Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) Assay

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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) Assay

Reagent | Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)

A Genetic Risk Factor for CVD & Alzheimer’s Disease

Benefits of the Randox ApoE Assay

Correlation

Exception correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apoE assay was compared to commercially available methods.

Precision

Excellent precision

The Randox apoE assay displayed a precision of <2.79% CV.

Measuring range

Extensive measuring range

The Randox apoE assay has a measuring range of 1.04 – 12.3mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

Liquid ready-to-use

The apoE assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Calibrator & Controls

Dedicated calibrator and controls available

Randox offer dedicated apolipoprotein calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apoE assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES
Cat NoSize    
LP3864R1 2 x 11ml
R2 2 x 5ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

The apolipoproteinE (APOE) gene provides instructions for the production of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) protein. The apoE protein binds with lipid forming lipoproteins which are responsible for the transportation of cholesterol and other lipids through the bloodstream 1.

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with central roles in lipid metabolism, neurobiology, and neurodegenerative diseases. ApoE has three major isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) all of which have different effects on lipid and neuronal homeostasis (fig 1). The key function of apoE is to mediate the binding of lipoproteins or lipid complexes in the plasma or interstitial fluids to specific cell-surface receptors. These receptors internalise apoE-containing lipoprotein particles and so apoE participates in the distribution or redistribution of lipids among various tissues and bodily cells 2. The e3 allele is the most of the three and may be considered an ancestral allele. The e4 allele is more common in those of Northern European ancestry and lower in those of Asian ancestry 3.

Fig. 1. ApoE isoforms and their properties 2

Both apoE2 and apoE4 alleles are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

As apoE2 binds defectively to LDL receptors, apoE2 homozygosity can precipitate type III hyperlipoproteinemia, however, only occurs when another condition, including: diabetes, oestrogen deficiency, hypothyroidism, or obesity, leads to the overproduction of VLDL or fewer LDL receptors, overwhelming the limited ability of apoE2 to mediate the clearance of triglyceride-rich and cholesterol-rich β-VLDL. Other dominant and recessive mutations in apoE that affect residues in or around the receptor binding region also causes type III hyperlipoproteinemia 3.

ApoE3 increases LDL levels in plasma and the risk of atherosclerosis. The lipoprotein-binding preference of apoE4 to large (30-80nm), triglyceride-rick VLDL, is associated with elevated levels of LDL. The enrichment of VLDL with apoE4 accelerates their clearance from the plasma by receptor-mediated endocytosis in the liver and consequently, LDL receptors are downregulated, and LDL levels rise 3.

ApoE4 is the major genetic risk factor, or causative gene, for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including poor clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury, stroke, frontotemporal dementia, Down syndrome, certain patients with Parkinson’s disease, and Lewy body disease 3.

Apo E4 drastically affects AD with 65-80% of all AD patients carrying at least one apoE4 allele. ApoE4 increases the risk of developing AS 4-fold (one allele) and 14-fold (two allele). Carrying one e4 allele is not uncommon with approximately 25% of people worldwide having at least one E4 allele. Fig. 2 illustrates the apoE-mediated pathogenic pathways leading to AD, with amyloid β playing a key role 3.

Fig. 2. ApoE-mediated pathogenic pathways leading to Alzheimer’s Disease 4

Related Products

Apolipoprotein Calibrator

Apolipoprotein Control

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IgE Assay

Reagent | Immunoglobulin (IgE)

A Marker of Allergic Diseases

Benefits of the Randox Apo C-II Assay

Correlation

Exceptional correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox methodology was compared against commercially available methods.

Precision

Excellent precision

The Randox IgE assay displayed a precision < 4.0% CV.

Measuring range

Excellent measuring range

The Randox IgE assay has a measuring range of 19.6 – 1007IU/ml for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

Liquid ready-to-use

The Randox IgE assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Calibrator & Controls

Calibrator and controls available

Dedicated IgE calibrator and specific protein controls available for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox IgE assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Clinical Significance
Cat NoSize    
IE7308R1 1 x 8ml
R2 1 x 5ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). IgE was the last immunoglobulin to be discovered. However, since it’s discovery, vast amounts of research have been aimed at characterising its physiological and clinical significance’s. Whilst IgEs chemical structure is unique compared to the rest of the immunoglobulin family (lacks a ‘hinge’ region in the centre of the molecule and gets replaced by the C-epsilon2 domain), it has an array of physiological functions. For immunoglobulin E to fulfil its function, the Fc portion of the antibody must bind to a given cellular receptor located on certain cell types, such as eosinophil or mast cells. Whilst many an array of cellular receptors have been identified, the main ones are Fc-epsilon-RI, Fc-epsilon-II and CD23. Fc-epsilon-RI is the high affinity receptor located on basophils, dendritic cells, eosinophils, mast cells and macrophages and is responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions, enhanced cytokine production, parasitic immunity, and antigen presentation 1.

It is believed that immunoglobulin E evolved as a defence mechanism against parasitic infestation. The major sites of parasitic invasion are the gut, respiratory tract and skin, the typical allergic response sites. IgE antibodies play a key role in the early recognition of foreign material or a general potentiation of the immune system response through improved antigen presentation. An allergy triggered by IgE could be beneficial to the host as the typical allergic reactions include: sneezing, coughing, inflammation, bronchoconstriction and vomiting, to expel allergenic proteins from the body. Different allergens stimulate the production of corresponding allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies 2. The antigen-dependent activation of tissue mast cells that have specific immunoglobulin E bound to their surface is the central event in acute allergic reactions. IgE specific allergens include: allergic or atopic asthma, atopic dermatitis (eczema), food allergies such as peanut and shellfish, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), house dust mite, latex allergy, dog or cat allergies 2, 3.

IgE Calibrator

Specific Proteins Controls

Immunoassay EQA

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Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II) Assay

Reagent | Apolipoprotein C-II (Apo C-II)

In Association with Hypertriglyceridemia

Benefits of the Randox Apo C-II Assay

Superior method

The immunoturbidimetric method limits interference from Bilirubin, Haemoglobin, Intralipid® and Triglycerides, producing more accurate results.

Exceptional correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=1.00 was displayed when the Randox apo C-II assay was compared to commercially available methods.

Excellent measuring range

The Randox apo C-II assay has a measuring range of 1.48 – 9.70mg/dl for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Liquid ready-to-use

The Randox apo C-II assay is available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Dedicated calibrator and controls available

Randox offer dedicated apolipoprotein calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox apo C-II assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

  • Ordering Information
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
  • Clinical Significance
Cat NoSize    
LP3866R1 2 x 11ml
R2 2 x 5ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Apo C – II is a 79-amino acid protein synthesised in the liver and is the co-factor for lipid transport in the bloodstream 1. Apo C – II is a surface constituent of lipoproteins and the C – terminal helix activates lipoprotein lipase (LPL) 2. The active peptide of apo C – II corresponds to residues 44 – 79 and has been identified to reverse the symptoms of genetic apo C – II deficiency. Moreover, LPL is also a key enzyme in the regulation of triglyceride levels 3.

Both an excess and deficiency of apo C – II is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced LPL activity. Elevated levels of apo C-II is associated with excess triglyceride – rich particles and altercations in the distribution of HDL particles, increasing the risk of CVD 4. Whilst extremely rare, a deficiency in apo C-II results in excess fasting hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia. Hypertriglyceridemia can cause eruptive xanthomas, pancreatitis, hepatosplenomegaly and lipemia retinalis. Biologically and clinically, apo C – II deficiency closely mimics LPL deficiency. Synonyms for apo C-II deficiency include: C – II an apolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia type Ib 5.

Apolipoprotein Calibrator

Apolipoprotein Control

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sdLDL Quality Control

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

The Randox Acusera sdLDL quality control is designed for use in the monitoring of sLDL Cholesterol assays on a wide range of instruments.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
sdLDL Cholesterol Control Level 13 x 1ml1LE5013
sdLDL Cholesterol Control Level 23 x 1ml1LE5014
sdLDL Cholesterol Control Level 33 x 1ml1LE5015

Analytes

  • sdLDL Cholesterol

Lipoprotein (a) Quality Control

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

The Randox Acusera Lipoprotein (a) quality control is designed for use in the routine monitoring of immunoturbidimetric Lp (a) assays. A reconstituted stability of 14 days at 2°C – 8°C significantly minimises waste and helps to reduce costs.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 14 days at 2°C – 8°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Lipoprotein (a) Control Level 33 x 1ml1LP3406

Analytes

  • Lipoprotein (a)

Apolipoprotein Quality Control

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

The Randox Acusera Apolipoprotein quality control is designed for use in the routine monitoring of 4 specialised Apolipoprotein assays. Assayed method specific target values and ranges are provided.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided for 4 specialised Apolipoproteins
  • Three levels available covering low, borderline and high risk levels
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of 28 days for Apolipoprotein A-II and C-III, 14 days for Apolipoprotein C-II and 8 hours for Apolipoprotein E. All analytes are stable for 4 weeks at -20°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Apolipoprotein Control Level 13 x 1ml4LE5016
Apolipoprotein Control Level 23 x 1ml4LE5017
Apolipoprotein Control Level 33 x 1ml4LE5018

Analytes

  • Apolipoprotein A-1
  • Apolipoprotein C-III
  • Apolipoprotein C-II
  • Apolipoprotein E

Lipid Quality Control

Therapeutic Drug Quality Control

The Randox Acusera Lipid quality control includes assayed method specific target values and ranges for 7 analytes covering the complete lipid profile. Unlike many manufacturers material the Randox lipid control does not contain preservatives such as Sodium Azide which can interfere with clearance methods of HDL and LDL determination. Two flexible and convenient pack sizes are also available to suit all laboratory sizes.

Features & Benefits

  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human serum
  • Assayed target values provided for 6 parameters
  • Three levels available covering low, borderline and high risk levels
  • Stable to expiry date at 2°C – 8°C
  • Reconstituted stability of up to 7 days at 2°C – 8°C or 4 weeks at -20°C
DescriptionSizeAnalytesCat No 
Lipid Control Level 15 x 1ml7LE2668
Lipid Control Level 25 x 1ml7LE2669
Lipid Control Level 35 x 1ml7LE2670
Lipid Control Level 15 x 3ml7LE2661
Lipid Control Level 25 x 3ml7LE2662
Lipid Control Level 35 x 3ml7LE2663

Analytes

  • Apolipoprotein A-1
  • Apolipoprotein B
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Total Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides

Lipid Quality Controls

acusera-qc-logo

Our Acusera Lipid Quality Controls have been manufactured from 100% human serum to ensure they are commutable, mirroring the behaviour of a real patient sample, with minimal lot to lot value shifts. As all of our lipid quality controls are lyophilised, they contain no stabilisers or preservatives which are known to affect the overall performance of the controls. The multi-analyte controls enable test menu consolidation which, along with the four year shelf life from the date of manufacture, ensures minimal waste helping your lab reduce costs.

Lyophilised Lipid Quality Controls

Lipid Control

7 Analytes

Apoplipoprotein Control

4 Analytes

Lipoprotein (a) Control

1 Analyte

sdLDL Control

1 Analyte

 


Clinical Chemistry External Quality Assessment

The RIQAS General Clinical Chemistry EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 56 parameters covering routine chemistries, lipids, hormones and trace metals. Four flexible yet cost effective programme options are available.

  • Accredited to ISO/IEC 17043
  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Human based serum
  • Flexible options available with bi-weekly and monthly reporting
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost
  • Reference method values are provided for selected parameters / lots
Cat NoKit SizeFrequencyCycle StartParameters 
RQ9112/a13 x 5mlBi-weekly (2 x 6 monthly cycles)March / Sept10 parameters only (Choose from 56)
RQ9112/b13 x 5mlBi-weekly (2 x 6 monthly cycles)March / Sept17 parameters only (Choose from 56)
RQ9112/c13 x 5mlBi-weekly (2 x 6 monthly cycles)March / SeptAll 56 parameters
RQ912812 x 5 mlMonthlyJanuaryAll 56 parameters (monthly reporting)

Parameters

  • ACE
  • Acid phosphatase, prostatic
  • Acid phosphatase, total
  • Adjusted Calcium*
  • Albumin
  • ALP
  • ALT (ALAT)
  • Amylase, pancreatic
  • Amylase, total
  • AST
  • Bicarbonate
  • Bile acids
  • Bilirubin, direct
  • Bilirubin, total
  • Calcium, ionised
  • Calcium, total
  • Chloride
  • Cholinestease
  • UIBC
  • Cholesterol
    • CK, total (CPK)

    • Copper
    • Creatinine
    • D-3-hydroxybutyrate
    • EGFR*
    • Fructosamine
    • Free T3
    • Free T4
    • Gamma GT
    • GLDH
    • Glucose
    • HBDH
    • HDL-Cholesterol
    • Iron
    • Lactate
    • LD (LDH)
    • LDL Cholesterol*
    • Lipase
    • Lithium
      • Magnesium

      • NEFA
      • Non-HDL Cholesterol*
      • Osmolality
      • Phosphate, inorganic
      • Potassium
      • Protein, total
      • PSA
      • Sodium
      • TIBC
      • Total T3
      • Total T4
      • Triglycerides
      • TSH
      • Urea
      • Uric acid
      • Zinc

      *Pilot programmes.

      Please note, product availability may vary country to country.


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