Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II) Assay
Benefits of the Randox Apo C-II Assay
The immunoturbidimetric method limits interference from Bilirubin, Haemoglobin, Intralipid® and Triglycerides, producing more accurate results.
A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apo C-II assay was compared to commercially available methods.
Excellent measuring range
The Randox apo C-II assay has a measuring range of 1.48 – 9.70mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.
The Randox apo C-II assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.
Dedicated calibrator and controls available
Randox offer dedicated apolipoprotein calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.
Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo C-II assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.
Apo C – II is a 79-amino acid protein synthesised in the liver and is the co-factor for lipid transport in the bloodstream 1. Apo C – II is a surface constituent of lipoproteins and the C – terminal helix activates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) 2. The active peptide of apo C – II corresponds to residues 44 – 79 and has been identified to reverse the symptoms of genetic apo C – II deficiency. Moreover, LPL is also a key enzyme in the regulation of triglyceride levels 3.
Both an excess and deficiency of apo C – II is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced LPL activity. Elevated levels of apo C-II is associated with excess triglyceride – rich particles and altercations in the distribution of HDL particles, increasing the risk of CVD 4. Whilst extremely rare, a deficiency in apo C-II results in excess fasting hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia. Hypertriglyceridemia can cause eruptive xanthomas, pancreatitis, hepatosplenomegaly and lipemia retinalis. Biologically and clinically, apo C – II deficiency closely mimics LPL deficiency. Synonyms for apo C-II deficiency include: C – II an apolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia type Ib 5.
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 Zdunek J, Martinez GV, Schleucher J, Lycksell PO, Yin Y, et al. Global Structure and Dynamics of Human Apolipoprotein CII in Complex with Micelles: Evidence for Increased Mobility of the Helix Involved in the Activation of Lipoprotein Lipase. Biochemistry 2003; 42(7): 1872-1889.
 Storjohann R, Rozek A, Sparrow JT, Cushley RJ. Structure of a biologically active fragment of human serum apolipoprotein C-II in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 2000; 1486(2-3): 253-264.
 Kei AA, Filippatos TD, Tsimihodimos V, Elisaf MS. A review of the role of apolipoprotein C-II in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2012; 61(7): 906-921.
 Meyers NL, Larsson M, Olivecrona G, Small DM. A Pressure-dependent Model for the Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoprotein C-II*. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2015; 290(29): 18029-18044.
 Hoffmann MM, März W. Apo C-II Deficiency. Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease 2009; 132(133): https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-540-29676-8_137 (accessed 6 November 2019).
Superior Performance Reagents & Unique Tests
Specialty reagents designed to expand and enhance your testing panel
In vitro diagnostics is at the heart of our business. Randox not only offer a wide range of routine assays but also an impressive portfolio of high performance & unique tests which sets us apart in the market. Our superior performance reagents and methodologies deliver highly accurate and specific results, that can facilitate earlier diagnosis of disease states with confidence and precision.
Benefits of the Randox high performance and unique test
We can help create cost-savings for your laboratory through excellent stability, eliminating the requirement for costly test re-runs. Our quality reagents also come in a range of different kit sizes to reduce waste and for your convenience.
Confidence in Patient Results
Our traceability of material and extremely tight manufacturing tolerances ensure uniformity across our reagent batches. All of our assays are validated against gold-standard methods.
Applications are available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox superior performance & unique assays on a wide variety of clinical chemistry analysers.
Superior Performance Offering
Randox offer an extensive range of 115 assays across routine and niche tests, and cover over 100 disease makers. Our high performance assays deliver superior methodologies, more accurate and specific results compared to traditional methods.
Reduce valuable time spent running tests. Randox reagents come in liquid ready-to-use formats and various kit sizes for convenient easy-fit. Barcode scanning capabilities for seamless programming.
Our range of unique assays means that Randox are one of the only manufacturers to offer these tests in an automated biochemistry format.
The in vitro diagnostics market is continuously adapting to the changes in laboratory testing. Consequently, Randox have continued to reinvest in R&D to produce superior performance & unique tests offering laboratories choice, quality and innovation.
The Randox Lp(a) assay is calibrated in nmol/l and traceable to the WHO/IFCC reference material (IFCC SRM 2B) and provides an acceptable bias compared with the Northwest Lipid Metabolism Diabetes Research Laboratory (NLMDRKL) gold standard. A five-point calibrator with accuracy-based assigned target values (in nmol/l) is available, accurately reflecting the heterogeneity of the apo(a) isoforms.
The Randox bile acids test utilises an advanced enzyme cycling method which displays outstanding sensitivity and precision when compared to traditional enzymatic based tests. The Randox 5th Generation Bile Acids test is particularly useful in paediatrics where traditional bile acids tests are affected by haemolytic and lipaemic samples.
A superior assay from Randox, the vanadate oxidation method offers several advantages over the diazo method, including less interference by haemolysis and lipaemia, which is particularly evident for infant and neonatal populations.
Adiponectin has been identified as having pleiotropic functions widely associated with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Adiponectin levels inversely correlate with insulin levels, BMI, triglyceride levels, insulin resistance (IR), glucose, and most importantly, visceral fat accumulation.
Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a marker of iron status. In iron deficiency anaemia, sTfR levels are significantly increased, however remain normal in the anaemia of inflammation. Consequently, sTfR measurement is useful in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anaemia.
The Randox Fructosamine assay utilises the enzymatic method which offers improved specificity and reliability compared to conventional NBT-based methods. The Randox enzymatic method does not suffer from non-specific interferences unlike other commercially available fructosamine assays.
Current challenges facing our healthcare systems
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Worldwide 1/5 of men and 1/4 of women between 65 and 74 years of age have Chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is an umbrella term encompassing a wide range of renal conditions from commonly prevalent sub-clinical, asymptomatic to rare end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or a transplant to sustain life. Kidney disease is ranked in stages from stage 1 (very mild damage) through to stage 5 (kidney failure) 7. Symptoms are commonly expressed in the later stages of renal impairment, however, at this point dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and waste products can build up inside the body. The aim of CKD treatment is to slow the progression of the disease, thus early intervention is vital 8.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
425 million people are living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 352 million are at risk of developing T2DM. T2DM is a serious condition whereby blood glucose levels are elevated (hyperglycaemia). T2DM is characterised by insulin resistance or insulin deficiency. T2DM is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases. The key to T2DM is control. Implementing lifestyle changes, oral medication and in more severe cases, insulin, a diabetic can take control of their disease, keeping glucose levels stable. When glucose levels are not monitored and controlled, associated complications may arise including: diabetic nephropathy, CVD and renal impairment 5, 6.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
CVD accounts for 45% of all deaths in europe and 37% of all deaths in the EU. Atherogenesis is a circulatory disease whereby atheromas are formed (plaque build-up) within the artery. Plaque is a combination of cholesterol, fat, calcium, lipids and other substances within the blood stream. As time progresses, the plaque hardens, narrowing the arteries. This is known as atherosclerosis. Consequently, blood flow through the narrowed artery is reduced, limiting the supply of blood to vital organs and bodily tissues. As atherogenesis can affect any artery within the body, different diseases may develop based on the artery that is affected. Such diseases include: coronary heart/artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease and chronic kidney disease 2, 3, 4.
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Reagents Resource Hub
 Williams DA. Increased funding is not enough to sustain the NHS. We need to make better use of in vitro diagnostics to ensure a successful future. https://www.bivda.org.uk/News-Events/Blog/ArticleID/155/Increased-funding-is-not-enough-to-sustain-the-NHS-We-need-to-make-better-use-of-in-vitro-diagnostics-to-ensure-a-successful-future (accessed 16 April 2019).
 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH). https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/atherosclerosis (accessed 16 April 2019).
 Diabetes UK. What is Type 2 diabetes? https://www.diabetes.org.uk/diabetes-the-basics/what-is-type-2-diabetes (accessed 16 April 2019).
 American Diabetes Association. Type 2 Diabetes. https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/type-2 (accessed 16 April 2019).