COVID-19 Cytokine Testing Solutions
COVID-19 Risk Stratification & Treatment Monitoring
Randox Cytokine Testing Solutions
COVID-19 Risk Stratification and Treatment Monitoring
Randox offer testing solutions for a comprehensive range of cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors designed to assist with COVID-19 risk stratification, monitoring of treatment efficacy and recovery. Utilising patented Biochip technology up to 12 cytokines and growth factors may be detected simultaneously from a single patient sample.
Cytokines play a vital role in the immune system and are known to be involved in the body’s response to a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The over stimulation of these cytokines in response to infection is referred to as a ‘cytokine storm’ and strongly correlates with poor disease outcomes.
Cytokine storms are a common complication of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection triggering viral sepsis, where viral replication and excessive, uncontrolled systemic inflammation may lead to pneumonitis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure, shock, multiple organ failure, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and potentially death.
Cytokine Array I (12-plex)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a regulatory and inflammatory cytokine, which exists in two forms, (IL-1α) and (IL-1β), which share 25% homology at amino acid level. IL-1α is produced as a biologically active 31 kDa precursor, which undergoes proteolytic cleavage yielding a 17 kDa protein of 159 amino acids.
There are two forms of IL-1, IL-1α and IL-1β ,which share 25% homology at amino acid level. IL-1β is synthesised as a biologically inactive precursor of 269 amino acids with a molecular mass of 31 kDa , which undergoes proteolytic cleavage by IL1 converting enzyme (ICE), which yields a 17kDa protein of 153 amino acids.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system. It is a 15 – 18 kDa protein which has varying degrees of glycosylation accounting for the observed molecular weight range. IL-2 regulates the activities of white blood cells (leukocytes, often lymphocytes) that are responsible for immunity.
IL-4 is a glycoprotein synthesised as a precursor protein of 153 amino acids. The first 24 amino acid residue signal peptide is cleaved to produce a 129 amino acid 15-19 kDa protein.
IL-6 is synthesised as a precursor protein of 212 amino acids. The N-terminal 28 amino acid residue signal peptide is cleaved to produce a 21kDa protein. It has two potential N-glycosylation sites which have no effect on bioactivity. Different post-translational alterations such as glycosylation and phosphorylation give various forms of IL-6 with molecular masses of 21.5-28 kDa. The IL-6 receptor is a strongly glycosylated 80 kDa protein of 449 amino acids. Two different forms of the receptor have been described that bind IL-6 with differing affinities, a soluble form of the IL-6 receptor has also been described. The IL-6 receptor is expressed on T cells, mitogen activated B cells, peripheral monocytes and some macrophage and B cell derived tumour cell types. IL-6 also influences antigen-specific immune responses and inflammatory reactions.
IL-8 is a member of a structurally similar family of cytokines called chemokines, which demonstrate chemotactic activity for neutrophils. IL-8 is a non-glycosylated protein of 8 kDa and consists of 99 amino acids with a 22 residue signal peptide that is cleaved to generate a 77 amino acid sequence. IL-8 is produced in response to proinflammatory stimuli. It is produced by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, hepatocytes, chondrocytes, T-cells, neutrophils, and astrocytes.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), alternatively known as B-cell-derived T-cell growth factor (B-TCGF), cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF) or T-cell growth inhibitory factor is a homodimeric protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa. It is produced as a 178 amino acid residue precursor, which is cleaved to give a mature protein of 160 amino acids. IL-10’s primary function is as an anti-inflammatory agent, which inhibits cytokine production by T cells and natural killer cells caused by activation of monocytes/macrophages.
IFN-γ is a cytokine critical to both innate and adaptive immunity, and functions as the primary activator of macrophages, in addition to stimulating natural killer cells and neutrophils. Biologically active interferon gamma is a 20 or 25 kDa glycoprotein depending on its glycosylation state. This lymphokine is synthesised as a 166 amino acid sequence but is cleaved to give a 143 amino acid residue.
Human EGF is produced as a long precursor protein of 1207 amino acids which is released by proteolytic cleavage to give a globular protein of 6.4 kDa consisting of 53 amino acids. EGF is a common mitogenic factor that stimulates the proliferation of different types of cells, especially fibroblasts and epithelial cells. EGF activates the EGF receptor (EGFR/ErbB), which initiates, in turn, intracellular signaling.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) is part of the chemotactic family of cytokines called chemokines. ). It is a 76 amino acid peptide and has a molecular weight of 8.6 kDa. MCP-1 in particular chondrocytes confirming its role in inflammatory responses. MCP-1 has been implicated in a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as artherosclerosis, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, rheumatoid arthritis, alveotitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a 157 amino acid 26 kDa transmembrane protein which is secreted as a soluble mature 233 amino acid homotrimer of 17 kDa by proteolytic cleavage. TNF-α is secreted by macrophages in response to stimuli for the induction of systemic inflammation. The binding of the ligand TNF-α to the TNF receptor (TNFR1) initiates the pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling cascades.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is secreted as a glycosylated homodimeric protein of 46 kDa that is made up of two 24 kDa subunits linked by disulphide bonds. VEGF is expressed by vascularised tissue such as pituitary, brain, lungs, kidneys, heart and adrenal glands, although it is assumed that all tissues have the potential to produce the growth factor. VEGF is stimulated when cells become deficient in oxygen or glucose or under inflammatory conditions.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3508||Cytokine Array I Evidence||360 Biochips|
|EV3544||Cytokine Array I Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3513||Cytokine Array I Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
|EV3623||Cytokine Array I High Sensitivity Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array III (4-plex)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a disulphide linked homodimer and belongs to a family of structurally related proteins that includes: interleukin-2, interleukin-4, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and growth hormone. It is a glycoprotein with the apparent molecular weight of recombinant IL-5 produced by mammalian cells in the range 45 to 60 kDa. The large variation in the molecular weight caused predominantly by the addition of heterogeneous carbohydrate chains.
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a 14 to 15 kDa protein of 114 amino acids. It contains 2 disulphide bonds and 2 N-linked glycosylation sites at the C-terminus1. IL-15 is expressed at the mRNA level in numerous normal human tissues in a broad range of cell types, including activated monocytes, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and fibroblasts. IL-15 has an essential role in natural killer (NK) cell development. It activates NK cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production and regulates NK cell/macrophage interaction. Studies have suggested that IL-15 may have a role in establishing innate immune responses and maintaining neutrophil-mediated inflammatory processes.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) isolated from human sources is glycosylated with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. The mature protein has 127 amino acids and is preceded by a hydrophobic leader sequence of 25 amino acids.
Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, CCL3) is a member of the CC chemokine subfamily whose members are known for chemotactic and proinflammatory effects and also for the promotion of homeostasis. MIP-1α is synthesised as a 92 amino acid precursor that is proteolytically processed to a mature protein of about 70 amino acids. MIP-1α has roles in inflammatory responses at sites of injury or infection by recruiting proinflammatory cells.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3680||Cytokine Array III Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3678||Cytokine Array III Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array IV (5-plex)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (gelatinase B) (92 kDa) is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMP-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis.
Soluble IL-2 receptor α (sIL-2Rα) results from the proteolytic cleavage of IL-2Rα at the cell surface by a membrane metalloproteinase; which is encoded by IL2RA on human chromosome. It’s widely noted in research that sIL-2Rα has been found in diseases caused by infections, autoimmune disease and organ transplantation.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates pleiotropic roles in immune regulation, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. The IL-6 receptor complex belongs to the haematopoietic receptor superfamily and mediates the biological activities of IL-6. It consists of two distinct membrane bound glycoproteins, an 80 kDa cognate receptor subunit (IL-6R) and a 130 kDa signal-transducing element (gp130). The gp130 subunit is expressed in almost all organs including heart, kidney, spleen, liver, lung, placenta and brain.
Tumour necrosis factor receptor I is one of two specific, high affinity cell surface receptors that function as transducing elements, providing the intracellular signal for cell responses to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly produced by stimulated monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocyte subsets. It has a key role in host defence and immunosurveillance, mediating complex cellular responses of a different, even contrasting nature. TNFRI has a molecular mass of 55 kDa1 and is expressed by almost all cell types2 especially those cells that are susceptible to the cytotoxic action of TNFI. TNFRs are detectable in normal serum, but their concentration increases significantly in inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases.
Tumour necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII) is one of two specific, high affinity cell surface receptors that function as transducing elements, providing the intracellular signal for cell responses to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly produced by stimulated monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocyte subsets. It has a key role in host defence and immunosurveillance, mediating complex cellular responses of a different, even contrasting nature. TNFRII has a molecular mass of 75 kDa1. Although TNFRII is expressed by almost all cell types, it is expressed primarily by cells of the immune system, cells of myeloid origin and endothelial cells.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3659||Cytokine Array IV Evidence||180 Biochips|
|EV3661||Cytokine Array IV Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Cytokine Array V (5-plex)
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) possesses diverse biological activities and was discovered independently in studies on its biological activities. IL-3 is a heavily glycosylated protein with a polypeptide chain of 133 amino acids. It occurs naturally in a diversity of glycoforms generated by the addition of carbohydrate groups which results in size heterogeneity from 28 to 45 kDa. The function of the extensive carbohydrate modifications of the IL-3 polypeptide is not known however IL-3 has been linked with various diseases including colorectal and pancreatic cancers.
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is classified as a type 1 short-chain cytokine of the haematopoietin family, a group that also includes IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, M-CSF, and stem cell factor. The human gene for IL-7 is located on chromosome 8q12-13. The amino acid sequence of IL-7 predicts a molecular weight of 17.4 kDa, but glycosylation results in an active protein of 25 kDa. IL-7 appears to be involved in the development of an effective immune system and also in the generation and maintenance of strong and effective cellular immune responses directed against cancer cells, or infectious diseases.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a 75 kDa heterodimeric glycoprotein cytokine composed of disulphide linked p40 (40 kDa) and p35 (35 kDa) subunits that are derived from separate genes1. p35 is expressed in a limiting and tightly regulated fashion by many different cell types, however the expression of p40, though in greater quantities than required for p70 formation, appears to be restricted to antigen presenting cells. IL-12 stimulates IFN production, which is essential in resistance to intracellular protozoan, fungal and bacterial infections and, in addition, tumours. Traditionally, IL-12 is accepted as an important mediator of autoimmunity and is involved in a number of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a 12 kDa protein that folds into four I-helical bundles. It contains four potential N-glycosylation sites and four cysteine residues that form two intramolecular disulphide bonds. IL-13 shares a number of structural features and functional characteristics with IL-4. The IL-13 protein is approximately 25% homologous1 with IL-4 and belongs to the same I-helix protein family. IL-13 plays a dominant role in resistance to most gastrointestinal nematodes and also modulates resistance to intracellular organisms by regulating cell mediated immunity. IL-13 is the central mediator of allergic asthma, where it regulates eosinophilic inflammation, mucus secretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Although IL-13 is associated primarily with the induction of airway disease, it also has anti-inflammatory properties.
Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is member of the IL-12 family. The IL-12 family consists of cytokines IL-12(p40p35), IL-23(p40p19) and IL-27(EBI13p28), and monomeric and homodimeric p401. IL-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of disulphide linked p19 and p40 subunits. IL-23 plays a role in a signaling pathway that triggers inflammation.
|Cat. Number||Description||Kit Size|
|EV3666||Cytokine Array V Evidence Investigator||54 Biochips|
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our COVID-19 Monitoring & Management page
Cytokine Array I Control
Cytokine Array I High Sensitivity Control
Cytokine Array III Control
Cytokine Array IV Control
Hospitals in Wuhan and Guangzhou roll out new coronavirus test developed by Randox scientists
Randox’s pioneering new test for coronavirus, which identifies COVID-19 and differentiates it from nine other respiratory infections, is to be used in Chinese hospitals.
The comprehensive test, which is being shipped this week to hospitals in Wuhan and Guangzhou, has been developed on Randox’s unique technology platform, the Biochip. This allows for each patient to be simultaneously tested for a range of respiratory infections inclusive of all known coronaviruses.
The Coronavirus Biochip tests each single patient sample for the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, as well as nine other respiratory viruses, including SARS, MERS, and Influenza A and B. This enables clinicians to quickly and efficiently differentiate between potentially lethal and non-lethal infections, prioritise patients and administer appropriate and timely treatment.
Dr Peter FitzGerald, Managing Director of Randox Laboratories, commented;
“Current technologies being used to diagnose COVID-19 are focused on simply detecting the presence or lack of this singular strain and therefore neglect to differentiate it from other respiratory infections. At Randox we have developed a multiplex Viral Respiratory Infection Array that tests for COVID-19 and nine other infections simultaneously, and are delighted that this new technology will be deployed in Wuhan and other cities across China.
“The Coronavirus Biochip will eliminate the need for multiple back-and-forth tests before the root cause of symptoms is found, thereby empowering clinicians to make faster and better-informed decisions.”
Due to be used in hospitals in Wuhan, the epicentre of the coronavirus outbreak, as well as in The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, the new testing technology is capable of processing 324 patient samples, generating 3240 reportable results, in just 8 hours.
The panel includes two tests for COVID-19, a specific test (SARS-CoV-2) and a confirmatory test (Sarbecoviris) on the same panel, as recommended by the World Health Organisation. This avoids the need to repeat the test, and importantly, reduces the likelihood of incorrect diagnosis, ensuring appropriate containment and reducing the risk of further contamination. This faster and more comprehensive testing will ultimately support the health service in China by facilitating the efficient use of valuable healthcare resources.
Byron Wang, CEO of Beijing Promed, Randox’s partner in providing the new coronavirus test in China, commented;
“We welcome the support of the global community in assisting us combat COVID-19 at this time. Randox is a highly regarded In Vitro Diagnostic company in China and has supported our market with high quality products for many years. We look forward to supplying this test to hospitals located within the area of greatest need and believe it will make a real difference.”
Dr FitzGerald concluded;
“Randox is committed to saving and improving lives on a global scale and we know that this new COVID-19 test will make a significant contribution to the global coronavirus containment effort.”
The Coronavirus Biochip tests simultaneously for Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), Sarbecoviris (SARS, SARS like, COVID-19), Coronavirus 229E/NL63, Coronavirus OC43/HKUI, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Adenovirus A/B/C/D/E, Enterovirus A/B/C, Influenza A, Influenza B and Rhinovirus A/B.
The Randox Coronavirus Biochip complies with guidelines from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organisation.
For more information or to arrange interviews, please contact the Randox PR team on 028 9442 2413 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease and is one of the most common kinds of dementia.
Our brains are made up of billions of tiny nerve cells which connect to each other. However, if you have Alzheimer’s Disease the connections between the cells are lost, which results in the loss of brain tissue and causes nerve cells to die1.
The brain is responsible for sending signals between cells. Those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less ‘chemical messengers’ in their brain, so the signals are not passed on as well1.
The statistics of those who suffer with dementia is increasingly high and the figure is set to rise in the foreseeable future. Over 850,000 people are living with dementia in the UK. Studies states that one million people in the UK will have dementia in 2025 and this will increase to two million by 2050.2
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease
The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are divided into 3 main stages; early symptoms, middle-stage symptoms and later symptoms.
In the early stages, the main symptom of Alzheimer’s disease is memory lapses which can increase anxiety or agitation. In the early stages, it is often mistaken that the person is forgetful and aren’t aware they are suffering with Alzheimer’s. The typical signs are listed below:3
- forget about recent conversations or events
- misplace items
- forget the names of places and objects
- have trouble thinking of the right word
- ask questions repetitively
- show poor judgement
- become less flexible and more hesitant to try new things
As the disease progresses, the symptoms will gradually get worse. Memory problems will get worse which can make it difficult for the person who suffers with the disease to remember names of their loved ones, recent events and even remember birthdays and anniversaries. More symptoms such as the following will develop;3
- increasing confusion and disorientation – for example, getting lost, or wandering and not knowing what time of day it is
- obsessive, repetitive or impulsive behaviour
- delusions or feeling paranoid and suspicious about carers or family members
- problems with speech or language
- disturbed sleep
- changes in mood
- difficulty performing simple tasks and may need additional support e.g. help with eating, getting dressed etc.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the symptoms become increasingly severe and patients will need full-time care and assistance. It will be problematic for the individual to do basic everyday tasks such as getting changed, going to the toilet, getting washed and feeding themselves. They could lose their speech, and have difficulty eating and swallowing which can result in severe weight loss.
How Randox can help
Randox want to help. Our Evidence immunoanalyser has revolutionised laboratory screening worldwide with the capability to process 3,960 tests per hour and a sample capacity of 360. We offer the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array for Alzheimer’s genetic risk assessment, which is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator. The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and using a ratio can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
March is National Kidney Month, a full month dedicated to raising awareness about kidney disease.
There are two kinds of kidney disease; Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI).
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affects 3 million people in the UK1. Chronic Kidney is defined as a condition that causes damage and stress on the kidneys, therefore decreasing the ability to keep your body healthy.
The kidneys play a vital role of removing any waste and extra water from the blood to form urine. The kidneys also make hormones that help control your blood pressure, make red blood cells, and keep your bones strong and healthy.2
It is crucial to look after your kidneys. If kidney disease gets worse, the excess waste can build to high levels in your blood, resulting in complications such as high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage, as well as increasing the risk of developing heart and blood vessel disease.
Chronic Kidney Disease if often caused by diabetes or having a high blood pressure, which can both be prevented by early detection and treatment. Without treatment the kidney disease will worsen resulting in kidney failure which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.
Chronic Kidney Disease I:
- Fatty Acid Binding Protein I – FABPI
- Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor I – sTNFR I
- Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor II – sTNFR II
- Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Iα – MIP-Iα
- Interleukin-8 – IL-8
- Epidermal Growth Factor – EGF
Chronic Kidney Disease II:
- Complement C3a Des Arginine – C3a des Arg
- C-Reactive Protein – CRP
- Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin – NGAL
- Cystatin C
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is when your kidneys stop working properly. This is caused by reduced blood flow to the kidneys, which often happens as a complication of another serious disease.3 AKI affects one in five people admitted to hospital as an emergency, and is considered deadlier than a heart attack 2.
AKI can be reversible if found and treated quickly. Therefore, it is important, if someone has signs of having AKI, to get it treated promptly. Abnormal levels of salt and chemicals can build up in our bodies which causes organs to fail, resulting in the need for dialysis, or can even cause death. 3
- Osteopontin – OPN
- Serum creatinine – Creatinine
- Serum cystatin-C – Cystatin-C
- Kidney injury Molecule-I – KIM-I
- Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin – NGAL
The Evidence Series of Immunoassay analysers contains four revolutionary Biochip Array Technology platforms including the Evidence, Evolution, MultiSTAT and the Investigator.
Randox’s renal panel is available on our Evidence Investigator Immunoassay Analyser, which is a multiplex testing platform allowing for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample. It provides a unique platform for assessment of biological samples in a rapid, accurate and easy-to-use format.
National Heart Month is held every February to raise awareness and remind the public of the importance of taking care of your heart. Every day, your heart will beat approximately 100,000 times and it is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. 1
British Health Foundation (BFH) states that over 7 million people are living with heart and circulatory disease in the UK: 3.5 million men and 3.5 million women. 2
There are many different heart conditions and problems that can arise which include angina, heart attack, heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease and inherited heart conditions which are highlighted further below:
Angina is a chest pain which is often caused when the coronary arties become partially blocked. It causes an uncomfortable feeling of heaviness or tightness which is often mistaken to indigestion. 3
Whereas a heart attack is when the arteries are completely blocked which can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle therefore, it is essential to be aware of the symptoms. The signs are similar to angina although it is more severe. This may include feeling pain in the arms, jaw, neck and back, lightheadness, sweating, nausea and breathlessness. 3
Heart failure is the most dangerous condition. It often occurs when the individuals heart is too weak to pump blood around the body making it difficult for the person to breathe. There are two types of heart failure. Acute heart failure which can occur suddenly or chronic heart failure which develops over time. 3
Being aware of the different types of heart disease and the symptoms can save a person’s life in the long-run. There are many ways to avoid developing heart disease. One of the simple changes could include having a healthier diet to reduce your risk of developing heart disease and maintaining a healthy weight. A healthy diet could include plenty of fruit and vegetables, starchy food, choosing whole grain varieties, including some dairy products and a small amount of fat and sugar in your diet. Exercising regularly can benefit your heart and its health, making small changes to your lifestyle can make a difference for example, walking to work or school instead of driving or taking public transport, taking the stairs instead of using the lift or even taking on a hobby! Quitting smoking, decreasing your alcohol intake, eating healthier and exercising more will make a huge impact to your health!
Randox offer the Cardiac Risk Prediction Array on their Evidence Investigator. We developed a rapid array which will allow all 19 SNPs to be genotyped simultaneously on one single sample. The genotype information is then put into an algorithm which weights each SNP and calculates a CHD genetic risk score. This score is combined with common risk factors and an overall CHD risk score is calculated. A SNP which can predict response to statin therapies is also included. The results are easy to interpret using our Evidence Investigator which allows for more accurate classification and prevention actions to be taken.
For further information about the Randox Cardiac Risk Prediction Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit our newly improved website: https://goo.gl/8qkYkg
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. It is defined as an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, in which parts of the brain are damaged over time. As this happens symptoms develop, but also get worse.
Dr. Alois Alzheimer discovered that in Alzheimer’s disease the connections between the cells and brain tissue are lost because proteins build up and form abnormal structures called “plaques” and “tangles”. 1 A healthy brain contains important chemicals which send signals between the cells, however, those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less “chemical messengers.” Therefore, the signals don’t get passed on. 1
Age is the biggest risk factor. Alzheimer’s disease is more common amongst older adults. In the UK there are over 40,000 people under the age of 65 who suffer with some form of dementia. 2 Studies also state that women over the age of 65 are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than men – although there is no clear evidence as to why.
There are two different types of Alzheimer’s. The early on-set variant of the condition is very uncommon but strikes people younger than 65. Often people with early-onset Alzheimer’s develop symptoms in their 40s or 50s. Whereas, late-onset Alzheimers is more common and affects people age 65 and older. 2
The disease slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. The earliest symptoms are memory lapses where they may struggle to remember recent events or learn new information, or even forget important items for day-to-day life for example, their keys, glasses or mobile phone. Memory loss due to the disease can increasingly interfere with their life as often the ability to carry out simple tasks can become a struggle. As a result, the person suffering can become anxious, irritable and can even be depressed.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s, the symptoms become more severe. The individual will become less aware of what’s happening around them. They may have difficulties eating, walking and will require additional help and support with their daily activities from their loved ones or from a carer.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease, although, there is treatment that can help manage the symptoms.
The Randox Apolipoprotein E4 Array
Randox offers The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array.
The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, which is a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip.
The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and by using a ratio it can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
Randox Toxicology offers the most comprehensive Drugs of Abuse (DoA) test menu across multiple forensic matrices. Our level of expertise in toxicology research and development allows us to adapt quickly to the ever-changing market influences and develop assays for current and novel drugs trends. Excellent assay precision and performance eliminates false reporting, therefore reducing unnecessary confirmatory tests and time lost in the laboratory as a result. Our Biochip Arrays offer CVs typically less than 10%, producing an accurate drug profile to ensure confidence in results.
The Evidence Series of immunoassay analysers are powered by Biochip Array Technology and combine the latest technological advances for drug residue detection using immunoassay principles. The Drugs of Abuse II panel is available for both the Evidence and the Evidence Investigator analysers. The Evidence has a throughput of 90 samples per hour, testing up to 44 tests per sample. The Evidence is a fully automated batch immunoanalyser, allowing for 3960 tests per hour, while the Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated, bench top analyser with testing capabilities of 2376 tests in 70 minutes.
The Evidence is the world’s first protein Biochip Array Technology Analyser (BAT). The awarding winning Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence is a fully automated immunoanalyser which is renowned for higher standards of quality, efficiency and reliability. It is tailored and more suitable in a wide range of settings including hospital laboratories, clinical laboratories, private and public research applications, veterinary laboratories, forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmaceutical applications.
There are many key features for The Evidence, including the ability to carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample as a result. It reduces the amount of labour spent on the individual tests and therefore saves money and time. The analyser is more suitable for larger laboratories with a throughput of >1500 tests per hour with a fully automated system maximising the walk away time – allowing staff to devote their time to other important tasks.
The multi-analyte barcoded controls and calibrators ensure security, accuracy and reliable laboratory testing. They also allow for full traceability making the overall experience easier. It offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which offer more tests than other sole suppliers and this will benefit many research areas including immunology, metabolic, cardiovascular and oncology.
Neurological conditions can affect young and old people and result from damage to the brain, spine or nerves which is triggered by an illness or an injury1. Up to 1 billion people (one in six of the world’s population suffer from neurological disorders from Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, strokes, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy 2. In England the number of deaths from neurological disorders have rose by 39% over the past 13 years3.
Randox offers two Cerebral Arrays which have been designed for the simultaneous measurement of analytes associated with nervous system dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The Arrays can measure up to five biomarkers simultaneously. They are suitable for human serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Additionally, it offers excellent sensitivity, precision and recovery as well as analytical performance.
For more information on our Evidence Series or Cerebral range of Assays, contact us at EvidenceSeries@randox.com
The 2018 UN World Drug Report calculated that around 275 million people worldwide used drugs at least once in 2016 and some 31 million of those suffer from a drug use disorder.
Cannabis was the most commonly used drug in 2016, with 192 million people using it at least once that year. The global number of cannabis users continues to rise and appears to have increased by roughly 16 per cent in the decade ending 2016, which is in line with the increase of the world population.
The quantities of cannabis seized worldwide fell by 27 per cent, to 4,386 tons in 2016. This decline was particularly noticed in North America, where the medical cannabis in many states and the legalisation of cannabis for recreational use may have played a role in the declining figures. There is evidence from Western countries that the perceived easy availability of cannabis, coupled with perceptions of a low risk of harm, makes the drug among the most common substances whose use is initiated in adolescence. Cannabis is often used in conjunction with other substances and the use of other drugs is typically tried after recreational cannabis use.
As the need for vital drug screening continues to increase, Randox Toxicology are leading the way in developing new and novel drugs of abuse tests. Capable of detecting up to 21 classical, prescription and synthetic drugs from a single sample including cannabinoids, our fully automated Evidence MultiSTAT analyser utilises our Biochip Array Technology to deliver reliable and accurate results in under 20 minutes.
For further information about the Evidence MultiSTAT and our cutting-edge multiplex testing capabilities, contact firstname.lastname@example.org to be put in touch with a sales member or visit www.randoxtoxicology.com.
The Evidence Investigator analyser is based on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology (BAT). Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated benchtop analyser which is tailored for the areas of research, forensic, clinical, molecular and veterinary testing. The key feature is the fast turn-around time the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2375 tests per hour. The Evidence Investigator saves time because it will carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample which in return will save time and resources. The machine is more suitable for medium throughput laboratories.
The technology offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which will benefit the research areas immunology, metabolic, Sport & Exercise, oncology and cardiovascular. Randox Research provides the Evidence Investigator to the five research areas to help their research become more efficient, cost effective and accurate.
Randox works extremely hard with their research and development, over 16% of turnover is reinvested in R&D. The current collaboration Randox works along with are Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University.
Randox Biosciences are dedicated to assisting research projects to completion and will make available the technology to ensure the universities receive highly accurate results for their research. Randox creates their products in-house therefore provides the flexibility of the research project. Randox can provide the university a full range of arrays, biomarkers and analysers to meet their requirements of the research.
Within Cardiovascular Research, Randox offer a comprehensive menu of cytokines. The combination of highly specific antibodies and advanced chemistries enables cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors to be detected simultaneously in a single sample, providing valuable information relating to each cytokine under test and possible associations between cytokines in each sample which will benefit the research. Randox offer excellent tools for universities and hospitals researchers such as routine and novel assays and can provide research analysers such as the Evidence Investigator which is suitable for medium sized laboratory.
Oncology Research has 20 biomarkers that can be custom-made to be used on the Biochip. Randox Biosciences offers a wide and extensive test menu to researchers to enable the specific product tailored to meet their clinical trail requirements.
Metabolic & Nutrition Research is another area Randox offers a wide-ranging range of tests specifically directed to Metabolic and Nutrition Research. Randox offers reagents and arrays on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology.
For more information on our Research areas and the tests that we can provide, contact us at – Info@RandoxBiosciences.com