoniae||Coronavirus 229E/NL63|
|Coronavirus OC43/HKU1||Enterovirus A/B/C||Haemophilus ducreyi – (HD)||Haemophilus influenzae|
|Herpes simplex Virus 1– (HSV-1)||Herpes simplex Virus 2 – (HSV-2)||Human Bocavirus 1/2/3||Human Metapneumovirus – hMPV|
|Influenza A/B||KRAS – 16 mutations||LDLR – 38 mutations||Legionella pneumophila|
|Moraxella catarrhalis||Mycoplasma genitalium – (MG)||Mycoplasma hominis – (MH)||Mycoplasma pneumoniae|
|Neisseria gonorrhoea – (NG)||Parainfluenza Virus 1/2/3/4||PCSK9 – 1 mutation||PIK3CA – 3 mutations|
|Respiratory Syncytial Virus a – RSVa||Respiratory Syncytial Virus b – RSVb||Rhinovirus A/B||Streptococcus pneumoniae|
|Treponema pallidum – (TP)||Trichomonas vaginalis – (TV)||Ureaplasma urealyticum – (UU)|
Veterinary Residues / Food Diagnostics
|17β-Clostebol||5-hydroxy Flunixin||Aflatoxin B1||Aflatoxin G1/G2|
|Aflatoxin M1||AHD||Amikacin/Kanamycin||Amino Benzimidazoles|
|Ochratoxin A||Oxacillin||Paxilline||Penicillin G|
Adaptable, Efficient & Comprehensive
The #1 choice for research, clinical, forensic, molecular, and veterinary testing.
Using the same multiplexing technology as the fully automated Evidence, the semi-automated benchtop immunoanalyser Evidence Investigator is suitable for medium throughput laboratories. In addition to its current wide test menu new tests are in development.
A revolution in diagnostics, the Evidence Investigator has the capability to maximise the efficiency of your laboratory.
Features & Benefits
- Semi-automated benchtop immunoanalyser
- Up to 2376 tests per hour
- Up to 44 analytes screened per biochip
- Suitable for medium throughput laboratories
- Extremely robust with only one moving part
- 75cm (H) x 48cm (D) x 42cm (W)
Available BAT Arrays
- Adhesion Molecules Array
- Alzheimer Risk Detection Array
- Anthelmintics Array
- Antimicrobial Arrays
- Beta-lactam Array
- Cardiac Array
- Cardiac Risk Prediction Array
- Cerebral Arrays
- Chronic Kidney Disease Array I & II
- Coccidostats Array
- Cytokine Arrays
- Drugs of Abuse Arrays
- Endocrine Array
- Familial Hypercholesterolemia Arrays
- Gastro Intestinal Panel 1 and 2
- Growth Promoter Arrays
- KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA* Array (*for research use only)
- Metabolic Syndrome Arrays
- Respiratory Multiplex Array
- STI Multiplex Array
- Synthetic Steroids Array
- Thyroid Free Array
- Thyroid Total Array
- Tumour PSA array
- Vitamin D Array