Alzheimer’s Disease testing on the Randox Evidence Series
What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease and is one of the most common kinds of dementia.
Our brains are made up of billions of tiny nerve cells which connect to each other. However, if you have Alzheimer’s Disease the connections between the cells are lost, which results in the loss of brain tissue and causes nerve cells to die1.
The brain is responsible for sending signals between cells. Those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less ‘chemical messengers’ in their brain, so the signals are not passed on as well1.
The statistics of those who suffer with dementia is increasingly high and the figure is set to rise in the foreseeable future. Over 850,000 people are living with dementia in the UK. Studies states that one million people in the UK will have dementia in 2025 and this will increase to two million by 2050.2
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease
The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are divided into 3 main stages; early symptoms, middle-stage symptoms and later symptoms.
In the early stages, the main symptom of Alzheimer’s disease is memory lapses which can increase anxiety or agitation. In the early stages, it is often mistaken that the person is forgetful and aren’t aware they are suffering with Alzheimer’s. The typical signs are listed below:3
- forget about recent conversations or events
- misplace items
- forget the names of places and objects
- have trouble thinking of the right word
- ask questions repetitively
- show poor judgement
- become less flexible and more hesitant to try new things
As the disease progresses, the symptoms will gradually get worse. Memory problems will get worse which can make it difficult for the person who suffers with the disease to remember names of their loved ones, recent events and even remember birthdays and anniversaries. More symptoms such as the following will develop;3
- increasing confusion and disorientation – for example, getting lost, or wandering and not knowing what time of day it is
- obsessive, repetitive or impulsive behaviour
- delusions or feeling paranoid and suspicious about carers or family members
- problems with speech or language
- disturbed sleep
- changes in mood
- difficulty performing simple tasks and may need additional support e.g. help with eating, getting dressed etc.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s disease, the symptoms become increasingly severe and patients will need full-time care and assistance. It will be problematic for the individual to do basic everyday tasks such as getting changed, going to the toilet, getting washed and feeding themselves. They could lose their speech, and have difficulty eating and swallowing which can result in severe weight loss.
How Randox can help
Randox want to help. Our Evidence immunoanalyser has revolutionised laboratory screening worldwide with the capability to process 3,960 tests per hour and a sample capacity of 360. We offer the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array for Alzheimer’s genetic risk assessment, which is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator. The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and using a ratio can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email firstname.lastname@example.org
May is National Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Awareness Month. The purpose of having the awareness month is to educate and raise additional awareness to the public about the horrible disease and how it affects those who suffer. According to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, more than 30,000 people are living with cystic fibrosis. More than 75% of these people are diagnosed in their early childhood 1.
What is CF?
Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic, life-threatening disease which affects the respiratory and digestive system. A person with CF is born with the condition and therefore it is not possible to catch it from someone else. The gene affected by CF controls the movement of salt and water in and out of cells, which results in a build-up of thick sticky mucus in the lungs, digestive system and other organs. This causes a wide range of challenging symptoms affecting the entire body.2
Symptoms of CF:
There are many symptoms to Cystic Fibrosis which can make life for someone who suffers with CF challenging. The build-up of sticky mucus in the lungs can make breathing difficult and clog up the pancreas which as a result can increase the risk of developing a lung infection or worse, death. This can make it difficult for those who have CF to absorb nutrients from food properly and therefore they must eat more calories to avoid malnutrition. Other symptoms include the following:3
- recurring chest infections
- wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath and damage to the airways (bronchiectasis)
- difficulty putting on weight and growing
- diarrhoea, constipation, or large, smelly poo
- a bowel obstruction in new-born babies (meconium ileus) – surgery may be needed
Complications of CF:
3People with CF also have a higher risk of developing other conditions. These include:
- weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis)– medicines called bisphosphonates can sometimes help
- diabetes– insulin and a special diet may be needed to control blood sugar levels
- nasal polyps and sinus infections – steroids, antihistamines, antibiotics or sinus flushes can help
- liver problems
- fertility problems – it’s possible for women with CF to have children, but men won’t be able to father a child without help from fertility specialists (see a doctor or fertility specialist for more advice)
4There is no cure for CF, but with improved treatment and management people with Cystic Fibrosis are living longer. It’s thought that children born with CF nowadays are likely to live to an average age of over 50 years old.
How we can help:
Randox Biosciences offer the Vivalytic with the Chronic Lung Disease cartridge, in combination with our intelligent Biochip Array Technology which detects 132 pathogens. The 132 species are simultaneously detected across this 320 Array including bacterial, viral, fungal targets and an antibiotic resistance marker from a single sputum sample!
A stroke can happen to anyone at any time. It is a serious life-threatening medical condition which occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. It causes the brain cells to die resulting the abilities controlled by the brain such as memory and muscle control to become damaged. 1
According to the Stroke Association, strokes are considered the fourth biggest killer in the UK. There are more than 100,000 strokes each year which equals around one stroke every five minutes.2 Some people recover from the condition; however, two thirds of the survivors will have some sort of disability. 3
There are two mains types of strokes which are defined as “Ischemic strokes” and “Hemorrhagic stroke”.
Ischemic stroke is by far the most common kind of stroke, accounting for about 88% of all cases4. Ischemic strokes occur when there is an artery blockage which cuts off the blood supply to certain areas of the brain, which then results in brain cells being unable to make energy and dying. The arteries are vital for the brain as they bring fresh blood from the heart and lungs carrying oxygen and nutrients and taking away carbon dioxide and cellular waste. 4
The hemorrhagic stroke is less common but is more severe as there is a higher risk of dying within the first three months. It is when a blood vessel ruptures causing a bleed inside the brain, resulting in the death of brain cells. They are responsible for 40% of all stroke deaths.5
Symptoms of Stroke
The most commons symptoms of a stroke are:
- Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
- Loss of vision or dimming in one or both eyes
- Loss of speech, difficulty talking, or understanding what others are saying
- Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
- Loss of balance or unstable walking, usually combined with another symptom
Many risk factors can increase your chance of having a stroke. Some life style factors include being obese/overweight, not exercising enough, heavy drinking, use of illegal drug such as cocaine, cigarette smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, disruptive sleeping pattern and family history of having stroke or heart attack.
Up to 80% of strokes are preventable. 3 There are simple healthy lifestyle recommendations that could decrease your chances of developing a stroke in the future which include:
- Controlling your blood pressures as it is one of the biggest preventions of developing a stroke.
- Maintaining a healthy weight through a well-balanced diet involving rich fruit and vegetables as well as decreasing the amount of cholesterol, saturated fat and sodium intake.
- Exercising regularly and staying within a good routine will also reduce your risk of having a stroke.
- Quitting tobacco usage and decreasing alohcal intake will help as well as regular usage increases the risk of having high blood pressure.
- Avoid taking illegal drugs such as cocaine as it reduces your blood flow which narrows the arteries.
Randox Biosciences offers a stroke array which works quickly to determine which type of stroke a person has experienced. Ischaemic stroke can be treated by thrombolysis and, with early usage, it can help limit stroke damage and disability.
However, inappropriate administration of thrombolytic therapy can cause serious adverse effects, including intracranial haemorrhage. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need for a rapid and highly sensitive testing that complements existing CT scanning approaches and facilitate the definitive identification of ischaemic stroke patients.
Randox’s innovative Biochip Array Technology enables simultaneous detection of eight stroke biomarkers from a single blood sample.
The eight biomarkers that can be detected in a single blood sample are:
- Glutathione S-Transferase-Pi (GSTP-Pi)
- Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase A (NDKA)
- Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7)
- Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
- Interleukin 6 (IL-6)
- Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP)
This year, National Brain Awareness Week runs from the 11th onto the 15th March 2019; a full week dedicated to brain health to increase public awareness of the progress and research of brain health.
Every single brain is unique and therefore, there are no two brains that are alike. The brain is an incredible and powerful organ which works throughout your life – starting from the womb to the end. It controls your body functioning in response to processing new information, developing new experiences and allowing you to understand and interact with the world. It contains one hundred billion nerve cells or neurons and each of the neurons can contact thousands of other cells via tiny structures called synapses. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives.1
There are many conditions which can affect the brain including brain injuries, cerebrovascular injuries such as strokes or brain tumors, neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia or Parkinson’s disease, or even psychological conditions.
There is increasing evidence that the choices we make in life can have significant impacts on the health of our brain and bodies as we grow older. Doctors and scientific researchers have discovered that it’s possible to improve brain health and reduce the risk of dementia and age-related cognitive decline by making simple yet small lifestyle changes – for example, improving your physical exercise.
Physical experience is not only good for the heart but also has a positive impact on the brain as well. People who exercise regularly have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease as exercise improves blood flow and memory. Another way to improve your brain health is to get your eight hours of sleep. Poor sleeping patterns can increase your chances of developing the brain conditions highlighted above. Also, eating well and eating foods that improve brain function will go a long way – for example, berries, fish, turmeric, green tea, avocado, walnuts and even dark chocolate.
Caroline Abrahams, Director of Age UK said: ‘The changes that we need to make to keep our brains healthy are already proven to be good for the heart and overall health, so it’s common sense for us all to try to build them into our lives.’ 3
Randox Biosciences offers the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array. The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator. The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and by using a ratio it can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
Randox Biosciences is delighted to officially announce the launch of our new website which offers a sleek, simple yet informative platform to further your knowledge of our product range and how we can assist you.
After six months of hard work and dedication the website has a fresh look. The interactive aspect of the website provides an easy way for our visitors to learn about Randox Biosciences products and services.
The improved interactive navigation ensures the user enjoys a seamless transition through Randox Biosciences extensive range of products and services with a better experience for both mobile and desktop versions. Potential customers will be able to identify with ease which client segment they fit into – whether it be Academic Research, Biopharma or Clinical Laboratory, enjoying a fully responsive experience.
During the redesign of the Randox Biosciences website we ensured that the brand identity remained consistent throughout, incorporating the brand colours across the site. We in cooperated GIFS (Graphics Interchange Format or moving images) on the top of the homepage as the main header of the website to automatically attract visitors with a moving graphic.
The GIF represents the Biochip Array Technology and the two different diagnostics testing we offer at Randox Biosciences. The GIFs images were continued throughout the website to highlight the three industries we cater for. Brochure downloads are also available on the new website for customers to enhance their knowledge with more in-depth information of Randox’s products and services.
The incorporation of an overview video on the homepage enables website users to gain a snapshot view of Randox Biosciences products and services. The idea of presenting the video first is to allow the visitor to understand our company from a visual method rather than processing a lot of written information.
73% of consumers worldwide would prefer seeing a video than text because they are more “entertaining”.1 The video itself, captures exactly what Randox Biosciences is and what we do. A short yet effective video clearly illustrates the science behind of Randox Biosciences and how this reaches the patient through drug discovery and development.
Julie-Ann O’Hare, Director of Randox Biosciences, commented:
“I am thrilled with the final product of the website, which I hope our current and potential customers will utilise it with ease. The website is another aspect of aligning our marketing strategy and branding to ensure our messaging is clear, concise and consistent across the board. We look forward to the continuation of promoting Randox Biosciences in the digital landscape throughout 2019.”
An e-commerce section of the website is under construction for the sale of our BioReagent products, which they are very excited to launch upon completion in Q3.
Check out our new and improved website for yourself. It is available at: https://www.randoxbiosciences.com/. Also, to find out more email us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. It is defined as an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, in which parts of the brain are damaged over time. As this happens symptoms develop, but also get worse.
Dr. Alois Alzheimer discovered that in Alzheimer’s disease the connections between the cells and brain tissue are lost because proteins build up and form abnormal structures called “plaques” and “tangles”. 1 A healthy brain contains important chemicals which send signals between the cells, however, those who suffer with Alzheimer’s have less “chemical messengers.” Therefore, the signals don’t get passed on. 1
Age is the biggest risk factor. Alzheimer’s disease is more common amongst older adults. In the UK there are over 40,000 people under the age of 65 who suffer with some form of dementia. 2 Studies also state that women over the age of 65 are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than men – although there is no clear evidence as to why.
There are two different types of Alzheimer’s. The early on-set variant of the condition is very uncommon but strikes people younger than 65. Often people with early-onset Alzheimer’s develop symptoms in their 40s or 50s. Whereas, late-onset Alzheimers is more common and affects people age 65 and older. 2
The disease slowly destroys memory and thinking skills. The earliest symptoms are memory lapses where they may struggle to remember recent events or learn new information, or even forget important items for day-to-day life for example, their keys, glasses or mobile phone. Memory loss due to the disease can increasingly interfere with their life as often the ability to carry out simple tasks can become a struggle. As a result, the person suffering can become anxious, irritable and can even be depressed.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s, the symptoms become more severe. The individual will become less aware of what’s happening around them. They may have difficulties eating, walking and will require additional help and support with their daily activities from their loved ones or from a carer.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease, although, there is treatment that can help manage the symptoms.
The Randox Apolipoprotein E4 Array
Randox offers The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array.
The Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) Array is a research use-only product developed for the Evidence Investigator, which is a semi-automated benchtop immunoassay analyser which can process up to 2376 test per hour as well as up to 44 analytes screened per biochip.
The ApoE4 Array measures both total ApoE protein levels and ApoE4 protein levels directly from plasma samples and by using a ratio it can classify patients as negative or positive for ApoE4. In turn we can then assess their risk for the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
For further information about the Randox Alzheimer’s Array or our Evidence Investigator, please email email@example.com
National STIQ Day
National STIQ day was introduced in 2010 and every year since then the 14th of January has been dedicated to raising awareness for STIQ. The purpose is to emphasize the importance of sexual health and to encourage everyone to get regular health checks.
Sexually Transmissible Infections (STIs) are infections passed from one person to another through unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex, or genital contact.
Lack of symptoms
More and more people in the UK are catching STIs and each year the infection rate is rising. According to The World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million STIs are acquired every day and the majority of these STIs have no symptoms.1 Therefore you could have an STI and not be aware. 70% of women and 50% of men show no symptoms after contracting Chlamydia which is the most common STI condition in the UK.2
Even though the majority of the time symptoms of STIs aren’t visible, there can be signs of having an STI, including unusual discharge from the vagina, penis or anus, pain when peeing, lumps or skin growth around the genitals, a rash, unusual bleeding, itchiness or blisters around the genitals.3
What to do when you catch an STI
Anyone can catch an STI regardless of what age you are, your sexuality or how many sexual partners you have, as it only takes one sexual encounter to put you at the risk of catching an STI. A shocking fact from Public Health England shows that a case of chlamydia or gonorrhea is diagnosed in a young person every 4 minutes in England, and over 144,000 diagnoses of these sexually transmitted infections are seen in people aged 15 to 24 in 2017. 4
It is extremely important to get routinely tested. The earlier the diagnosis is made and treated the less chance of having long-term effects including infertility.
Randox Biosciences 10-plex STI test
Randox Biosciences would like to take the opportunity to support STIQ day by offering our CE marked 10-plex STI test, a cost-effective solution for accurate STI testing. This test detects the following 10 infections simultaneously from a single patient urine sample.
- Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG)
- Mycoplasma genitalium (MG)
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU)
- Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)
- Trichomonas vaginalis (TV)
- Haemophilus ducreyi (HD)
- Mycoplasma hominis (MH)
- Treponema pallidum (TP)
- Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)
- Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2)
Does your laboratory or clinic carry out STI testing? Our molecular analyser, the Bosch Vivalytic, powered by our award winning Biochip Array Technology, could be the diagnostic solution.
For more information about our STI Arrays or Vivalytic email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Evidence Evolution is a fully automated immune-analyser with random access. The machine has the capability to process up to 2640 tests per hour with up to 44 analytes screened per biochip. With a wide range test menu Randox can offer the market the service they expect with state-of-the-art intuitive touchscreen software and advanced precision bio-drive robotics.
Metabolic syndrome is described as a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. As result of three health conditions going on, it puts the individual at greater risk of developing coronary heart disease, stroke and many other risks. 1 As well as developing additional health conditions it can cause damage to the blood vessels, the blood pressure damages the blood vessels, the obesity causes a lot of strain on the blood vessels and the heart.2 Therefore, can result in serious long-term risks.
Metabolic disease is very common. Studies state that the serious health condition affects about 23% of adults. 3One in four adults in the UK are currently living with metabolic syndrome and often becomes more common with age2.
Usually it affects those who are overweight or considered obese, have an unbalanced diet containing high levels of sugar and fat and have high cholesterol and extremely high blood pressure2 therefore, the condition can be prevented by reducing the risks.
1 According to the NHS, metabolic syndrome occurs when a person has three or more of the following measurements:
- Abdominal obesity (Waist circumference of greater than 40 inches in men, and greater than 35 inches in women)
- Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
- HDL cholesterol of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
- Systolic blood pressure (top number) of 130 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure (bottom number) of 85 mm Hg or greater
- Fasting glucose of 100 mg/dL or greater
There are many ways to prevent metabolic syndrome from developing, making lifestyle changes for example, ensuring their weight is healthy by increasing physical exercise, eating a well-balanced healthy diet containing whole grains, fruit, vegetables and fish and finally, visiting the GP to monitor and manage blood glucose, blood cholesterol and blood pressure, quit smoking and managing your stress.
Randox offers the Evidence Evolution including two Metabolic Syndrome Arrays which allows multiplex testing from a single sample allowing rapid turnaround time and are suitable for both serum and plasma samples.
Metabolic Syndrome Array I
- Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
- Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)
- Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)
Metabolic Syndrome Array II
- C-reactive Protein (CRP)
- Cystatin C
For more information on our Evidence Series or Metabolic Syndrome Range of Assays, contact us at EvidenceSeries@randox.com
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder where the child is born with extremely high cholesterol levels. FH can trace back through several generations. Cholesterol is vital for the normal function of the human body therefore, it is important to ensure the cholesterol levels don’t get too high because it can result in early onset cardiovascular disease. 1
The FH Foundation states an interesting fact that 1 in 250 people worldwide have FH and over 90% of these people have not been properly diagnosed 2. Majority of these people won’t know they have FH disease until they have a heart attack!
However, there are no clear symptoms if someone has FH until it is too late and the damage has been done. The warning signs include the following:1
- Swollen tendons/fatty lumps on the knuckles of your hands, at the back of your ankles and knees
- Cholesterol deposits around the eye-lids (looks like pale and yellowish patches)
- Gray-white cholesterol deposits around the corneas
A study in 2008 by the British Heart Foundation found that people with FH who are diagnosed and treated before they develop heart disease live as long people who don’t have FH 4. This theory emphasis the importance of getting early diagnosis to prevent long-term problems. Treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease involves taking medication prescribed by the doctor and making lifestyle changes including; modifying diet, increasing exercise, quit smoking, decrease drinking alcohol and ensure the patient gets regular sleep.
Randox offers the Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Arrays I & II to help encourage early diagnosis with rapid turnaround time allowing results to be reported within days compared to NHS waiting lists which can be substantially longer. The two arrays are rapid, simple and accurate which enables the simultaneous detection of 40 FH-causing mutations (20 mutations per array) within the LDLR, ApoB and PCSK9 genes. The mutational status can be determined rapidly from a single test, with a reduced need for confirmatory testing with NGS. The genetic analysis for FH mutations allows for more accurate diagnosis compared to lipid profiling.
Randox can help using the award-winning Biochip Analyser to achieve early and appropriate treatment for those with FH resulting those to adopt a healthier lifestyle and taking cholesterol-lowering medication, risk of heart disease to live a longer and healthy life!
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Arrays I & II:
- LDLR – 38 mutations
- APOB – 1 mutation
- PCSK9 – 1 mutation
To find out more about the products that we offer email us email@example.com
The Evidence is the world’s first protein Biochip Array Technology Analyser (BAT). The awarding winning Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte testing platform allowing the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.
The Evidence is a fully automated immunoanalyser which is renowned for higher standards of quality, efficiency and reliability. It is tailored and more suitable in a wide range of settings including hospital laboratories, clinical laboratories, private and public research applications, veterinary laboratories, forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmaceutical applications.
There are many key features for The Evidence, including the ability to carry out multiplex testing which will allow multiple tests to be carried out from a single patient sample as a result. It reduces the amount of labour spent on the individual tests and therefore saves money and time. The analyser is more suitable for larger laboratories with a throughput of >1500 tests per hour with a fully automated system maximising the walk away time – allowing staff to devote their time to other important tasks.
The multi-analyte barcoded controls and calibrators ensure security, accuracy and reliable laboratory testing. They also allow for full traceability making the overall experience easier. It offers a wide-ranging and diverse test menu which offer more tests than other sole suppliers and this will benefit many research areas including immunology, metabolic, cardiovascular and oncology.
Neurological conditions can affect young and old people and result from damage to the brain, spine or nerves which is triggered by an illness or an injury1. Up to 1 billion people (one in six of the world’s population suffer from neurological disorders from Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, strokes, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy 2. In England the number of deaths from neurological disorders have rose by 39% over the past 13 years3.
Randox offers two Cerebral Arrays which have been designed for the simultaneous measurement of analytes associated with nervous system dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The Arrays can measure up to five biomarkers simultaneously. They are suitable for human serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Additionally, it offers excellent sensitivity, precision and recovery as well as analytical performance.
For more information on our Evidence Series or Cerebral range of Assays, contact us at EvidenceSeries@randox.com