Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Apolipoprotein E
Since 2012, September has been devoted to raising awareness of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with Alzheimer’s Day on 21st September each year. Dementia is the medical name attributed to a set of symptoms affecting the brain, including: difficulties with problem solving, thinking, language and memory loss. AD is the most common form of dementia accounting for 60 – 80% of cases and it is believed that half of patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (dementia due to AD) have Alzheimer’s disease 1, 2.
About Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
AD is one of the most devastating and complex diseases characterised by:
. Neurodegeneration resulting in memory loss 2
. Neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau amyloid fibrils which associates with synapse loss 2
. Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques 2
. Other cognitive functions 2
It is believed that AD is expected to begin 20 years prior to symptom onset, as the small changes in the functioning of the brain are unnoticeable to the person affected. Overtime, the symptoms progress and begin to interfere with the patient’s ability to perform everyday tasks. The final stages of AD leaves the patient bed-bound, requiring 24/7 care. Ultimately, AD is fatal. Age has been identified as a risk factor for AD with 10% of people over the age of 65 affected. Moreover, AD has been recognised as a leading cause of morbidity and the sixth leading cause of mortality, but the fifth leading cause of death in over 65’s in the US 3.
Figure 1: Alzheimer’s Disease Demographic, 2019 3
Physiological Significance of Apolipoprotein E
Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is a lipoprotein composed of 299 amino acids with a molecular weight of 34kDa. Apo E is responsible for the regulation of homeostasis through the mediation of lipid transport from and to bodily cells and tissues. Apo E comprises of three common isoforms: apo E2, apo E3 and apo E4. The apo E isoforms differ due to differences in either the 112 and 158 amino acids, whether either arginine (ARG) or cysteine (CYS) is present 4.
Apo E3 is the parent form of apo E and is responsible for the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Apo E3 is associated with normal lipid plasma concentrations. Apo E2 is the rarest of the apo E isoforms and differs slightly compared to the apo E3 isoform through the substitution of a single amino acid, ARG158Cys, located near the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) recognition site. Apo E2 displays impaired binding to the receptor, prohibiting the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant particles. Apo E2 is strongly associated with type-III hyperlipoproteinemia. Apo E3 also differs from apo E4, again through the substitution of a single amino acid, Cys112Arg. The main difference between apo E3 and apo E4 is that apo E4 is unaffected by the binding of the isoform to LDLR. However, apo E4 is strongly associated with dyslipidemia 5. Fig. 2 provides a visual representation of the variations in the Apo E isoforms.
Figure 2: Variations in the Apo E Isoforms 4
Apo E is expressed in numerous bodily organs with the liver presenting with the highest expression followed by the brain. Astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, microglia are the major cells responsible for the expression of apo E in the brain. In the brain, apo E, apo J and apo A-1 are predominantly expressed on distinct high-density-like lipoprotein particles. Whilst apo A-1 is the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), in the central nervous system (CNS), apo E is the predominant apolipoprotein of HDL-like lipoproteins. HDL-like lipoproteins are the only lipoproteins present in the CNS. It is believed that the cholesterol released from apo E supports synaptogenesis 6.
Clinical Significance of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease
Whilst apo E3 is the most abundant of the three isoforms, apo E4 has been known for decades to be the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Inheriting the one copy of the apo E4 gene increases the risk of AD 2-3-fold, whilst inheriting two copies increases the risk of AD up to 12-fold 7. Whilst the underlying mechanism of apo E’s contribution to AD risk is still unclear and debatable, apo E has been identified as promoting amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and clearance as well as neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Interestingly, Aβ-independent pathways exist for apo E in AD, which led to the unearthing of the new roles of apo E including the most recent, iron metabolism and mitochondria dysfunction 8, 9. Captivatingly, sex-related hormones may play a role in AD in apo E4 carriers as AD has been recognised to be more pronounced in women 10. Apo E4 has also been identified as impairing lipid transport, microglial responsiveness, glucose metabolism, synaptic plasticity and integrity, and cerebrovascular function and integrity. Some of these pathogeneses are independent of Aβ pathways. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies are aiming to modulate the quantity, lipidation, structural properties, Aβ interaction and receptor expression of Apo E 11.
Key Features of the Randox Apolipoprotein E Assay
Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer the apo E assay in an automated clinical chemistry format. Utilising the immunoturbidimetric method, the Randox apo E assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format. Not only does the Randox apo E suffer from limited interferences from bilirubin, haemoglobin, intralipid® and triglycerides for truly accurate results, it has an excellent measuring range of 1.04 – 12.3mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results. Moreover, apolipoprotein calibrator and controls are available for a complete testing package. Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo E assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers.
Biochip Technology – Alzheimer’s Array
Utilising the Biochip Technology, Randox have developed an array to identify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in just 3 hours with one effective test. In addition to a rapid and accurate diagnosis, this also introduces both cost and time-saving benefits. The apo E4 array is a research use only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip. The apo E4 array measures both total apo E protein levels and apo E4 protein levels directly from plasma samples as well as using a ratio, it can classify patients as negative or positive for apo E4. In turn, we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
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 Alzheimer’s Society. Alzheimer’s disease. [Online] [Cited: September 2, 2019.] https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-dementia/types-dementia/alzheimers-disease.
 Gaugler, Joseph, et al. 2019 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures. s.l. : Alzheimer’s Association, 2019.
 2014 Update of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception. Weiner, Michael W, et al. 6, San Francisco : Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 2015, Vol. 11.
 Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: risk, mechanisms, and therapy. Liu, Chia-Chen, et al. 2, Fujian : Nature Reviews Neurology, 2013, Vol. 9.
 Apolipoprotein E isoforms and lipoprotein metabolism. Phillips, Michael C. 9, Philadelphia : IUBMB Journals, 2014, Vol. 66.
 The Role of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease. Kim, Jungsu, Basak, Jacob M and Holtzman, David M. 3, St Louis : Neuron, 2009, Vol. 63.
 Dacks, Penny. What ApoE Means For Your Health. Cognitive Vitality. [Online] November 16, 2016. [Cited: September 11, 2019.] https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/blog/what-apoe-means-for-your-health.
 The Complex Role of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease: an Overview and Update. Mahoney-Sanchez, Laura, et al. 3, Parkville : Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2016, Vol. 60.
 Understanding the Role of ApoE Fragments in Alzheimer’s Disease. Muñoz, SS, Gerner, B and Ooi, L. 6, Wollongong : Neurochemical Research, 2019, Vol. 44.
 ApoE4: an emerging therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease. Affieh, Mirna, Korczyn, Amos D and Michaelson, Daniel M. 64, s.l. : BMC Medicine, 2019, Vol. 17.
 Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: pathobiology and targeting strategies. Yamazaki, Yu, et al. 9AB, s.l. : Nature Reviews Neurology, 2019, Vol. 15.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA, has been utilised as a screening tool for some time. The immunoassay technique is a popular choice for the evaluation of various research and diagnostic targets including drugs of abuse testing.
As primary manufacturer of the Biochip Array Technology, Randox Toxicology also provide highly sensitive ELISA kits that are compatible with all microplate processing instruments. Our test menu covers a broad range of drugs of abuse and metabolites including new psychoactive substances, stimulants, analgesics and sedatives. With low specificity, our ELISA kits are available across whole blood, urine and oral fluid matrices. Randox Toxicology develop the highest quality 96-well microtitre plates available on the market, with results providing excellent correlation with confirmatory methods.
Our range of ELISAs are precoated with our own antibodies which are cultivated in the UK. The ready to use reagent format facilitates optimum laboratory efficiency and allows up to 80 samples to be analysed in 2 to 3 hours with ELISA procedures.
* EXCLUSIVE to Randox Toxicology
Randox Toxicology offers the most comprehensive Drugs of Abuse (DoA) test menu across multiple forensic matrices. Our level of expertise in toxicology research and development allows us to adapt quickly to the ever-changing market influences and develop assays for current and novel drugs trends. Excellent assay precision and performance eliminates false reporting, therefore reducing unnecessary confirmatory tests and time lost in the laboratory as a result. Our Biochip Arrays offer CVs typically less than 10%, producing an accurate drug profile to ensure confidence in results.
The Evidence Series of immunoassay analysers are powered by Biochip Array Technology and combine the latest technological advances for drug residue detection using immunoassay principles. The Drugs of Abuse II panel is available for both the Evidence and the Evidence Investigator analysers. The Evidence has a throughput of 90 samples per hour, testing up to 44 tests per sample. The Evidence is a fully automated batch immunoanalyser, allowing for 3960 tests per hour, while the Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated, bench top analyser with testing capabilities of 2376 tests in 70 minutes.
The Evidence Investigator analyser is based on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology (BAT). Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence Investigator is a semi-automated benchtop analyser which is tailored for the areas of research, forensic, clinical, molecular and veterinary testing. The key feature is the fast turn-around time the Evidence Investigator can process up to 44 results from a single sample, with a maximum throughput of up to 2375 tests per hour. The Evidence Investigator saves time because it will carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample which in return will save time and resources. The machine is more suitable for medium throughput laboratories.
The technology offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which will benefit the research areas immunology, metabolic, Sport & Exercise, oncology and cardiovascular. Randox Research provides the Evidence Investigator to the five research areas to help their research become more efficient, cost effective and accurate.
Randox works extremely hard with their research and development, over 16% of turnover is reinvested in R&D. The current collaboration Randox works along with are Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University.
Randox Biosciences are dedicated to assisting research projects to completion and will make available the technology to ensure the universities receive highly accurate results for their research. Randox creates their products in-house therefore provides the flexibility of the research project. Randox can provide the university a full range of arrays, biomarkers and analysers to meet their requirements of the research.
Within Cardiovascular Research, Randox offer a comprehensive menu of cytokines. The combination of highly specific antibodies and advanced chemistries enables cytokines, cytokine receptors and growth factors to be detected simultaneously in a single sample, providing valuable information relating to each cytokine under test and possible associations between cytokines in each sample which will benefit the research. Randox offer excellent tools for universities and hospitals researchers such as routine and novel assays and can provide research analysers such as the Evidence Investigator which is suitable for medium sized laboratory.
Oncology Research has 20 biomarkers that can be custom-made to be used on the Biochip. Randox Biosciences offers a wide and extensive test menu to researchers to enable the specific product tailored to meet their clinical trail requirements.
Metabolic & Nutrition Research is another area Randox offers a wide-ranging range of tests specifically directed to Metabolic and Nutrition Research. Randox offers reagents and arrays on the award-winning Biochip Array Technology.
For more information on our Research areas and the tests that we can provide, contact us at – Info@RandoxBiosciences.com
Biochip Array Technology
In 1992, Randox invested £180 million to create and introduce Biochip Array Technology (BAT) which converted laboratory testing. Randox came up with the innovation by recognising the major problem with traditional diagnosis. Within traditional diagnosis several tests are typically required which involves multiple blood draws from the patient, many visits to the hospital, increased reagent volume and increased time to diagnosis. Biochip Array Technology allows for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from one single sample. Therefore, it is faster, cost saving and more effective leading to better clinical decisions. Today the technology (BAT) is used in countless laboratories worldwide and a range of three biochip analysers are now offered.
The main basis of the Biochip Array Technology
- 9x9mm biochip which acts as a solid phase reaction vessel.
- Each of the biochips are pre-coated with an array of discrete test regions (DTRs)
- One biochip per sample used to generate multiple results.
- Randox Biochips hold up to 49 tests.
- Based on chemiluminescent signal emitting light, without heat which results a chemical reaction.
The key features and benefits of the Biochip Array Technology
Highly accurate testing
- The biochip array technology provides high standard of accurate test results with CV’s <10%
- Multiplex analysis minimises analytical variation between the tests.
- Increased patient information available through testing multiple markers
- Patients receive their results quicker compared to the traditional diagnosis.
Reduced sample volume
- Reduced sample required therefore patients feel more at ease.
Wide test menu
- Wide test menu provides a variety for clients and allows flexibility.
- Multiple samples can be used on BAT which include the following; serum, plasma, whole blood, urine and many others which allows for flexibility in their testing
– The process reduces the amount of time spent on individual tests and associated laboratory costs
Biochip testing platforms
The Evidence Evolution is fully automated random-access biochip testing platform. The machine allows any test to perform at any time as it is a highly versatile analyser which can operate any workflow. It can receive 2640 tests per hour which means the machine has a fast turnaround time. As well as this, it allows multiple tests to be performed from a single sample which reduces time and resources spent on individual tests. The Evidence Evolution can be tailored to certain laboratory needs and have features including automatic start-up and shut down, relaxed testing capability and traceability of biochips. The equipment overall is made to be easy for the client to use as it includes customisable user settings and easy to follow result screens giving them the fast and accurate operations they would prefer.
The Evidence Analyser is the protein Biochip Array technology. Like the Evidence Evolution it is fully automated which is suitable for busy laboratories, hospitals, forensic and clinical toxicology. The machine is floor standing and can receive up to 3690 per hour. The machine has features such as easy to follow software and customisable user settings which gives laboratories the opportunity to receive fast and accurate results.
The Evidence Investigator is often used for research, clinical, forensic, molecular and veterinary testing. The machine is semi-automated and can combine immunoassay and molecular diagnostics on a single platform with protein and DNA biochips. This machine also has a quick turnaround time with the ability to achieve 2376 tests per hour with 44 analytes screened per biochip. The evidence investigator provides more tests on the test menu which allows variety.
The final platform is the Evidence MultiSTAT. The Evidence MultiSTAT is a fully-automated analyser which provides quality results. It is a simple and easy to use analyser which requires minimal training with only three steps to complete the process. The machine can provide multiplex testing yields up to 46 results in under ten minutes. It is ease-of-use for non-laboratory staff and provides full traceability of user action with password controlled software.
Randox Biosciences is a world-leading primary manufacturer of high quality monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, antibody fragments and human recombinant proteins. Our team of scientists possess unrivalled expertise which enables us to provide you with a comprehensive suite of products and services dedicated to advancing biopharmaceutical research and diagnostics.
Randox Biosciences offers an extensive portfolio of over 900 products for a multitude of R&D applications including more than 500 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and over 140 human recombinant proteins as well as antibody fragments, buffers & diluents and plasma.
- Biochemical markers: Biochemical messengers, fatty acid binding proteins and products with applications in the following therapeutic areas; cardiovascular/cerebrovascular and metabolic/Nutrition
- Drugs of abuse: Alcohol, anti-depressants, barbituates, hallucinogens, opiates, stimulants
- Drug Residues: antimicrobial drugs, growth promoters, mycotoxins
- Biochemical markers: Biochemical messengers, fatty acid binding proteins and products with applications in the following therapeutic areas; Immunology, Oncology, Cardiovascular/Cerebrovascular and Metabolic/Nutrition
- Drugs of abuse: Alcohol, Analgesics, Anti‑depressants, Barbituates, Benzodiazepines, Hallucinogens, Opiates, Sedatives, Stimulants, Synthetic Drugs, Therapeutic drugs
- Drug Residues: Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Antimicrobial Drugs, Anti-Parasitic Drugs, Growth Promoters, Mycotoxins
Recombinant Antibody Fragments
- Single chain variable fragment (scFvs)
- Single domain antibodies (sdAbs)
Frozen Human Plasma
- Available in three formats (Male, Female and Mixed Gender)
- Highly screened for; HIV, Hepatitis B+C, HTLV I + II, Syphilis, CMV and Procleix WNV
Human Recombinant Proteins (E.Coli & Mammalian)
- Adhesion Molecules
- Tumour markers
Buffers & Diluents
- Complementary range available
Key Features & Benefits
- All products manufactured at our ISO 13485 accredited UK manufacturing plant
- Product range of over 900 products
- 30 years’ experience in raw material manufacture and assay development
- Many unique and novel products including designer drugs, Mycotoxins and oncology markers
- As our host animals are sheep, our antibodies have higher sensitivity and specificity
- Excellent reproducibility between lot numbers
- Products reflect the components used in-house in the production of Randox diagnostic products and research programs
- Highly experienced in developing difficult targets (i.e. small molecules and novel biomarkers)
- Full customisation service available
- A range of pack sizes available including bulk quantities for commercial development
- Products can be used in a multitude
Custom Development Services
To meet your precise requirements, Randox Biosciences offer customised antibody generation services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. Our custom development service, which encompasses antibodies and human recombinant proteins has achieved tremendous success within the biopharmaceutical and diagnostic industries. Key components of our custom service are our range of monoclonal antibodies as well as our recombinant antibody fragments (sdAbs, scFvs, fAbs).
Our customisation service has proven incredibly successful in the research and development industries allowing access our expertise to obtain the antibody and protein most relevant to your line of work. With over 300 highly trained research scientists and over 30 years’ experience in commercial assay development, Randox Biosciences can also provide a tailor-made assay development service to meet your specifications in both a timely and cost-effective manner.
For more information contact: info@Randoxbiosciences.com
Randox Clinical Laboratory Services (RCLS) strives to provide a clinical laboratory service to meet the time sensitive, bespoke requirements of research and clinical projects globally.
RCLS utilises the expertise and knowledge Randox has built up over 35 years producing high quality IVD products. Many years of development and the expertise of highly qualified scientists from Randox has been invested to create the Biochip Array Technology (BAT) – a multi-analyte testing platform facilitating the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
Biochip Array Technology provides a unique platform for assessment of biological samples in a rapid, accurate and easy to use format and users can have the utmost confidence in this proven technology.
A chemically activated 9x9mm ceramic biochip acts as a solid phase reaction vessel. Biochips are pre-fabricated with discrete test regions (DTRs); a different antibody/oligonucleotide is immobilised at each spatially distinct DTR. Up to 49 individual DTRs can be arrayed on to a single biochip with one biochip per sample used to generate multiple results simultaneously.
This eliminates the need to run costly, time consuming and sample intensive single analyte assays. The biochip detection is based on a chemiluminescent signal emitting light, without heat, as a result of a chemical reaction. The light emitted is simultaneously detected and quantified using a CCD camera.
Overall, by utilising Randox Clinical Laboratory Services you can save your laboratory time and money. Due to our multiplex panels we offer a cost-effective, labour-saving and time-reducing solutions for your sample testing. As a result we provide your laboratory with the best solution to outsource your sample.
If you would like to find out more information about RCLS you can visit www.randox.com/rcls
Or for any additional questions on what it has to offer you can email the RCLS team at email@example.com
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is both a cause and a consequence of cardiovascular diseases, and is an increasing burden on global health. As diabetes, obesity and hypertension incidences continue to rise and the world’s population steadily ages, CKD’s prevalence is already estimated to be between 11% and 13% globally for all five KDOQI stages, with a majority in Stage 3 (about 90% of all stages).
With early stages of CKD being asymptomatic and current diagnostic tools (proteinuria determined by albumin to creatinine ratio and decreased renal function estimated from GFR using the CKD-EPI equation) are insufficiently sensitive to detect most cases up to stage 3, it is likely that the true prevalence of CKD is still underestimated. Therefore the need to improve both early diagnostics and overall CKD outcome is all the more critical.
Accordingly, biomarker research has been intense in the field of renal disease for at least 10 years with a number of promising candidates emerging, some now well-known by specialists: Cystatin C, NGAL or KIM-1 for example.
However, further novel biomarkers, assessed in combination using a properly developed multiplex assays can allow superior insight into CKD than what their individual performance could achieve. This also largely stems from selecting the markers that are indicative of complementary mechanisms that contribute to the development of CKD.
When assayed together from a single serum sample and after combinatorial analysis has been applied, these biomarkers can open new avenues in the management of CKD, such as proper diagnosis of the condition from Stage 1, clear differentiation between stages and monitoring of the progression pace of the disease. Early screening of patients at risk of CKD is now within reach and it is expected that its systematic use will have a profound impact on health system economics.
Another area of interest in renal research is Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) which may arise as a result of cardiac surgery and can subsequently lead to CKD. AKI detection is also of significant interest in the field of drug development, where early stage toxicity is still a large cause of new drug marketing withdrawal. Hence selecting and qualifying kidney tissue damage biomarkers, and assembling them into a multiplex panel is a key priority to those involved in early stage clinical trials.
An AKI panel has been worked out using the same principles as those used in the development of the CKD panel: high individual diagnostic value and multiple, independent cellular targets. This panel is now ready for final clinical qualification and will be one of the first of several organ-targeted safety panels aiming to become standard for drug induced toxicity screening.
It is key to the adoption of multiplex testing that proper validation guidelines be published and that careful, matrix-based validation data is made available to potential users. It is essential that multiplexed testing comes to the front line of testing in the field, so it can deliver to its full potential and start translating into public health improvement and cost savings. Technology is ready, let’s make a start!
Dr Claire Huguet
Randox Biosciences – Head of Biomarkers
For further information about kidney disease screening from Randox Biosciences, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
A partnership between Randox Laboratories, the UK’s largest manufacturer of in-vitro diagnostics, and the German technology giant Bosch is changing the way doctors will treat patients with antibiotics, with the launch of a revolutionary product – the Vivalytic.
It’s estimated that 20% of antibiotics currently prescribed are unnecessary, and fuel the growing threat of global antibiotic resistance. This threatens the ability to treat common infectious diseases, and a growing number are becoming harder, and in some cases impossible, to treat. The World Health Organisation warns that without action, we are heading towards a post-antibiotic era.
This problem is being addressed by the Vivalytic. The result of a decade of R&D, it is an intuitive point-of-care analyser that, depending on the complexity of the test, will deliver results from 30 minutes: enabling doctors to select the right course of therapy faster than before. In some cases, this will be life-saving.
The first tests available on the Vivalytic are Randox’s panels for respiratory and sexually-transmitted infections*.
Using Randox’s patented Biochip Array Technology, the Respiratory Multiplex Array simultaneously reports on 22 viral and bacterial pathogens including Bordetella pertussis and parapertussis which causes whooping cough – without the need for secondary or confirmatory testing to inform clinical treatment decisions. The STI array enables the detection of 10 STIs from a single sample. Every day more than 1 million STIs are acquired, and many have mild if any symptoms at all. Identifying these infections correctly first time reduces the misuse of antibiotics and supports their targeted use.
The Managing Director of Randox Dr Peter FitzGerald commented:
“Antibiotic stewardship is a critical issue which we all have a responsibility to embrace and drive forward. This partnership is ideal, combining our expertise in molecular laboratory diagnostics with Bosch’s cutting-edge engineering. The Vivalytic is a game-changer for clinicians and patients: never before has there been this level of accessibility to this range of molecular diagnostics.”
Marc Meier, General Manager of Bosch Healthcare Solutions, a wholly owned subsidiary of Bosch Group, said:
“We are enthusiastic about having gained Randox as the first partner on our platform with two initial panels available from the start. It´s the beginning of jointly expanding the Vivalytic test portfolio for our clients. In this partnership the core competencies of Bosch in automation, miniaturization, and networking are complemented by Randox’s expertise in developing and commercializing innovative diagnostic solutions.”
Vivalytic and the panels will be presented to industry professionals for the first time at the ECCMID 2018 Congress in Madrid, Spain, in hall 10, booth 55A between 21st – 24th April.
*CE pending and FDA planned.
For further information about the Vivalytic, please contact email@example.com
A recent study completed by the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) reported an all-time high of 3.6 lakh kg narcotic drugs seized in India in 2017, this was an increase of over 300 percent in the last five years. Known as ganja, cannabis is the most widely abused drug in India, increasing from 40,113 in 1999 to 352,379 by 2017, according to The Times of India.
(Sourced: The Times of India: Drug abuse on the rise in India, Ganja most in demand)
A prevalent issue in the north of India is pharmaceutical drug abuse, both over the counter and prescription drugs. The Times of India reported that 566,450 bottles of cough syrup, 58,463 injections and more than 6,300,000 tablets were recovered across India in 2017. Among the drugs being smuggled out of India and into countries such as America and Canada is the opioid painkiller Tramadol, which is not covered under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.
With daily drug seizures across the country, the situation in India has been described as akin to the US national opioid emergency. Therefore, it has been suggested that a harm-reduction approach be taken to educate the young and tackling substance abuse.
Using our revolutionary Biochip Array Technology, the Evidence MultiSTAT is a fully automated analyser that enables on-site simultaneous detection of up to 21 classical, prescription and synthetic drugs from a single sample. Designed to work across a variety of matrices and generate results in under 20 minutes, Randox Toxicology have changed the landscape of drug detection forever.
For further information about the Evidence MultiSTAT and our cutting-edge multiplex testing capabilities, contact firstname.lastname@example.org to be put in touch with a sales member or visit www.randoxtoxicology.com