Could there be 5 types of diabetes?

Home - April 2018 - Archives for 19th April 2018

Could there be 5 types of diabetes?

A peer-reviewed study, published in The Lancet Medical Journal suggests there are five types of diabetes. Could diabetes be more complex than we once thought? Could diabetes be segmented into five separate diseases?

 

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is an incurable disease which prohibits the body’s ability to produce and respond to insulin.  Currently, diabetes is classified into two main forms, type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which manifests in childhood.  In type 1 diabetes, the body’s white blood cells attack the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.  As a result, individuals with Type 1 diabetes rely on the injection of insulin for the remainder of their lives.

Type 1 diabetes affects 10 percent of individuals with diabetes.  96 percent of children diagnosed with diabetes have type 1.  Type 1 diabetes in children is commonly diagnosed between the ages of 10 and 14.  The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children and young people (under the age of 19) is 1 in every 430-530 and the incidence of type 1 in children under 14 years of age is 24.5/100,000 (Diabetes UK, 2014).

Type 2 diabetes is the result of insulin resistance, meaning that the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body’s cells do not respond to the insulin produced.  As type 2 diabetes is a mixed condition, with varying degrees of severity, there are a few methods to manage the disease, including dietary control, medication and insulin injections.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 90 percent of individuals with diabetes, and has now become a global burden.  The global prevalence of diabetes has almost doubled from 4.7 percent in 1980 to 8.5 percent in 2014, with a total of 422 million adults living with diabetes in 2014.  It is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035.  In 2012, diabetes accounted for 1.5 million deaths globally with hypertension causing a further 2.2 million deaths.  43 percent of these deaths occurred before 70 years of age.  Previously type 2 diabetes was commonly seen in young adults but is now commonly seen in children as well.  In 2017, 14% more children and teenagers in the UK were treated for diabetes compared to the year before (World Health Organization, 2016).

In both forms of diabetes, hyperglycemia can occur which can lead to number of associated complications including renal disease, cardiovascular disease, nerve damage and retinopathy.

 

The novel subgroups of adult-onset diabetes and their association with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis of six variables – peer-review study

This new research studied 13,270 individuals from different demographic cohorts with newly diagnosed diabetes, taking into consideration body weight, blood sugar control and the presence of antibodies, in Sweden and Finland.

This peer-reviewed study identified 5 disease clusters of diabetes, which have significantly different patient characteristics and risk of diabetic complications.  The researchers also noted that the genetic associations in the clusters differed from those seen in traditional type 2 diabetes.

Cluster One – Severe autoimmune diabetes (SAID)

SAID is similar to type 1 diabetes.  SAID manifests in childhood, in patients with a low BMI, have poor blood sugar and metabolic control due to insulin deficiency and GADA.  6% of individuals studied in the ANDIS study were identified with having SAID.

Cluster Two – Severe insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD)

SIDD is similar to SAID, however, GADA is negative.  This means that the characteristics of SIDD are the same as SAID, young, of a healthy weight and struggled to make insulin, however, SIDD is not the result of an autoimmune disorder as no autoantibodies are present.  Patients have a higher risk of diabetic retinopathy.  18% of subjects in the ANDIS study were identified with having SIDD.

Cluster Three – Severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD)

SIRD is similar to that of type 2 diabetes and is characterised by insulin-resistance and a high BMI.  Patients with SIRD are the most insulin resistant and have a significantly higher risk of kidney disease, and microalbuminuria, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  15% of subjects in the ANDIS study were identified as having SIRD.

Cluster Four – Mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD)

MOD is a mild form of diabetes which generally affects a younger age group. This is not characterised by insulin resistance but by obesity as their metabolic rates are close to normal.  22% of subjects in the ANDIS study were identified as having MOD.

Cluster Five – Mild age-related diabetes (MARD)

MARD is the most common form of diabetes manifesting later in life compared to the previous four clusters.  Patients with MARD have mild problems with glucose regulation, similar to MOD.  39% of subjects in the ANDIS study were identified with having MARD.

This new sub-classification of diabetes could potentially enable doctors to effectively diagnose diabetes earlier, through the characterisation of each cluster, including: BMI measurements, age, presence of autoantibodies, measuring HbA1c levels, ketoacidosis, and measuring fasting blood glucose levels.  This will enable a reduction in the incidence of diabetes complications and the early identification of associated complications, and so patient care can be tailored, thus improving healthcare (NHS, 2018) (The Week, 2018) (Ahlqvist, et al., 2018) (Collier, 2018) (Gallagher, 2018).

The Randox diabetes reagents cover the full spectrum of laboratory testing requirements from risk assessment, using our Adiponectin assay, to disease diagnosis and monitoring, using our HbA1c, glucose and fructosamine assays, to the monitoring of associated complications, using our albumin, beta-2 microglobulin, creatinine, cystatin c, d-3-hydroxybutyrate, microalbumin and NEFA assays.

Whilst this study is valuable, alone it is not sufficient for changes in the diabetes treatment guidelines to be implemented, as the study only represents a small proportion of those with diabetes.  For this study to lead the way, the clusters and associated complications will need to be verified in ethnicities and geographical locations to determine whether this new sub-stratification is scientifically relevant.

 

References

Ahlqvist, E. et al., 2018. Novel subgroups of adult-onset diabetes and their association with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis of six variables. [Online]
Available at: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(18)30051-2/fulltext?elsca1=tlpr
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

Collier, J., 2018. Diabetes: Study proposes five types, not two. [Online]
Available at: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321097.php
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

Diabetes UK, 2014. Diabetes: Facts and Stats. [Online]
Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/resources-s3/2017-11/diabetes-key-stats-guidelines-april2014.pdf
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

Gallagher, J., 2018. Diabetes is actually five seperate diseases, research suggests. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-43246261
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

NHS, 2018. Are there actually 5 types of diabetes?. [Online]
Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/news/diabetes/are-there-actually-5-types-diabetes/
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

The Week, 2018. What are the five types of diabetes?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.theweek.co.uk/health/92048/what-are-the-five-types-of-diabetes
[Accessed 16 April 2018].

World Health Organization, 2016. Global Report on Diabetes, Geneva: World Health Organization.

If you are a clinician, dietitian or laboratory who are interested in running diabetes assays, Randox offer a wide range of high-quality routine and niche assays including: fructosamine, glucose, HbA1c for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, albumin, beta-2 microglobulin, creatinine, cystatin c, NEFA, microalbumin, and d-3-hydroxybutyrate to monitor associated complications, and adiponectin  as a biomarker for diabetes risk assessment.  These assays can be run on most automated biochemistry analysers.

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers. Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

For more information, visit: https://www.randox.com/diabetes-reagents or email: reagents@randox.com 


The Importance of Meeting ISO 15189 Requirements

Laboratory accreditation provides formal recognition to competent laboratories, providing a means for customers to identify and select reliable services (CALA, n.d.). Use of accreditation standards by clinical laboratories enables them to drive gains in quality, customer satisfaction, and financial performance. This is essential at a time when laboratory budgets are shrinking.

Some key benefits include:

  • Recognition of testing competence – as mentioned above, customers can recognise the competence of a lab with an internationally recognised standard.
  • Marketing advantage – accreditation can be an effective marketing tool as labs can demonstrate their quality and overall competence.
  • Benchmark for performance – laboratories can determine whether they are performing to the appropriate standards and provides them with a benchmark to maintain that standard.

To maintain the global recognition gained from accreditation, labs are evaluated regularly by an accreditation body to ensure their continued compliance with requirements, and to check that standards are being maintained. (CALA, n.d.).

Impact on healthcare

In a comprehensive study conducted by Rohr et al. (2016) it was found that, while accounting for as little as 2% of total healthcare expenditure, in vitro diagnostics (IVD) account for 66% (two thirds) of clinical decisions. Despite such a small percentage of budget dedicated to it, IVD plays a huge role in patient care so it is vital that there is guidance in place to ensure quality standards are met. Poor performance of tests at any stage of care and treatment can reduce the effectiveness of treatment and deny appropriate care to patients in need (Peter et al., 2010).

ISO 15189

ISO 15189 is an international accreditation standard that specifies the quality management system requirements particular to medical laboratories and exists to encourage interlaboratory standardisation, it is recognised globally.

Meeting ISO Requirements

Scroll through below to learn how ISO 15189 regulates aspects of a clinical laboratory and how Randox can help you meet these suggestions.

The Importance of Meeting ISO 15189 Requirements

At a conference in Belgium in 2016, data, which highlighted the most common areas of non-conformance in laboratories, showed that nonconformities were most prevalent in sections 5.5 and 5.6 of ISO 15189. This data is visualised in fig. A below. Furthermore, a study by Munene et al. (2017) has had similar findings, as visualised in fig. B. The greatest number of nonconformities occur in the sections that are concerned with insufficient assay validation and quality of examination procedures. These studies specifically identified the lack of independent controls, QC not at clinically relevant levels, commutability issues, and a lack of interlaboratory comparison as major issues.

Randox Quality Control products are designed to target these areas, making it easier to conform to ISO 15189 standards.

Fig. A

ISO 15189 requirements - non-conformances

Fig. B

ISO 15189 requirements - non-conformances
Continue Reading

Acusera Third Party Controls

Interlaboratory Data Management

Contact Us
References

CALA. The Advantages of Being an Accredited Laboratory. Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.cala.ca/ilac_the_advantages_of_being.pdf

Munene, S., Songok, J., Munene, D., & Carter, J. (2017). Implementing a regional integrated laboratory proficiency testing scheme for peripheral health facilities in East Africa. Biochemia Medica, 110-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/bm.2017.014

Peter, T., Rotz, P., Blair, D., Khine, A., Freeman, R., & Murtagh, M. (2010). Impact of Laboratory Accreditation on Patient Care and the Health System. American Journal Of Clinical Pathology134(4), 550-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/ajcph1skq1hnwghf

Rohr, U., Binder, C., Dieterle, T., Giusti, F., Messina, C., & Toerien, E. et al. (2016). The Value of In Vitro Diagnostic Testing in Medical Practice: A Status Report. PLOS ONE11(3), e0149856. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149856


The rise of drug abuse in India – Randox Toxicology

A recent study completed by the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) reported an all-time high of 3.6 lakh kg narcotic drugs seized in India in 2017, this was an increase of over 300 percent in the last five years. Known as ganja, cannabis is the most widely abused drug in India, increasing from 40,113 in 1999 to 352,379 by 2017, according to The Times of India.

(Sourced: The Times of India: Drug abuse on the rise in India, Ganja most in demand)

A prevalent issue in the north of India is pharmaceutical drug abuse, both over the counter and prescription drugs. The Times of India reported that 566,450 bottles of cough syrup, 58,463 injections and more than 6,300,000 tablets were recovered across India in 2017. Among the drugs being smuggled out of India and into countries such as America and Canada is the opioid painkiller Tramadol, which is not covered under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.

With daily drug seizures across the country, the situation in India has been described as akin to the US national opioid emergency. Therefore, it has been suggested that a harm-reduction approach be taken to educate the young and tackling substance abuse.

Using our revolutionary Biochip Array Technology, the Evidence MultiSTAT is a fully automated analyser that enables on-site simultaneous detection of up to 21 classical, prescription and synthetic drugs from a single sample. Designed to work across a variety of matrices and generate results in under 20 minutes, Randox Toxicology have changed the landscape of drug detection forever.

For further information about the Evidence MultiSTAT and our cutting-edge multiplex testing capabilities, contact info@randoxtoxicology.com to be put in touch with a sales member or visit www.randoxtoxicology.com

 

 

 

 

 

 


Request a meeting
×
Make an Enquiry - RX series
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
×
Kit Insert Request - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Kit Insert Request - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
×
Make an Enquiry
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Biochip
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
×
Make an Enquiry - Molecular
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
×
Make an Enquiry - Future Diagnostics
×
Make an Enquiry - RX series (Product)
×
Make an Enquiry - Quality Control
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - RIQAS
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Make an Enquiry - Reagents
  • Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
Por favor, introduzca sus datos para ver nuestro último seminario
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje Polityki Prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
  • Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności.
×
Wyślij zapytanie
    Rejestracja na naszej liście mailowej jest szybka i łatwa. Nie chcemy wysyłać e-maili zawierających spam lub wiadomości, które są automatycznie przekierowywane do kosza. W zawiązku z czym firma Randox deklaruje, że będzie wysyłac tylko informacje na temat nowych produktów,akutalizacji obecnych, trendów rynkowych, wydarzeń branżowych itp. Firma Randox Laboraotries obiecuje, że Państwa dane nie będą nigdzie przekazane, a przechowywanie owych danych będzie się odbywało z zachowaniem największego bezpieczeństwa. Prosimy o przeczytani naszje polityki prywatności .
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
    Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not wish to send you any spam or junk email, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promise never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
귀하의 문의 사항 제출
×
Downloads
×
Contact

<p>

    Randox Clinical Chemistry Products Join the Randox Laboratories Mailing List * I would like to receive emails with new product releases and updates from Randox Laboratories, market trends, and more. I do not want to receive email marketing from Randox. Signing up to our mailing list is quick and easy. We do not want to send you any spam or junk emails, therefore, you can expect to receive mailshots including new product launches and updates, market trends, attendance at key industry events and much more. Randox Laboratories promises never to sell your data and we will keep all your details, safe and secure. Read more in our Privacy Policy.
</p>

×
Clinical Laboratory Survey