Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Apolipoprotein E
Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Apolipoprotein E
Raising awareness of Alzheimer’s Disease
Every year we celebrate Alzheimer’s Day on 21st September to help raise awareness around dementia. Dementia is the medical name attributed to a set of symptoms affecting the brain, including: difficulties with problem solving, thinking, language and memory loss. AD is the most common form of dementia accounting for 60 – 80% of cases and it is believed that half of patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (dementia due to AD) have Alzheimer’s disease 1, 2.
About Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
AD is one of the most devastating and complex diseases characterised by:
- Neurodegeneration resulting in memory loss 2
- Neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau amyloid fibrils which associates with synapse loss 2
- Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques 2
- Other cognitive functions 2
Figure 1: Alzheimer’s Disease Demographic, 2019 3
It is believed that AD is expected to begin 20 years prior to symptom onset, as the small changes in the functioning of the brain are unnoticeable to the person affected. Overtime, the symptoms progress and begin to interfere with the patient’s ability to perform everyday tasks. The final stages of AD leaves the patient bed-bound, requiring 24/7 care. Ultimately, AD is fatal. Age has been identified as a risk factor for AD with 10% of people over the age of 65 affected. Moreover, AD has been recognised as a leading cause of morbidity and the sixth leading cause of mortality, but the fifth leading cause of death in over 65’s in the US .3
Physiological Significance of Apolipoprotein E
Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is a lipoprotein composed of 299 amino acids with a molecular weight of 34kDa. Apo E is responsible for the regulation of homeostasis through the mediation of lipid transport from and to bodily cells and tissues. Apo E comprises of three common isoforms: apo E2, apo E3 and apo E4. The apo E isoforms differ due to differences in either the 112 and 158 amino acids, whether either arginine (ARG) or cysteine (CYS) is present 4.
Apo E3 is the parent form of apo E and is responsible for the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Apo E3 is associated with normal lipid plasma concentrations. Apo E2 is the rarest of the apo E isoforms and differs slightly compared to the apo E3 isoform through the substitution of a single amino acid, ARG158Cys, located near the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) recognition site.
Apo E2 displays impaired binding to the receptor, prohibiting the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant particles. Apo E2 is strongly associated with type-III hyperlipoproteinemia. Apo E3 also differs from apo E4, again through the substitution of a single amino acid, Cys112Arg. The main difference between apo E3 and apo E4 is that apo E4 is unaffected by the binding of the isoform to LDLR. However, apo E4 is strongly associated with dyslipidemia 5. Fig. 2 provides a visual representation of the variations in the Apo E isoforms.
Figure 2: Variations in the Apo E Isoforms 4
Apo E is expressed in numerous bodily organs with the liver presenting with the highest expression followed by the brain. Astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, microglia are the major cells responsible for the expression of apo E in the brain. In the brain, apo E, apo J and apo A-1 are predominantly expressed on distinct high-density-like lipoprotein particles. Whilst apo A-1 is the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), in the central nervous system (CNS), apo E is the predominant apolipoprotein of HDL-like lipoproteins. HDL-like lipoproteins are the only lipoproteins present in the CNS. It is believed that the cholesterol released from apo E supports synaptogenesis 6.
Clinical Significance of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease
Whilst apo E3 is the most abundant of the three isoforms, apo E4 has been known for decades to be the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Inheriting the one copy of the apo E4 gene increases the risk of AD 2-3-fold, whilst inheriting two copies increases the risk of AD up to 12-fold 7. Whilst the underlying mechanism of apo E’s contribution to AD risk is still unclear and debatable, apo E has been identified as promoting amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and clearance as well as neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Interestingly, Aβ-independent pathways exist for apo E in AD, which led to the unearthing of the new roles of apo E including the most recent, iron metabolism and mitochondria dysfunction 8, 9. Captivatingly, sex-related hormones may play a role in AD in apo E4 carriers as AD has been recognised to be more pronounced in women 10. Apo E4 has also been identified as impairing lipid transport, microglial responsiveness, glucose metabolism, synaptic plasticity and integrity, and cerebrovascular function and integrity. Some of these pathogeneses are independent of Aβ pathways. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies are aiming to modulate the quantity, lipidation, structural properties, Aβ interaction and receptor expression of Apo E 11.
Key Features of the Randox Apolipoprotein E Assay
Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer the apo E assay in an automated clinical chemistry format. Utilising the immunoturbidimetric method, the Randox apo E assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format. Not only does the Randox apo E suffer from limited interferences from bilirubin, haemoglobin, intralipid® and triglycerides for truly accurate results, it has an excellent measuring range of 1.04 – 12.3mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results. Moreover, apolipoprotein calibrator and controls are available for a complete testing package. Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo E assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers.
Biochip Technology – Alzheimer’s Array
Utilising the Biochip Technology, Randox have developed an array to identify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in just 3 hours with one effective test. In addition to a rapid and accurate diagnosis, this also introduces both cost and time-saving benefits. The apo E4 array is a research use only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip. The apo E4 array measures both total apo E protein levels and apo E4 protein levels directly from plasma samples as well as using a ratio, it can classify patients as negative or positive for apo E4. In turn, we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
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 Alzheimer’s Society. Alzheimer’s disease. [Online] [Cited: September 2, 2019.] https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/types-dementia/alzheimers-disease.
 Gaugler, Joseph, et al. 2019 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. s.l. : Alzheimer’s Association, 2019.
 2014 Update of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception. Weiner, Michael W, et al. 6, San Francisco : Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 2015, Vol. 11.
 Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms, and therapy. Liu, Chia-Chen, et al. 2, Fujian : Nature Reviews Neurology, 2013, Vol. 9.
 Apolipoprotein E isoforms and lipoprotein metabolism. Phillips, Michael C. 9, Philadelphia : IUBMB Journals, 2014, Vol. 66.
 The Role of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease. Kim, Jungsu, Basak, Jacob M and Holtzman, David M. 3, St Louis : Neuron, 2009, Vol. 63.
 Dacks, Penny. What ApoE Means For Your Health. Cognitive Vitality. [Online] November 16, 2016. [Cited: September 11, 2019.] https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/blog/what-apoe-means-for-your-health.
 The Complex Role of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease: an Overview and Update. Mahoney-Sanchez, Laura, et al. 3, Parkville : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2016, Vol. 60.
 Understanding the Role of ApoE Fragments in Alzheimer’s Disease. Muñoz, SS, Gerner, B and Ooi, L. 6, Wollongong : Neurochemical Research, 2019, Vol. 44.
 ApoE4: an emerging therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease. Affieh, Mirna, Korczyn, Amos D and Michaelson, Daniel M. 64, s.l. : BMC Medicine, 2019, Vol. 17.
 Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: pathobiology and targeting strategies. Yamazaki, Yu, et al. 9AB, s.l. : Nature Reviews Neurology, 2019, Vol. 15.
Cross Border Collaboration delivers International Award for High Design Quality: Randox Discovery, The Benchtop Lab receives Red Dot Design Award
The Randox Discovery, an exciting and unique diagnostic analyser which can consolidate molecular and immunoassay testing on one compact benchtop platform, has received the 2021 Red Dot Award for High Design Quality.
Red Dot, which has become established as one of the top profile product design awards has roots dating back as far as 1955 and determines the best products created each year. Recognised as one of the largest global product competitions for innovation excellence, this sought-after seal for quality design attracts submissions from over 50 countries, across 49 different categories including medical devices and technology.
Dr Stuart Jackson, Randox Project Design Engineer, commented;
“Randox are delighted to have achieved the Red Dot design award, the culmination of five years of development and coordination of engineering design teams spanning two continents. The Discovery is a particularly unique innovation capable of automating Randox Biochip molecular diagnostics assays, from sample lysis and end-point PCR to multiplexing detection, with accessibility and ease-of-use at the forefront of the design.”
Dolmen were briefed by the Randox team to develop a creative and dynamic way to showcase the cutting-edge inner workings of the Discovery. Essentially, to turn the magic of the machine into a piece of theatre; not just a tool, but the centre of attention, a focal point for the lab that has excellent usability and accessibility throughout. Dolmen and Randox collaborated closely to deliver a revolutionary instrument that, amongst its many abilities, is a COVID-19 diagnostic analyser that is the first of its kind.
Chris Murphy, CEO and Design Director, Dolmen Design and Innovation, commented;
“We are delighted that our collaboration with Randox has delivered another Red Dot design award for our team. Randox as a team truly value the power of design and how it can deliver better outcomes for end users. It is also wonderful to see our designs delivering positive change at the frontline of the COVID pandemic. This project was hugely collaborative, and we look forward to more collaborations in the future.”
What makes the Discovery special is its ability to conduct the full testing process, inclusive of sample preparation techniques such as extraction, purification, amplification and detection, in one highly intelligent, fully integrated space. The preparation of COVID-19 samples before testing was once lengthy and time-consuming, requiring a separate, sterilized laboratory for each stage, but can now be conducted on-board and by the fully automated Discovery platform, allowing a single operator to run multiple molecular tests simultaneously.
Combining almost 40 years of diagnostics into one platform, bringing multiple labs into one the COVID-19 diagnostic analyser is the first of its kind to combine sample preparation techniques and Biochip Technology.
Professor Dr. Peter Zec, Red Dot CEO, commented;
“The winners of the Red Dot Award: Product Design 2021 were particularly impressive this year. The design of their products is excellent, in terms of both the aesthetic and the functionality. It’s not easy to prevail in such a strong field of competitors and to win over our jury. Consequently, I want to congratulate the laureates very sincerely on their success.”
For further information please email firstname.lastname@example.org
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VIRAL RNA EXTRACTION KIT
Randox Discovery | The Benchtop Lab
Discover The Future Of Molecular & Immunoassay Diagnostics
Why Choose the Discovery?
Discover The Power Of Automation
Randox Discovery is comprised of three interconnected modules which each operate independently performing different aspects of the diagnostic testing process. Each module is separated by a physical barrier to prevent contamination and is accessible via a door. The workflow process runs from right to left and is compatible with lean working principles.
Nucleic Acid Extraction
Module I is responsible for DNA/RNA extraction. After extraction the sample is automatically transferred to Module II. Before transfer, Module I detects the presence of Module II cartridges using a unique vision system.
Module II is responsible for amplification of the extracted nucleic acid by End-Point PCR. UV light is used to sterilise the module and reduce the risk of crossover contamination.
Biochip Hybridisation & Detection
Module III is used in both immunoassay & molecular workflows and is responsible for hybridisation and subsequent detection using patented biochip technology. The detection camera uniquely moves between sample cartridges to detect biochip chemiluminescence.
Discover the Power of Randox Biochip Technology
The Randox Discovery is an exciting and disruptive molecular & immunoassay diagnostic analyser capable of consolidating the normal workload of multiple laboratories, into one compact benchtop platform. Randox patented Biochip Technology allows simultaneous detection of hundreds of targets from a single patient sample. The benefits of multiplexing in this way are endless; allows complete patient profiling, reduces the amount of time spent on individual tests, identifies co-infections, differentiates between pathogens that exhibit similar symptoms and eliminates the need to run multiple time consuming and sample intensive assays. The biochip detection system is based on a chemiluminescent signal, this is the emission of light, without heat, as a result of a chemical reaction.
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(SARS, SARS like, SARS-CoV-2)
(SARS, SARS like, SARS-CoV-2)
|Coronavirus 229E/NL63||Adenovirus A/B/C/D/E||Influenza B|
|Coronavirus OC43/HKUI||Enterovirus A/B/C/D / Rhinovirus A/B/C||Respiratory Syncytial Virus A/B (RSV)|
|Middle East Respiratory|
Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
*In Development – Respiratory Tract Infections Array, Chronic Lung Infections Array, Sexually Transmitted Infections Array & Urinary Tract Infections Array, KRAS, BRAF & PIK3CA Array, Familial Hypercholesterolemia Array & Cardiac Risk Array.
*In Development – A number of clinical immunoassay arrays covering a range of disease markers including adhesion molecules, alzheimers, anaemia, bone disease, cancer, cardiac, cytokines, diabetes, endocrines, fibrinolysis, fertility, gastrointestinal, metabolic, renal, stroke, thyroid & tissue damage.
*In Development – A number of clinical toxicology arrays are in development covering a wide range of Drugs of Abuse (DoA) & New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) detecting over 500 drug and drug metabolites using innovative Biochip Technology.
Product availability may vary from country to country. Some product may be for Research use Only. For more information on product application and availability, please contact your local Randox Representative.
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COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) was declared a global emergency of international concern. The WHO’s director-general’s greatest concern is the potential for COVID-19 to spread to countries with weaker health systems. The biggest catch with containing the epidemic of COVD-19 is the detection. It has been recognised that faulty kits have been shipped around America by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and there simply aren’t enough kits in China 1. Randox can aid in overcoming these challenges.
What is COVID-19?
The COVID-19 is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Consequently, research on this new strain is lacking. Symptoms are similar to that of the common cold or flu, including: fever, cough, difficultly breathing, muscle pain and fatigue. Like other respiratory infections, transmission occurs through respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing, with an estimated incubation period of 2 to 14 days 2.
Globally, there are 46, 997 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 46, 550 of these confirmed cases attributed to China. Only 447 of the total number of cases are outside of China, across 24 countries. The total number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 sits at 1, 369 of which all have been observed in China, except one. These statistics are laboratory-confirmed cases only 3. These statistics were reported by WHO on 13 February and is the situation of number, total and new cases, within the past 24hrs from being recorded. Whilst China is at a very high risk, the global risk level is high. These statistics indicate the necessity for COVID-19 diagnosis, especially as the above are only laboratory-confirmed cases combined with the faulty tests distributed in America and the lack of diagnostic tests in China.
The Randox Extended Coronavirus Array
Randox have developed a fast and accurate test for the detection of COVID-19, the new strain of coronavirus. The Randox Extended Coronavirus Array is the only test in the world that can identify the potentially lethal strain and differentiate between other respiratory pathogens with similar symptoms.
The new test utilises the Randox Biochip Technology, with results within 5 hours on the Randox Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated analyser capable of processing 54 patient samples simultaneously.
The Randox Coronavirus Array comprises five coronaviruses strains, including the COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) strain. The table below provides a breakdown of the viruses included in the Randox Extended Coronavirus Array:
Dr Peter FitzGerald, Managing Director of Randox Laboratories, commented;
“Current technologies for the diagnosis of coronavirus are designed simply to detect the presence or lack of COVID-19, and therefore neglect to differentiate between this strain and other respiratory infections. We have therefore developed an extended Viral Respiratory Infection Array that tests simultaneously for COVID-19 and nine other viruses. This will eliminate the need for multiple back-and-forth tests before the root cause of symptoms is found, and empower clinicians to make fast and informed decisions.”
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 Kamer F. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Test Kits are Broken in America, Scarce in China. https://futurism.com/neoscope/coronavirus-covid19-test-kits-broken-america-scarce-china (accessed 18 February 2020).
 World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 24. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200213-sitrep-24-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=9a7406a4_4 (accessed 18 February 2020).
There is still a lot unknown about the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), however, current knowledge is mostly based on the intel of existing coronaviruses including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) 1. Last week, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019-nCoV a global health emergency of international concern. The WHO’s director-general, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated: “The main reason for this declaration is not because of what is happening in China but because of what is happening in other countries. Our greatest concern is the potential for this virus to spread to countries with weaker health systems, which are ill-prepared to deal with it” 2.
WHO recommend educating all and increasing knowledge of the 2019-nCoV. The aim of this article is to provide further information on the 2019-nCoV to aid in combatting the mass hysteria through education.
About the 2019-nCoV
The 2019-nCoV belongs to a large family of respiratory viruses with illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. 2019-nCoV is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans 3. Coronaviruses are common in a variety of animal species including: bats, cats, cattle and camels 1. Coronaviruses are zoonotic which means the virus can be transmitted between animals and humans. SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats and MERS-CoV was transmitted from dromedary camels 3. Zoonotic viruses are commonplace with approximately 60% of current infectious diseases and 75% of all emerging infectious diseases in humans being zoonotic according to the UNEP Frontiers 2019 Report: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern, with approximately one new infectious disease emerging in humans every four months 4.
2019-nCoV Transmission & Prevention
The exact origin of the 2019-nCoV is unknown and the analysis of the genetic trees of this virus is ongoing, however ‘it is important to note that person-to-person spread can happen on continuum’. Currently, it is unclear on how contagious the 2019-nCoV is 5. It is believed that the spread of the 2019-nCoV virus is similar to that of other respiratory pathogens (influenza). It is believed that the spread occurs via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person sneezes or coughs and lands in the mouth or noses or possibly inhaled into the lunch of people nearby (about 6 feet). It is unclear at this time if the 2019-nCoV can be caught via touching surfaces or objects that have the virus and then touching their nose, mouth and possibly eyes.
It is important to understand that the transmissibility and severity of viruses vary and there is still much to learn about the 2019-nCoV 6. Whilst there is no vaccine to prevent the transmissibility of the 2019-nCoV, daily steps can be taken to aid in the prevention of the spread, similar to that of respiratory infections in general 7:
1. Wash hands with soap and water for 20 seconds, especially after using the toilet, before eating, after blowing your nose, sneezing and coughing.
2. If soap and/or water is not readily available, alcohol-based (minimum 60% alcohol) hand sanitisers can be used.
3. Avoid toughing mouth, nose and eyes with unwashed hands.
4. Avoid close contact with those who are sick.
5. Stay at home when you are sick.
6. Always cover coughs and sneezing with a tissue and discard in a bin.
7. Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning wipe or spray.
It is vitally important to get tested if you believe you have the 2019-nCoV which can aid in preventing the further transmissibility of the virus.
Randox Coronavirus Arrays
Randox are developing a rapid test for the 2019-nCoV which will utilise the Randox Biochip Technology, with results available within 3 hours on the Vivalytic and with 5 hours on the Randox Evidence Investigator.
The Randox Novel Coronavirus Array detects the 2019-nCoV strain quickly and accurately, enabling effective and accurate medical protocols to be actioned.
The Randox Extended Coronavirus Array encompasses multiple strains of the coronaviruses including: 2019-nCoV, 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKUI. The wider panel provides a comprehensive coronavirus screening panel, enabling effective and accurate medical protocols to be actioned.
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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA, has been utilised as a screening tool for some time. The immunoassay technique is a popular choice for the evaluation of various research and diagnostic targets including drugs of abuse testing.
As primary manufacturer of the Biochip Array Technology, Randox Toxicology also provide highly sensitive ELISA kits that are compatible with all microplate processing instruments. Our test menu covers a broad range of drugs of abuse and metabolites including new psychoactive substances, stimulants, analgesics and sedatives. With low specificity, our ELISA kits are available across whole blood, urine and oral fluid matrices. Randox Toxicology develop the highest quality 96-well microtitre plates available on the market, with results providing excellent correlation with confirmatory methods.
Our range of ELISAs are precoated with our own antibodies which are cultivated in the UK. The ready to use reagent format facilitates optimum laboratory efficiency and allows up to 80 samples to be analysed in 2 to 3 hours with ELISA procedures.
* EXCLUSIVE to Randox Toxicology
Randox Toxicology offers the most comprehensive Drugs of Abuse (DoA) test menu across multiple forensic matrices. Our level of expertise in toxicology research and development allows us to adapt quickly to the ever-changing market influences and develop assays for current and novel drugs trends. Excellent assay precision and performance eliminates false reporting, therefore reducing unnecessary confirmatory tests and time lost in the laboratory as a result. Our Biochip Arrays offer CVs typically less than 10%, producing an accurate drug profile to ensure confidence in results.
The Evidence Series of immunoassay analysers are powered by Biochip Array Technology and combine the latest technological advances for drug residue detection using immunoassay principles. The Drugs of Abuse II panel is available for both the Evidence and the Evidence Investigator analysers. The Evidence has a throughput of 90 samples per hour, testing up to 44 tests per sample. The Evidence is a fully automated batch immunoanalyser, allowing for 3960 tests per hour, while the Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated, bench top analyser with testing capabilities of 2376 tests in 70 minutes.
The Evidence Investigator analyser is based on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology (BAT). Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated benchtop analyser which is tailored for the areas of research, forensic, clinical, molecular and veterinary testing. The key feature is the fast turn-around time the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2375 tests per hour. The Evidence Investigator saves time because it will carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample which in return will save time and resources. The machine is more suitable for medium throughput laboratories.
The technology offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which will benefit the research areas immunology, metabolic, Sport & Exercise, oncology and cardiovascular. Randox Research provides the Evidence Investigator to the five research areas to help their research become more efficient, cost effective and accurate.
Randox works extremely hard with their research and development, over 16% of turnover is reinvested in R&D. The current collaboration Randox works along with are Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University.
Randox Biosciences are dedicated to assisting research projects to completion and will make available the technology to ensure the universities receive highly accurate results for their research. Randox creates their products in-house therefore provides the flexibility of the research project. Randox can provide the university a full range of arrays, biomarkers and analysers to meet their requirements of the research.
Within Cardiovascular Research, Randox offer a comprehensive menu of cytokines. The combination of highly specific antibodies and advanced chemistries enables cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors to be detected simultaneously in a single sample, providing valuable information relating to each cytokine under test and possible associations between cytokines in each sample which will benefit the research. Randox offer excellent tools for universities and hospitals researchers such as routine and novel assays and can provide research analysers such as the Evidence Investigator which is suitable for medium sized laboratory.
Oncology Research has 20 biomarkers that can be custom-made to be used on the Biochip. Randox Biosciences offers a wide and extensive test menu to researchers to enable the specific product tailored to meet their clinical trail requirements.
Metabolic & Nutrition Research is another area Randox offers a wide-ranging range of tests specifically directed to Metabolic and Nutrition Research. Randox offers reagents and arrays on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology.
For more information on our Research areas and the tests that we can provide, contact us at – Info@RandoxBiosciences.com
Biochip Array Technology
In 1992, Randox invested £180 million to create and introduce Biochip Array Technology (BAT) which converted laboratory testing. Randox came up with the innovation by recognising the major problem with traditional diagnosis. Within traditional diagnosis several tests are typically required which involves multiple blood draws from the patient, many visits to the hospital, increased reagent volume and increased time to diagnosis. Biochip Array Technology allows for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from one single sample. Therefore, it is faster, cost saving and more effective leading to better clinical decisions. Today the technology (BAT) is used in countless laboratories worldwide and a range of three biochip analysers are now offered.
The main basis of the Biochip Array Technology
- 9x9mm biochip which acts as a solid phase reaction vessel.
- Each of the biochips are pre-coated with an array of discrete test regions (DTRs)
- One biochip per sample used to generate multiple results.
- Randox Biochips hold up to 49 tests.
- Based on chemiluminescent signal emitting light, without heat which results a chemical reaction.
The key features and benefits of the Biochip Array Technology
Highly accurate testing
- The biochip array technology provides high standard of accurate test results with CV’s <10%
- Multiplex analysis minimises analytical variation between the tests.
- Increased patient information available through testing multiple markers
- Patients receive their results quicker compared to the traditional diagnosis.
Reduced sample volume
- Reduced sample required therefore patients feel more at ease.
Wide test menu
- Wide test menu provides a variety for clients and allows flexibility.
- Multiple samples can be used on BAT which include the following; serum, plasma, whole blood, urine and many others which allows for flexibility in their testing
– The process reduces the amount of time spent on individual tests and associated laboratory costs
Biochip testing platforms
The Evidence Evolution is fully automated random-access biochip testing platform. The machine allows any test to perform at any time as it is a highly versatile analyser which can operate any workflow. It can receive 2640 tests per hour which means the machine has a fast turnaround time. As well as this, it allows multiple tests to be performed from a single sample which reduces time and resources spent on individual tests. The Evidence Evolution can be tailored to certain laboratory needs and have features including automatic start-up and shut down, relaxed testing capability and traceability of biochips. The equipment overall is made to be easy for the client to use as it includes customisable user settings and easy to follow result screens giving them the fast and accurate operations they would prefer.
The Evidence Analyser is the protein Biochip Array technology. Like the Evidence Evolution it is fully automated which is suitable for busy laboratories, hospitals, forensic and clinical toxicology. The machine is floor standing and can receive up to 3690 per hour. The machine has features such as easy to follow software and customisable user settings which gives laboratories the opportunity to receive fast and accurate results.
The Evidence Investigator is often used for research, clinical, forensic, molecular and veterinary testing. The machine is semi-automated and can combine immunoassay and molecular diagnostics on a single platform with protein and DNA biochips. This machine also has a quick turnaround time with the ability to achieve 2376 tests per hour with 44 analytes screened per biochip. The evidence investigator provides more tests on the test menu which allows variety.
The final platform is the Evidence MultiSTAT. The Evidence MultiSTAT is a fully-automated analyser which provides quality results. It is a simple and easy to use analyser which requires minimal training with only three steps to complete the process. The machine can provide multiplex testing yields up to 46 results in under ten minutes. It is ease-of-use for non-laboratory staff and provides full traceability of user action with password controlled software.
Randox Biosciences is a world-leading primary manufacturer of high quality monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, antibody fragments and human recombinant proteins. Our team of scientists possess unrivalled expertise which enables us to provide you with a comprehensive suite of products and services dedicated to advancing biopharmaceutical research and diagnostics.
Randox Biosciences offers an extensive portfolio of over 900 products for a multitude of R&D applications including more than 500 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and over 140 human recombinant proteins as well as antibody fragments, buffers & diluents and plasma.
- Biochemical markers: Biochemical messengers, fatty acid binding proteins and products with applications in the following therapeutic areas; cardiovascular/cerebrovascular and metabolic/Nutrition
- Drugs of abuse: Alcohol, anti-depressants, barbituates, hallucinogens, opiates, stimulants
- Drug Residues: antimicrobial drugs, growth promoters, mycotoxins
- Biochemical markers: Biochemical messengers, fatty acid binding proteins and products with applications in the following therapeutic areas; Immunology, Oncology, Cardiovascular/Cerebrovascular and Metabolic/Nutrition
- Drugs of abuse: Alcohol, Analgesics, Anti‑depressants, Barbituates, Benzodiazepines, Hallucinogens, Opiates, Sedatives, Stimulants, Synthetic Drugs, Therapeutic drugs
- Drug Residues: Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Antimicrobial Drugs, Anti-Parasitic Drugs, Growth Promoters, Mycotoxins
Recombinant Antibody Fragments
- Single chain variable fragment (scFvs)
- Single domain antibodies (sdAbs)
Frozen Human Plasma
- Available in three formats (Male, Female and Mixed Gender)
- Highly screened for; HIV, Hepatitis B+C, HTLV I + II, Syphilis, CMV and Procleix WNV
Human Recombinant Proteins (E.Coli & Mammalian)
- Adhesion Molecules
- Tumour markers
Buffers & Diluents
- Complementary range available
Key Features & Benefits
- All products manufactured at our ISO 13485 accredited UK manufacturing plant
- Product range of over 900 products
- 30 years’ experience in raw material manufacture and assay development
- Many unique and novel products including designer drugs, Mycotoxins and oncology markers
- As our host animals are sheep, our antibodies have higher sensitivity and specificity
- Excellent reproducibility between lot numbers
- Products reflect the components used in-house in the production of Randox diagnostic products and research programs
- Highly experienced in developing difficult targets (i.e. small molecules and novel biomarkers)
- Full customisation service available
- A range of pack sizes available including bulk quantities for commercial development
- Products can be used in a multitude
Custom Development Services
To meet your precise requirements, Randox Biosciences offer customised antibody generation services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. Our custom development service, which encompasses antibodies and human recombinant proteins has achieved tremendous success within the biopharmaceutical and diagnostic industries. Key components of our custom service are our range of monoclonal antibodies as well as our recombinant antibody fragments (sdAbs, scFvs, fAbs).
Our customisation service has proven incredibly successful in the research and development industries allowing access our expertise to obtain the antibody and protein most relevant to your line of work. With over 300 highly trained research scientists and over 30 years’ experience in commercial assay development, Randox Biosciences can also provide a tailor-made assay development service to meet your specifications in both a timely and cost-effective manner.
For more information contact: info@Randoxbiosciences.com