Alzheimer’s Disease testing on the Randox Evidence Series
What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease and is one of the most common kinds of dementia.
Our brains are made up of billions of tiny nerve cells which connect to each other. However, if you have Alzheimer’s Disease the connections between the cells are lost, which results in the loss of brain tissue and causes nerve cells to die1.
The brain is responsible for sending signals between cells. Those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less ‘chemical messengers’ in their brain, so the signals are not passed on as well1.
The statistics of those who suffer with dementia is increasingly high and the figure is set to rise in the foreseeable future. Over 850,000 people are living with dementia in the UK. Studies states that one million people in the UK will have dementia in 2025 and this will increase to two million by 2050.2
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease
The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are divided into 3 main stages; early symptoms, middle-stage symptoms and later symptoms.
In the early stages, the main symptom of Alzheimer’s disease is memory lapses which can increase anxiety or agitation. In the early stages, it is often mistaken that the person is forgetful and aren’t aware they are suffering with Alzheimer’s. The typical signs are listed below:3
- forget about recent conversations or events
- misplace items
- forget the names of places and objects
- have trouble thinking of the right word
- ask questions repetitively
- show poor judgement
- become less flexible and more hesitant to try new things
As the disease progresses, the symptoms will gradually get worse. Memory problems will get worse which can make it difficult for the person who suffers with the disease to remember names of their loved ones, recent events and even remember birthdays and anniversaries. More symptoms such as the following will develop;3
- increasing confusion and disorientation – for example, getting lost, or wandering and not knowing what time of day it is
- obsessive, repetitive or impulsive behaviour
- delusions or feeling paranoid and suspicious about carers or family members
- problems with speech or language
- disturbed sleep
- changes in mood
- difficulty performing simple tasks and may need additional support e.g. help with eating, getting dressed etc.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the symptoms become increasingly severe and patients will need full-time care and assistance. It will be problematic for the individual to do basic everyday tasks such as getting changed, going to the toilet, getting washed and feeding themselves. They could lose their speech, and have difficulty eating and swallowing which can result in severe weight loss.
How Randox can help
Randox want to help. Our Evidence immunoanalyser has revolutionised laboratory screening worldwide with the capability to process 3,960 tests per hour and a sample capacity of 360. We offer the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array for Alzheimer’s genetic risk assessment, which is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator. The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and using a ratio can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
March is National Kidney Month, a full month dedicated to raising awareness about kidney disease.
There are two kinds of kidney disease; Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI).
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affects 3 million people in the UK1. Chronic Kidney is defined as a condition that causes damage and stress on the kidneys, therefore decreasing the ability to keep your body healthy.
The kidneys play a vital role of removing any waste and extra water from the blood to form urine. The kidneys also make hormones that help control your blood pressure, make red blood cells, and keep your bones strong and healthy.2
It is crucial to look after your kidneys. If kidney disease gets worse, the excess waste can build to high levels in your blood, resulting in complications such as high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage, as well as increasing the risk of developing heart and blood vessel disease.
Chronic Kidney Disease if often caused by diabetes or having a high blood pressure, which can both be prevented by early detection and treatment. Without treatment the kidney disease will worsen resulting in kidney failure which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.
Chronic Kidney Disease I:
- Fatty Acid Binding Protein I – FABPI
- Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor I – sTNFR I
- Soluble Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor II – sTNFR II
- Macrophage Inflammatory Protein Iα – MIP-Iα
- Interleukin-8 – IL-8
- Epidermal Growth Factor – EGF
Chronic Kidney Disease II:
- Complement C3a Des Arginine – C3a des Arg
- C-Reactive Protein – CRP
- Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin – NGAL
- Cystatin C
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is when your kidneys stop working properly. This is caused by reduced blood flow to the kidneys, which often happens as a complication of another serious disease.3 AKI affects one in five people admitted to hospital as an emergency, and is considered deadlier than a heart attack 2.
AKI can be reversible if found and treated quickly. Therefore, it is important, if someone has signs of having AKI, to get it treated promptly. Abnormal levels of salt and chemicals can build up in our bodies which causes organs to fail, resulting in the need for dialysis, or can even cause death. 3
- Osteopontin – OPN
- Serum creatinine – Creatinine
- Serum cystatin-C – Cystatin-C
- Kidney injury Molecule-I – KIM-I
- Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin – NGAL
The Evidence Series of Immunoassay analysers contains four revolutionary Biochip Array Technology platforms including the Evidence, Evolution, MultiSTAT and the Investigator.
Randox’s renal panel is available on our Evidence Investigator Immunoassay Analyser, which is a multiplex testing platform allowing for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample. It provides a unique platform for assessment of biological samples in a rapid, accurate and easy-to-use format.
National Heart Month is held every February to raise awareness and remind the public of the importance of taking care of your heart. Every day, your heart will beat approximately 100,000 times and it is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. 1
British Health Foundation (BFH) states that over 7 million people are living with heart and circulatory disease in the UK: 3.5 million men and 3.5 million women. 2
There are many different heart conditions and problems that can arise which include angina, heart attack, heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease and inherited heart conditions which are highlighted further below:
Angina is a chest pain which is often caused when the coronary arties become partially blocked. It causes an uncomfortable feeling of heaviness or tightness which is often mistaken to indigestion. 3
Whereas a heart attack is when the arteries are completely blocked which can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle therefore, it is essential to be aware of the symptoms. The signs are similar to angina although it is more severe. This may include feeling pain in the arms, jaw, neck and back, lightheadness, sweating, nausea and breathlessness. 3
Heart failure is the most dangerous condition. It often occurs when the individuals heart is too weak to pump blood around the body making it difficult for the person to breathe. There are two types of heart failure. Acute heart failure which can occur suddenly or chronic heart failure which develops over time. 3
Being aware of the different types of heart disease and the symptoms can save a person’s life in the long-run. There are many ways to avoid developing heart disease. One of the simple changes could include having a healthier diet to reduce your risk of developing heart disease and maintaining a healthy weight. A healthy diet could include plenty of fruit and vegetables, starchy food, choosing whole grain varieties, including some dairy products and a small amount of fat and sugar in your diet. Exercising regularly can benefit your heart and its health, making small changes to your lifestyle can make a difference for example, walking to work or school instead of driving or taking public transport, taking the stairs instead of using the lift or even taking on a hobby! Quitting smoking, decreasing your alcohol intake, eating healthier and exercising more will make a huge impact to your health!
Randox offer the Cardiac Risk Prediction Array on their Evidence Investigator. We developed a rapid array which will allow all 19 SNPs to be genotyped simultaneously on one single sample. The genotype information is then put into an algorithm which weights each SNP and calculates a CHD genetic risk score. This score is combined with common risk factors and an overall CHD risk score is calculated. A SNP which can predict response to statin therapies is also included. The results are easy to interpret using our Evidence Investigator which allows for more accurate classification and prevention actions to be taken.
For further information about the Randox Cardiac Risk Prediction Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit our newly improved website: https://goo.gl/8qkYkg
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. It is defined as an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, in which parts of the brain are damaged over time. As this happens symptoms develop, but also get worse.
Dr. Alois Alzheimer discovered that in Alzheimer’s disease the connections between the cells and brain tissue are lost because proteins build up and form abnormal structures called “plaques” and “tangles”. 1 A healthy brain contains important chemicals which send signals between the cells, however, those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less “chemical messengers.” Therefore, the signals don’t get passed on. 1
Age is the biggest risk factor. Alzheimer’s disease is more common amongst older adults. In the UK there are over 40,000 people under the age of 65 who suffer with some form of dementia. 2 Studies also state that women over the age of 65 are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than men – although there is no clear evidence as to why.
There are two different types of Alzheimer’s. The early on-set variant of the condition is very uncommon but strikes people younger than 65. Often people with early-onset Alzheimer’s develop symptoms in their 40s or 50s. Whereas, late-onset Alzheimers is more common and affects people age 65 and older. 2
The disease slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. The earliest symptoms are memory lapses where they may struggle to remember recent events or learn new information, or even forget important items for day-to-day life for example, their keys, glasses or mobile phone. Memory loss due to the disease can increasingly interfere with their life as often the ability to carry out simple tasks can become a struggle. As a result, the person suffering can become anxious, irritable and can even be depressed.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s, the symptoms become more severe. The individual will become less aware of what’s happening around them. They may have difficulties eating, walking and will require additional help and support with their daily activities from their loved ones or from a carer.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease, although, there is treatment that can help manage the symptoms.
The Randox Apolipoprotein E4 Array
Randox offers The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array.
The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, which is a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip.
The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and by using a ratio it can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
Randox Toxicology offers the most comprehensive Drugs of Abuse (DoA) test menu across multiple forensic matrices. Our level of expertise in toxicology research and development allows us to adapt quickly to the ever-changing market influences and develop assays for current and novel drugs trends. Excellent assay precision and performance eliminates false reporting, therefore reducing unnecessary confirmatory tests and time lost in the laboratory as a result. Our Biochip Arrays offer CVs typically less than 10%, producing an accurate drug profile to ensure confidence in results.
The Evidence Series of immunoassay analysers are powered by Biochip Array Technology and combine the latest technological advances for drug residue detection using immunoassay principles. The Drugs of Abuse II panel is available for both the Evidence and the Evidence Investigator analysers. The Evidence has a throughput of 90 samples per hour, testing up to 44 tests per sample. The Evidence is a fully automated batch immunoanalyser, allowing for 3960 tests per hour, while the Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated, bench top analyser with testing capabilities of 2376 tests in 70 minutes.
The Evidence is the world’s first protein Biochip Array Technology Analyser (BAT). The awarding winning Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence is a fully automated immunoanalyser which is renowned for higher standards of quality, efficiency and reliability. It is tailored and more suitable in a wide range of settings including hospital laboratories, clinical laboratories, private and public research applications, veterinary laboratories, forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmaceutical applications.
There are many key features for The Evidence, including the ability to carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample as a result. It reduces the amount of labour spent on the individual tests and therefore saves money and time. The analyser is more suitable for larger laboratories with a throughput of >1500 tests per hour with a fully automated system maximising the walk away time – allowing staff to devote their time to other important tasks.
The multi-analyte barcoded controls and calibrators ensure security, accuracy and reliable laboratory testing. They also allow for full traceability making the overall experience easier. It offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which offer more tests than other sole suppliers and this will benefit many research areas including immunology, metabolic, cardiovascular and oncology.
Neurological conditions can affect young and old people and result from damage to the brain, spine or nerves which is triggered by an illness or an injury1. Up to 1 billion people (one in six of the world’s population suffer from neurological disorders from Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, strokes, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy 2. In England the number of deaths from neurological disorders have rose by 39% over the past 13 years3.
Randox offers two Cerebral Arrays which have been designed for the simultaneous measurement of analytes associated with nervous system dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The Arrays can measure up to five biomarkers simultaneously. They are suitable for human serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Additionally, it offers excellent sensitivity, precision and recovery as well as analytical performance.
For more information on our Evidence Series or Cerebral range of Assays, contact us at EvidenceSeries@randox.com
The 2018 UN World Drug Report calculated that around 275 million people worldwide used drugs at least once in 2016 and some 31 million of those suffer from a drug use disorder.
Cannabis was the most commonly used drug in 2016, with 192 million people using it at least once that year. The global number of cannabis users continues to rise and appears to have increased by roughly 16 per cent in the decade ending 2016, which is in line with the increase of the world population.
The quantities of cannabis seized worldwide fell by 27 per cent, to 4,386 tons in 2016. This decline was particularly noticed in North America, where the medical cannabis in many states and the legalisation of cannabis for recreational use may have played a role in the declining figures. There is evidence from Western countries that the perceived easy availability of cannabis, coupled with perceptions of a low risk of harm, makes the drug among the most common substances whose use is initiated in adolescence. Cannabis is often used in conjunction with other substances and the use of other drugs is typically tried after recreational cannabis use.
As the need for vital drug screening continues to increase, Randox Toxicology are leading the way in developing new and novel drugs of abuse tests. Capable of detecting up to 21 classical, prescription and synthetic drugs from a single sample including cannabinoids, our fully automated Evidence MultiSTAT analyser utilises our Biochip Array Technology to deliver reliable and accurate results in under 20 minutes.
For further information about the Evidence MultiSTAT and our cutting-edge multiplex testing capabilities, contact firstname.lastname@example.org to be put in touch with a sales member or visit www.randoxtoxicology.com.
The Evidence Investigator analyser is based on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology (BAT). Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated benchtop analyser which is tailored for the areas of research, forensic, clinical, molecular and veterinary testing. The key feature is the fast turn-around time the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2375 tests per hour. The Evidence Investigator saves time because it will carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample which in return will save time and resources. The machine is more suitable for medium throughput laboratories.
The technology offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which will benefit the research areas immunology, metabolic, Sport & Exercise, oncology and cardiovascular. Randox Research provides the Evidence Investigator to the five research areas to help their research become more efficient, cost effective and accurate.
Randox works extremely hard with their research and development, over 16% of turnover is reinvested in R&D. The current collaboration Randox works along with are Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University.
Randox Biosciences are dedicated to assisting research projects to completion and will make available the technology to ensure the universities receive highly accurate results for their research. Randox creates their products in-house therefore provides the flexibility of the research project. Randox can provide the university a full range of arrays, biomarkers and analysers to meet their requirements of the research.
Within Cardiovascular Research, Randox offer a comprehensive menu of cytokines. The combination of highly specific antibodies and advanced chemistries enables cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors to be detected simultaneously in a single sample, providing valuable information relating to each cytokine under test and possible associations between cytokines in each sample which will benefit the research. Randox offer excellent tools for universities and hospitals researchers such as routine and novel assays and can provide research analysers such as the Evidence Investigator which is suitable for medium sized laboratory.
Oncology Research has 20 biomarkers that can be custom-made to be used on the Biochip. Randox Biosciences offers a wide and extensive test menu to researchers to enable the specific product tailored to meet their clinical trail requirements.
Metabolic & Nutrition Research is another area Randox offers a wide-ranging range of tests specifically directed to Metabolic and Nutrition Research. Randox offers reagents and arrays on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology.
For more information on our Research areas and the tests that we can provide, contact us at – Info@RandoxBiosciences.com
Biochip Array Technology
In 1992, Randox invested £180 million to create and introduce Biochip Array Technology (BAT) which converted laboratory testing. Randox came up with the innovation by recognising the major problem with traditional diagnosis. Within traditional diagnosis several tests are typically required which involves multiple blood draws from the patient, many visits to the hospital, increased reagent volume and increased time to diagnosis. Biochip Array Technology allows for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from one single sample. Therefore, it is faster, cost saving and more effective leading to better clinical decisions. Today the technology (BAT) is used in countless laboratories worldwide and a range of three biochip analysers are now offered.
The main basis of the Biochip Array Technology
- 9x9mm biochip which acts as a solid phase reaction vessel.
- Each of the biochips are pre-coated with an array of discrete test regions (DTRs)
- One biochip per sample used to generate multiple results.
- Randox Biochips hold up to 49 tests.
- Based on chemiluminescent signal emitting light, without heat which results a chemical reaction.
The key features and benefits of the Biochip Array Technology
Highly accurate testing
- The biochip array technology provides high standard of accurate test results with CV’s <10%
- Multiplex analysis minimises analytical variation between the tests.
- Increased patient information available through testing multiple markers
- Patients receive their results quicker compared to the traditional diagnosis.
Reduced sample volume
- Reduced sample required therefore patients feel more at ease.
Wide test menu
- Wide test menu provides a variety for clients and allows flexibility.
- Multiple samples can be used on BAT which include the following; serum, plasma, whole blood, urine and many others which allows for flexibility in their testing
– The process reduces the amount of time spent on individual tests and associated laboratory costs
Biochip testing platforms
The Evidence Evolution is fully automated random-access biochip testing platform. The machine allows any test to perform at any time as it is a highly versatile analyser which can operate any workflow. It can receive 2640 tests per hour which means the machine has a fast turnaround time. As well as this, it allows multiple tests to be performed from a single sample which reduces time and resources spent on individual tests. The Evidence Evolution can be tailored to certain laboratory needs and have features including automatic start-up and shut down, relaxed testing capability and traceability of biochips. The equipment overall is made to be easy for the client to use as it includes customisable user settings and easy to follow result screens giving them the fast and accurate operations they would prefer.
The Evidence Analyser is the protein Biochip Array technology. Like the Evidence Evolution it is fully automated which is suitable for busy laboratories, hospitals, forensic and clinical toxicology. The machine is floor standing and can receive up to 3690 per hour. The machine has features such as easy to follow software and customisable user settings which gives laboratories the opportunity to receive fast and accurate results.
The Evidence Investigator is often used for research, clinical, forensic, molecular and veterinary testing. The machine is semi-automated and can combine immunoassay and molecular diagnostics on a single platform with protein and DNA biochips. This machine also has a quick turnaround time with the ability to achieve 2376 tests per hour with 44 analytes screened per biochip. The evidence investigator provides more tests on the test menu which allows variety.
The final platform is the Evidence MultiSTAT. The Evidence MultiSTAT is a fully-automated analyser which provides quality results. It is a simple and easy to use analyser which requires minimal training with only three steps to complete the process. The machine can provide multiplex testing yields up to 46 results in under ten minutes. It is ease-of-use for non-laboratory staff and provides full traceability of user action with password controlled software.
Evidence Investigator | Adaptable, Efficient & Comprehensive
The Evidence Investigator is a compact, semi-automated benchtop analyser that offers efficient and comprehensive testing across a range of applications including clinical diagnostics, molecular, research, toxicology and food diagnostics.
Renowned for its versatility, robustness and effective reporting methods, the Evidence Investigator has been used in a wide range of laboratory settings for over 15 years. This highly advanced yet simple to use analyser has only one moving part, giving the user peace of mind.
The Evidence Investigator contains a host of innovative on-board data analysis features ensuring manual processes are kept to a minimum.
By utilising the same multiplex technology as the other Evidence Series analysers, the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2376 tests per hour. Offering efficiency without compromising on accuracy, the Evidence Investigator is the perfect fit for medium throughput laboratories seeking maximum use of bench space.
Our molecular product range offers diagnostic, prognostic and predictive solutions across a variety of disease areas including sexually transmitted infection (STI), Respiratory tract infection, colorectal cancer, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, we can provide a wide range of assay formats including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping, pathogen detection and mutation detection.
STI and Respiratory Arrays
Both arrays detect the most common and frequently requested infections in sexual and respiratory health. These comprehensive, highly sensitive and specific tests enable identification of co-infections simultaneously, often in asymptomatic patients and enable antibiotic stewardship.
KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA array and Familial Hypercholesterolemia Arrays I & II
These unique biochip assays permit high discrimination between multiple targets in a number of genes with a rapid turnaround time (3 hours). The arrays enable detection of the most frequently occurring mutations known to cause disease (FH) and adversely affect patient treatment (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA). A unique primer set is designed for each target which will hybridise to a complimentary oligo-nucleotide probe spotted on a biochip discrete test region (DTR).
Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Array
This array identifies individuals with a genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease (CHD). The innovative multiplex primers are designed to discriminate DNA sequences which differ only at one base.
For more information on our Evidence Series or Molecular range of Assays, contact us at EvidenceSeries@randox.com