Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) Assay

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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) Assay

Reagent | Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)

A Genetic Risk Factor for CVD & Alzheimer’s Disease

Benefits of the Randox ApoE Assay

Exception correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apoE assay was compared to commercially available methods.

Excellent precision

The Randox apoE assay displayed a precision of <2.79% CV.

Extensive measuring range

The Randox apoE assay has a measuring range of 1.04 – 12.3mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

The apoE assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Dedicated calibrator and controls available

Randox offer dedicated apolipoprotein calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apoE assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize    
LP3864R1 2 x 11ml
R2 2 x 5ml
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Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES

The apolipoproteinE (APOE) gene provides instructions for the production of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) protein. The apoE protein binds with lipid forming lipoproteins which are responsible for the transportation of cholesterol and other lipids through the bloodstream 1.

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with central roles in lipid metabolism, neurobiology, and neurodegenerative diseases. ApoE has three major isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) all of which have different effects on lipid and neuronal homeostasis (fig 1). The key function of apoE is to mediate the binding of lipoproteins or lipid complexes in the plasma or interstitial fluids to specific cell-surface receptors. These receptors internalise apoE-containing lipoprotein particles and so apoE participates in the distribution or redistribution of lipids among various tissues and bodily cells. The e3 allele is the most of the three and may be considered an ancestral allele. The e4 allele is more common in those of Northern European ancestry and lower in those of Asian ancestry 3.

Both apoE2 and apoE4 alleles are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

As apoE2 binds defectively to LDL receptors, apoE2 homozygosity can precipitate type III hyperlipoproteinemia, however, only occurs when another condition, including: diabetes, oestrogen deficiency, hypothyroidism, or obesity, leads to the overproduction of VLDL or fewer LDL receptors, overwhelming the limited ability of apoE2 to mediate the clearance of triglyceride-rich and cholesterol-rich β-VLDL. Other dominant and recessive mutations in apoE that affect residues in or around the receptor binding region also causes type III hyperlipoproteinemia 3.

ApoE3 increases LDL levels in plasma and the risk of atherosclerosis. The lipoprotein-binding preference of apoE4 to large (30-80nm), triglyceride-rick VLDL, is associated with elevated levels of LDL. The enrichment of VLDL with apoE4 accelerates their clearance from the plasma by receptor-mediated endocytosis in the liver and consequently, LDL receptors are downregulated, and LDL levels rise 3.

ApoE4 is the major genetic risk factor, or causative gene, for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including poor clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury, stroke, frontotemporal dementia, Down syndrome, certain patients with Parkinson’s disease, and Lewy body disease 3.

Apo E4 drastically affects AD with 65-80% of all AD patients carrying at least one apoE4 allele. ApoE4 increases the risk of developing AS 4-fold (one allele) and 14-fold (two allele). Carrying one e4 allele is not uncommon with approximately 25% of people worldwide having at least one E4 allele. Fig. 2 illustrates the apoE-mediated pathogenic pathways leading to AD, with amyloid β playing a key role 3.

Related Products

Apolipoprotein Calibrator

Apolipoprotein Control

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IgE Assay

Reagent | Immunoglobulin (IgE)

A Marker of Allergic Diseases

Our Benefits

Exceptional correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox methodology was compared against commercially available methods.

Excellent precision

The Randox IgE assay displayed a precision < 4.0% CV.

Excellent measuring range

The Randox IgE assay has a measuring range of 19.6 – 1007IU/ml for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

The Randox IgE assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Calibrator and controls available

Dedicated IgE calibrator and specific protein controls available for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox IgE assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
Cat NoSize    
IE7308R1 1 x 8ml
R2 1 x 5ml
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Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Clinical Significance

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). IgE was the last immunoglobulin to be discovered. However, since it’s discovery, vast amounts of research have been aimed at characterising its physiological and clinical significance’s. Whilst IgEs chemical structure is unique compared to the rest of the immunoglobulin family (lacks a ‘hinge’ region in the centre of the molecule and gets replaced by the C-epsilon2 domain), it has an array of physiological functions. For immunoglobulin E to fulfil its function, the Fc portion of the antibody must bind to a given cellular receptor located on certain cell types, such as eosinophil or mast cells. Whilst many an array of cellular receptors have been identified, the main ones are Fc-epsilon-RI, Fc-epsilon-II and CD23. Fc-epsilon-RI is the high affinity receptor located on basophils, dendritic cells, eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages and is responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions, enhanced cytokine production, parasitic immunity, and antigen presentation 1.

It is believed that immunoglobulin E evolved as a defence mechanism against parasitic infestation. The major sites of parasitic invasion are the gut, respiratory tract and skin, the typical allergic response sites. IgE antibodies play a key role in the early recognition of foreign material or a general potentiation of the immune system response through improved antigen presentation. An allergy triggered by IgE could be beneficial to the host as the typical allergic reactions include: sneezing, coughing, inflammation, bronchoconstriction and vomiting, to expel allergenic proteins from the body. Different allergens stimulate the production of corresponding allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies 2. The antigen-dependent activation of tissue mast cells that have specific immunoglobulin E bound to their surface is the central event in acute allergic reactions. IgE specific allergens include: allergic or atopic asthma, atopic dermatitis (eczema), food allergies such as peanut and shellfish, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), house dust mite, latex allergy, dog or cat allergies 2, 3.

IgE Calibrator

Specific Proteins Controls

Immunoassay EQA


Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II) Assay

Reagent | Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II)

In Association with Hypertriglyceridemia

Benefits of the Randox Apo C-II Assay

Superior method

The immunoturbidimetric method limits interference from Bilirubin, Haemoglobin, Intralipid® and Triglycerides, producing more accurate results.

Exceptional correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apo C-II assay was compared to commercially available methods.

Excellent measuring range

The Randox apo C-II assay has a measuring range of 1.48 – 9.70mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

The Randox apo C-II assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Dedicated calibrator and controls available

Randox offer dedicated apolipoprotein calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo C-II assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Clinical Significance
Cat NoSize    
LP3866R1 2 x 11ml
R2 2 x 5ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Apo C – II is a 79-amino acid protein synthesised in the liver and is the co-factor for lipid transport in the bloodstream 1. Apo C – II is a surface constituent of lipoproteins and the C – terminal helix activates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) 2. The active peptide of apo C – II corresponds to residues 44 – 79 and has been identified to reverse the symptoms of genetic apo C – II deficiency. Moreover, LPL is also a key enzyme in the regulation of triglyceride levels 3.

Both an excess and deficiency of apo C – II is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced LPL activity. Elevated levels of apo C-II is associated with excess triglyceride – rich particles and altercations in the distribution of HDL particles, increasing the risk of CVD 4. Whilst extremely rare, a deficiency in apo C-II results in excess fasting hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia. Hypertriglyceridemia can cause eruptive xanthomas, pancreatitis, hepatosplenomegaly and lipemia retinalis. Biologically and clinically, apo C – II deficiency closely mimics LPL deficiency. Synonyms for apo C-II deficiency include: C – II an apolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia type Ib 5.

Apolipoprotein Calibrator

Apolipoprotein Control

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Superior Performance & Unique Tests

Superior Performance & Niche Reagents

Randox offer a range of high performance, unique and niche reagents that are designed to enhance your laboratory testing capabilities.

Our impressive portfolio of high performance & unique tests together with our standard assays sets us apart in the in vitro diagnostics market. Our superior performance reagents and methodologies deliver highly accurate and specific results, that can facilitate earlier diagnosis of disease states with confidence and precision.

Benefits of High Performance Reagents

Reduce costs

Reduce Costs

We can help create cost-savings for your laboratory through excellent stability, eliminating the requirement for costly test re-runs. Our quality reagents also come in a range of different kit sizes to reduce waste and for your convenience.

patient results-08

Confidence in Patient Results

Our traceability of material and extremely tight manufacturing tolerances ensure uniformity across our reagent batches. All of our assays are validated against gold-standard methods.

Applications

Applications Available

Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox superior performance & unique assays on a wide variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Superior Performance

Superior Performance Offering

Randox offer an extensive range of 115 assays across routine and niche tests, and cover over 100 disease makers.  Our high performance assays deliver superior methodologies, more accurate and specific results compared to traditional methods.

Reduce labour

Reduce Labour

Reduce valuable time spent running tests. Randox reagents come in liquid ready-to-use formats and various kit sizes for convenient easy-fit. Barcode scanning capabilities for seamless programming.

Unique Offering

Unique Offering

Our range of unique assays means that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer these tests in an automated biochemistry format.

  • Risk Assessment using Randox Reagents
Lp(a)

The Randox Lp(a) assay is calibrated in nmol/l and traceable to the WHO/IFCC reference material (IFCC SRM 2B) and provides an acceptable bias compared with the Northwest Lipid Metabolism Diabetes Research Laboratory (NLMDRKL) gold standard. A five-point calibrator with accuracy-based assigned target values (in nmol/l) is available, accurately reflecting the heterogeneity of the apo(a) isoforms.

Bile Acids

The Randox bile acids test utilises an advanced enzyme cycling method which displays outstanding sensitivity and precision when compared to traditional enzymatic based tests. The Randox 5th Generation Bile Acids test is particularly useful in paediatrics where traditional bile acids tests are affected by haemolytic and lipaemic samples.

Bilirubin

A superior assay from Randox, the vanadate oxidation method offers several advantages over the diazo method, including less interference by haemolysis and lipaemia, which is particularly evident for infant and neonatal populations.

Fructosamine

The Randox Fructosamine assay utilises the enzymatic method which offers improved specificity and reliability compared to conventional NBT-based methods. The Randox enzymatic method does not suffer from non-specific interferences unlike other commercially available fructosamine assays.

sTfR

Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a marker of iron status. In iron deficiency anaemia, sTfR levels are significantly increased, however remain normal in the anaemia of inflammation. Consequently, sTfR measurement is useful in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anaemia.

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Get in touch today at reagents@randox.com

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