Dementia Action Week 2024

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Dementia Action Week 2024

Dementia Action Week 2024 (13th – 20th May)

The term Dementia describes the different brain disorders that trigger a loss of brain function. These conditions are all usually progressive and eventually severe. Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common type of dementia, affecting 62 per cent of all those diagnosed.

Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life.  Common symptoms include memory loss, confusion, and speech problems. Early warning signs may also include finding it difficult to follow conversations, or programs on TV, forgetting names of friends, or everyday objects and feeling confused even in a familiar environment.

Mainly affecting older people, after the age of 65, the likelihood of developing dementia roughly doubles every five years – however, for some dementia can develop earlier, presenting different issues for the person affected, their carer and their family. There is also a considerable economic cost associated with the disease estimated at £23 billion a year, which is predicted to triple by 2040. This is more than the cost of cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

At Randox, we recognise the importance in diagnosing dementia early.  Through our Randox  Alzheimer’s Disease Array which can be used for Rapid Identification of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk. Randox’s Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Array can be used for the direct determination of ApoE4 status from plasma, eliminating the need for genetic testing, assisting in clinical research and personalised medicine strategies. At Randox, we believe the importance of measuring ApoE4 protein expression in plasma is the way forward to screen those individuals at increased risk of Alzheimer Disease, as new beta amyloid-targeting therapies for this condition are being expected.

Race Against Dementia have been the partner charity for the Randox Grand National Festival over the past two years, working alongside this charity which was founded by three-times Formula One World Champion, Sir Jackie Stewart, with the aim of funding much needed pioneering research into the prevention and cure of dementia.

For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array please email info@randoxbiosciences.com


Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Apolipoprotein E

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Apolipoprotein E

Raising awareness of Alzheimer’s Disease

Every year we celebrate Alzheimer’s Day on 21st September to help raise awareness around dementia. Dementia is the medical name attributed to a set of symptoms affecting the brain, including: difficulties with problem solving, thinking, language and memory loss. AD is the most common form of dementia accounting for 60 – 80% of cases and it is believed that half of patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (dementia due to AD) have Alzheimer’s disease 1, 2.

About Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

AD is one of the most devastating and complex diseases characterised by:

  • Neurodegeneration resulting in memory loss 2
  • Neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau amyloid fibrils which associates with synapse loss 2
  • Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques 2
  • Other cognitive functions 2

Figure 1: Alzheimer’s Disease Demographic, 2019 3

It is believed that AD is expected to begin 20 years prior to symptom onset, as the small changes in the functioning of the brain are unnoticeable to the person affected. Overtime, the symptoms progress and begin to interfere with the patient’s ability to perform everyday tasks. The final stages of AD leaves the patient bed-bound, requiring 24/7 care. Ultimately, AD is fatal. Age has been identified as a risk factor for AD with 10% of people over the age of 65 affected. Moreover, AD has been recognised as a leading cause of morbidity and the sixth leading cause of mortality, but the fifth leading cause of death in over 65’s in the US .3

Physiological Significance of Apolipoprotein E

Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is a lipoprotein composed of 299 amino acids with a molecular weight of 34kDa.  Apo E is responsible for the regulation of homeostasis through the mediation of lipid transport from and to bodily cells and tissues. Apo E comprises of three common isoforms: apo E2, apo E3 and apo E4. The apo E isoforms differ due to differences in either the 112 and 158 amino acids, whether either arginine (ARG) or cysteine (CYS) is present 4.

Apo E3 is the parent form of apo E and is responsible for the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Apo E3 is associated with normal lipid plasma concentrations. Apo E2 is the rarest of the apo E isoforms and differs slightly compared to the apo E3 isoform through the substitution of a single amino acid, ARG158Cys, located near the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) recognition site.

Apo E2 displays impaired binding to the receptor, prohibiting the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant particles. Apo E2 is strongly associated with type-III hyperlipoproteinemia. Apo E3 also differs from apo E4, again through the substitution of a single amino acid, Cys112Arg. The main difference between apo E3 and apo E4 is that apo E4 is unaffected by the binding of the isoform to LDLR. However, apo E4 is strongly associated with dyslipidemia 5. Fig. 2 provides a visual representation of the variations in the Apo E isoforms.

Figure 2: Variations in the Apo E Isoforms 4

Apo E is expressed in numerous bodily organs with the liver presenting with the highest expression followed by the brain. Astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, microglia are the major cells responsible for the expression of apo E in the brain. In the brain, apo E, apo J and apo A-1 are predominantly expressed on distinct high-density-like lipoprotein particles. Whilst apo A-1 is the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), in the central nervous system (CNS), apo E is the predominant apolipoprotein of HDL-like lipoproteins. HDL-like lipoproteins are the only lipoproteins present in the CNS. It is believed that the cholesterol released from apo E supports synaptogenesis 6.

Clinical Significance of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer’s Disease

Whilst apo E3 is the most abundant of the three isoforms, apo E4 has been known for decades to be the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Inheriting the one copy of the apo E4 gene increases the risk of AD 2-3-fold, whilst inheriting two copies increases the risk of AD up to 12-fold 7. Whilst the underlying mechanism of apo E’s contribution to AD risk is still unclear and debatable, apo E has been identified as promoting amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and clearance as well as neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Interestingly, Aβ-independent pathways exist for apo E in AD, which led to the unearthing of the new roles of apo E including the most recent, iron metabolism and mitochondria dysfunction 8, 9. Captivatingly, sex-related hormones may play a role in AD in apo E4 carriers as AD has been recognised to be more pronounced in women 10. Apo E4 has also been identified as impairing lipid transport, microglial responsiveness, glucose metabolism, synaptic plasticity and integrity, and cerebrovascular function and integrity. Some of these pathogeneses are independent of Aβ pathways. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies are aiming to modulate the quantity, lipidation, structural properties, Aβ interaction and receptor expression of Apo E 11.

Key Features of the Randox Apolipoprotein E Assay

Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer the apo E assay in an automated clinical chemistry format. Utilising the immunoturbidimetric method, the Randox apo E assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format. Not only does the Randox apo E suffer from limited interferences from bilirubin, haemoglobin, intralipid® and triglycerides for truly accurate results, it has an excellent measuring range of 1.04 – 12.3mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results. Moreover, apolipoprotein calibrator and controls are available for a complete testing package. Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo E assay on a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers.

Biochip Technology – Alzheimer’s Array

Utilising the Biochip Technology, Randox have developed an array to identify the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in just 3 hours with one effective test. In addition to a rapid and accurate diagnosis, this also introduces both cost and time-saving benefits. The apo E4 array is a research use only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip. The apo E4 array measures both total apo E protein levels and apo E4 protein levels directly from plasma samples as well as using a ratio, it can classify patients as negative or positive for apo E4. In turn, we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

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