India Must Stop Misusing Antibiotics in Dairy Sector, According to CSE Report
India Must Stop Misusing Antibiotics in Dairy Sector, According to CSE Report
The Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has raised concerns over whether the milk we consume is safe. Hosting a virtual meeting in July, the CSE discussed the use of antibiotics with the world’s largest producer of milk, India. Over 188 million tonnes of milk was produced by India over the period of 2018-2019 and lead with 22% of global milk production.
A recent assessment by the CSE has found indication of antibiotic abuse in milk producing cattle.
“We have found that antibiotics are extensively misused in the dairy sector; antibiotic residues remain largely untested in milk, an integral part of Indian diets, particularly of children,” said CSE Director General Sunita Narain. “While we continue to struggle against COVID-19, we are staring at another pandemic like situation – that of antibiotic resistance fueled by the way we are producing our food, which has become chemical-intensive.”
Antibiotics such as penicillin, aminoglycosides and fluroquinolones are being ‘indiscriminately’ used by dairy farmers according to the CSE. These antibiotics are among the most important in human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned as we face growing concerns over an antibiotic resistance, such antibiotics should be preserved.
Despite laws stating that antibiotics should only be prescribed and administered by a registered veterinarian, the CSE said that some farmers are illegally attaining and injecting animals themselves without the supervision of veterinarians.
“Farmers often sell milk while the animal is under treatment, which increases the chances of antibiotic residues in the milk,” explained Amit Khurana, the CSE’s Food Safety and Toxins Programme Director. “While milk sold directly to consumers is not tested, contrary to what one would expect, processed milk sold in packets is also largely unchecked for antibiotic residues.
“This explains why, despite pooling and processing, packed milk samples from several states had antibiotic residues in the FSSAI’s [Food Safety and Standards Authority of India] milk quality survey of 2018.”
However, CSE noted the virtual meeting has encouraged positive signs of action in the diary industry in India.
“The issues highlighted by the CSE assessment have been well recognised by the experts and stakeholders. These experts have also recommended several measures for minimising antibiotic misuse in the Indian dairy sector.”
In order to minimise the threat of antibiotic resistance, the CSE have recommended “preventative measures” such as;
- Routine observation of drugs residues in milk
- Modifying the existing standards for antibiotic residues in milk
- Limiting misuse of essential antibiotics such as penicillin
Such measures, Khurana noted, are showing some success. “Information shared by various organisations, agencies and experts suggest that ethno-veterinary medicines, better management of sub-clinical mastitis, and good farm management are contributing towards reducing antibiotic misuse.”
“India is now talking about antibiotic resistance in the one-health perspective,” noted Narain. “There is a shared concern, and all voices are now together in expressing that concern.” As such he believes further (and necessary) action will be taken.
“We must ramp up surveillance and testing, put a complete stop to the use of critically important antibiotics and penalise their use,” he added, “and work with farmers and the agriculture-dairy sectors to innovate on solutions.”
Randox Food Diagnostics
Randox Food Diagnostics recognise the pressure the dairy industry is under to mass produce high quality products whilst complying with regulations and have developed the solution. A comprehensive range of easy to use, accurate milk analysis methods for the qualitative and quantitative detection of contaminants in milk.
With 6 Biochip arrays available including the revolutionary InfiniPlex for Milk, Randox Food provide the highest quality testing platforms for the screening of antimicrobials and are the only commercial supplier of a multiplexing anthelmintics array in milk.
Biochip Array Technology saves time and money whilst enabling users to get a deeper insight into milk quality and ensure a safe supply chain.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Randox Food Diagnostics website.
Meat & Seafood
World-first milk test for cattle herd health developed by Randox scientists
Randox scientists have today revealed a revolutionary new method for Bovine disease testing which will radicalise cattle screening against some of the world’s most prevalent bovine viruses, bacteria and parasites.
Named the Bovine Pathogen Array, the test is designed to facilitate prompt diagnosis and the identification of co-infection, which aids in the reduction of the spread of disease, limits the need for medical intervention and milk withdrawal periods, and also ensures maximum efficiency at the producer level.
The veterinary multiplex IVD immunoassay from global diagnostics company Randox, headquartered in Northern Ireland, is the first of its kind on the market – detecting antibodies against six pathogens simultaneously from a single milk sample, rather than the standard more time-consuming method of singleplex ELISA testing currently required for each individual disease.
David Ferguson, Managing Director, Randox Food Diagnostics, commented;
“Our Bovine Pathogen Array is the first of its kind in the world and has the potential to revolutionise how cattle are diagnosed and how quickly pathogens are spread amongst a herd. Simultaneous detection of the rifest, and most problematic, bovine viruses, bacteria and parasites has not been attempted before, and currently, six to seven separate ELISA tests must be conducted in order to obtain the same results as those delivered by the Bovine Pathogen Array.
“Bringing this product to market has been a priority at Randox Food Diagnostics and we are sure that arming industry professionals with quicker and more accurate diagnostic tools will lead to increased yields, increased profit margins for producers and, ultimately, better bovine health.”
The new Bovine Pathogen test, which is conducted on a unique piece of testing technology called the Biochip, generates results in approximately 2.5 hours, allowing faster diagnosis and identification of infected cattle. Milk samples are collected from the herd, added to a Biochip, and then placed in the corresponding analyser (called the Evidence Investigator) which runs tests for multiple diseases – Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Paratuberculosis (Johne’s Disease), Leptospirosis, Neospora Caninum and Fasciola Hepatica (Liver Fluke) – all at once.
Highly contagious and, in many cases, untreatable, there has been much concern regarding outbreaks of these dangerous pathogens in the past number of years. With a global economic impact, high mortality rates, increased premature culling, decreased reproductive performance and reduced milk yield as direct losses, vital research has been long awaited in order to tackle these dangerous conditions faster and more effectively.
“The Randox Bovine Pathogen Array contains a range of well-established antigens complemented by additional select novel analytes for BVD and Neospora Caninum. It can also differentiate between IBR vaccinated and naturally infected animals (DIVA capacity) when used in conjunction with selected vaccines. This comprehensive test menu will significantly contribute to advances in disease research and add to scientific knowledge already available with regards to coinfection, surveillance, vaccine performance and risk factors associated with disease outbreaks.
“We are proud to be able to provide reassurance for dairy producers, enabling them to get to the root of the issue before contamination occurs across the herd.”
The new Bovine Pathogen Array was recognised as most innovative assay at the recent IDF World Dairy Summit, receiving 1st prize in the poster competition. It is now available from Randox Food Diagnostics.
Please email email@example.com for further information.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Randox Food Diagnostics website.
Meat & Seafood
The use of antibiotics in the dairy industry
In this month’s Randox Food Diagnostics blog, we look at the dairy industry and their use of antibiotics.
Antibiotics are used in the dairy industry routinely for pure preventative purposes. Due to poor conditions and hygiene, it is common that cattle will become infected which results in loss of milk yield and beef. Antibiotics are used to alleviate and prevent further suffering from potential zoonotic diseases.
Antibiotics are administered to cattle through a blanket use practice, within a herd to ensure all are treated. Once administered to the animal they must be given a ‘dry’ period when the dairy cattle are allowed to rest between lactations. This lasts roughly around 60 days in which a herd cannot be milked to ensure the antibiotics are out of the cattle’s milk. This however is at a cost to the farmer and cattle cannot be rushed back into milking too soon after administration.
To support the global dairy industry, and to help dairy processors monitor their use of antibiotics, Randox Food have developed the most comprehensive testing methods for milk.
The InfiniPlex for Milk Array is the world’s first screening technology that allows users to test for 130+ contaminants in milk in under 22 minutes. In addition to testing for antibiotics, InfiniPlex can detect anti-parasitic, non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic drug residues from a single sample using patented Biochip Array Technology.
Available on both the Evidence Investigator, a semi-automated system, capable of analysing up to 48 samples in under 2 hours and the Evidence MultiSTAT, a fully automated system that delivers results from a single neat sample of milk in under 22 minutes.
If you are a centralised laboratory, internal surveillance programme, low throughput laboratory or a dairy processor we have the perfect solution for your testing needs.
For more information on the antibiotic screening arrays available, contact firstname.lastname@example.org to find out how Randox Food can simplify your screening practices today.
Want to know more?
Contact us or visit our Randox Food Diagnostics website.
Meat & Seafood
As part of a wider government initiative to tackle Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR), Northern Ireland farmers are being given the opportunity to attend a range of training events aimed at educating them more about potential risks to their businesses.
The new training course titled ‘Responsible Use of Antibiotics in the Dairy Herd’ will be delivered by Animal Health & Welfare Northern Ireland (AHWNI), as part of Farm Family Key Skills (FFKS), an initiative within the Farm Business Improvement Scheme (FBIS). The training will equip farmers on how to reduce and optimise their use of antibiotics. It will also give key tips on the best use of antibiotics and how to avoid the risk of residues by following suitable withdrawal guidelines.
Ulster Farmers Union president, Ivor Ferguson said; “As a farming industry, we are committed to playing our part in reducing antibiotic usage and resistance. Significant progress has already been made in the pig and poultry sectors, which have seen their usage fall by over 50% and 80% respectively.”
The initiative is also supported by Dairy UK and many dairy companies to complement the MilkSure program ensuring that Northern Ireland milk is produced to the highest standards.
Randox Food Diagnostics are continuously investing in innovative multiplexing screening technology to enable the agriculture and food industries to implement effective drug residue screening. Our patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT) can detect multiple toxins, residues & contaminants (up to 44) from a single sample. The Infiniplex Array for milk ensures dairy processors are compliant with 98% of EU regulations for antibiotics and can also detect anti- parasitic, non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic drug residues from a single neat sample of milk!
Our extensive test menu is also available across a range of matrices including Meat and Feed. For more information on the screening arrays available, contact email@example.com to find out how Randox Food can help protect your industry.
The potential presence of drug residue contaminants in food products destined for human consumption is an increasingly popular topic of conversation in the industry but what are the main challenges facing the industry to tackle this potential issue?
Drug residue contaminants in food products is a discussion that involves the global community but each individual country or trade bloc has their own protocols and regulations relating to the control and monitoring of residues. The different legislations are designed to protect the general public as well as the food industry interests in their individual countries. Any business that wishes to sell their products within other countries or regions must meet their legislative requirements relating to drug residues. These differences in regulations have increased the need for increased dialogue on the issue as well as the implementation of effective monitoring systems.
The industry must deal with the potential of residues from antibiotics and growth promoting hormones entering the food chain. This will involve ensuring correct dosage per animal and also adhering to withdrawal periods set for their region. The second issue the industry faces is the stigma received from the misuse of these antibiotics and growth promoting hormones.
While there is a potential for misuse it should always be noted that a producer’s main concern should always be animal health, which leads to a quality end product. The use of antibiotics is to ensure the health of the animal and to reduce the potential knock on effect of untreated diseases which could create a downturn on yield. Growth promoting hormones are used to increase this yield also but should never be done so at the expense of a safe end product.
Residues from particular drugs in food produce can have serious implications for human health. As such many countries have set Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) or tolerances for these residues in food. The Maximum Residue Limit is the maximum concentration of a residue that can be present in a product from an animal or animal by product intended for the food supply. These MRLs mean that it is required by law in the enforcing countries that any product in the food chain cannot contain residue levels that are harmful to human health above these limits.
There has been controversy over measures to tackle drug residues in foods as there are no internationally accepted standards for many drugs. Ractopamine in particular has caused trade disputes as it is permitted in food production in some countries like the US & Canada, but the European Union, China, Taiwan and over 100 other countries have banned its use.
The real challenge the food industry faces is ensuring their testing methods are effective and reliable to ensure the safety of a variety of end products. To name a few of these diverse products we can look at the dairy, meat, seafood, feed and honey markets.
The dairy industry is under constant scrutiny and pressure to constantly produce high volumes of milk whilst maintaining a superior standard of quality in their dairy products. As part of the production process various contaminants are administered to cattle in an effort to systematically treat various infectious diseases and maintain a healthy herd. A direct consequence of this is the requirement of routine monitoring and testing within farms and dairy processors to ensure that the levels of contaminants in milk are within legal regulations not exceeding Maximum Residue Limits and that unauthorised substances are not found at any level in milk.
Testing can be conducted at several points during the production process. Firstly, farm level testing can be carried out to screen milk from cows that have been separated from the herd and undergone antibiotic treatment. Secondly, the dairy processor is required to conduct testing both onsite taking samples from tankers and retrospective testing as a method of internal surveillance to ensure the milk supplied from several farms is within global regulatory limits. Thirdly, retailers can test the processed milk end product to guarantee the milk is antibiotic free before it’s added to supermarket shelves for consumers.
Global meat production and consumption have increased rapidly in recent decades. Worldwide meat production has tripled over the last four decades and increased 20 percent in just the last 10 years. Meanwhile, industrial countries are consuming growing amounts of meat, nearly double the quantity in developing countries. Mass quantities of antibiotics are used on livestock to reduce the impact of disease, contributing to antibiotic resistance in animals and humans alike. Worldwide, 80 percent of all antibiotics sold in 2009 were used on livestock and poultry, compared to only 20 percent used for human illnesses.
Growth promoters, which are tested for under the NRCP, are hormonal and antibiotic substances that may be used in food producing animals for growth promotion in livestock animals thus increasing the production of muscle meat and the reduction of fat. The type of growth promoter used is dependent on the animal species and mode of rearing with steroid growth promoters used for beef cattle and antibiotic growth promoters, which are usually added to feedstuffs, such as the coccidiostats used in the poultry industry and chlortetracycline used in the porcine industry. The rapid speed of meat production calls for the need to test for drug residues frequently to prevent them from ending up in the food chain.
The global aquaculture industry has grown steadily over the past five decades, increasing at an average rate of 3.2%. However, this growth has come at a cost, with the industry facing many new challenges. Farmed seafood is often treated with medicated feeds which contain antibiotics such as leucomalachite green and nitrofurans for example to prevent from disease spreading, they are also exposed to other harmful residues used to treat algae etc. within the ‘pens’ where they are kept.
The FAO (2012) reported that 38% of fish produced globally is exported, highlighting the imbalances in regional supply and the changing tastes of the global consumer. This increased level of exporting and importing shows the importance of drug residue screening within the global aquaculture industry. This increased level of exporting and importing shows the importance of drug residue screening within the global aquaculture industry.
The global animal feed processing market is estimated at US$21.61 billion in 2018 and is projected to reach US$ 26.62 Billion by 2023. The market is driven by factors such as the rising awareness of feed nutrition and health, technological advancements in the equipment industry and increase in the demand for feed around the world. Medicated feeds containing veterinary are often used to help prevent disease within livestock and there are MRLs for feed which has created the need for testing as high levels of residues can have an effect on livestock health and also transfer through to meat products for human consumption. With humidity levels rising in recent years there has been an influx in the level of mycotoxins found within feed and cereals. These toxins are fungal and can affect both livestock and human health for example mycotoxicoses which is a disease which can affect the respiratory system. The main cause of mycotoxins within stored grains are when the grain is damp or cracked and kept in insufficient storage conditions. These factors have made it necessary for feed and cereals to be tested for both drug residues and mycotoxins to ensure that they do not end up within the food chain.
The global honey market is growing at a rapid pace and the global consumption of honey is to reach 2.5 million tones by 2022. This growth is driven for consumers demand for natural and healthy alternatives to artificial sweeteners over cane sugar. There is also a growing awareness of the health and healing benefits of honey which is driving the demand for the use of honey for medicinal use, manuka honey sales continue to grow for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The rapid rise in demand for honey outweighs the amount that can be produced in a natural form globally due to a decline in the number of bees. This has influenced the quality of honey being produced as some producers take to diluting natural honey with high-fructose corn syrups in order to supply the demand. There is a requirement for keepers to treat bee colonies with antibiotics to prevent CCD and other diseases such as varroa mites and there is a chance that these harmful drug residues can be transferred through to the end product ‘natural’ honey. The use of antibiotic drugs in apiculture is globally restricted and there are no MRLs set for antibiotics in honey as it a natural product and needs to be antibiotic free, this has cause the need for testing both for drug residues and the overall quality of the honey being produced.
Due to the requirement to use a variety of drug treatments in the food industry and also the potential economic benefits to be gained from the use of growth promoters, there will continue to be use in animal production. However, as analytical methods of detection become more sensitive, producers are given further options for testing.
The surveillance for the potential presence of these residues of veterinary substances is regulated by the EU Directive 86/469/EEC. This directive outlines the guidelines for sampling and testing within a residue monitoring programme.
The requirement to meet these standard and the MRLs and detection levels outlined in the legislation has created a need for analytical methods to become more sensitive to ensure correct analysis. On some occasions MRL’s have been lowered which require a technology sensitive enough to detect very low concentrations in a sample.
One such screening method that is commonly used is the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, which work well for testing and providing accurate results.
Randox Food have developed another method of analysis using the Evidence Investigator which uses similar methodology to ELISA methods. The analyser uses biochip array technology (BAT) to perform simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple analytes from a single sample and can be used across multiple matrix types including the products produced by the industries mentioned. The core technology is the Randox biochip, this contains an array of discrete test regions containing immobilized antibodies specific to the drug residues under test.
These methods are rapid, reliable, and sensitive so are able to detect residues in very small concentrations. The Randox methods are developed in line with EU Directive 86/469/EEC and as such are an effective testing method for multiple areas of the food industry.
For further information please contact the Randox Food Diagnostics team by emailing: firstname.lastname@example.org
Drug residues in milk present major concern for farmers, dairy processors, cheese manufacturers, authorities and consumers due to the potential public health and industrial implications. Through the potential inappropriate antimicrobial use in animals producing product for human consumption, antibiotic-resistant organisms can enter the food supply or can spread to various components of the ecosystem. For consumer protection, regulatory limits have been set for the majority of compounds.
Randox Food Diagnostics provides screening technology to monitor the levels of these potentially harmful compounds including the Infiniplex for Milk Array available on the Evidence Investigator and Evidence Multistat analysers.
Using the Randox Food technology the user can identify 130 analytes from a 200µl sample of raw milk and follows this simple process to results:
- Pipette the sample directly onto the MultiSTAT biochip
- Insert into the Evidence MultiSTAT
- Press Play and follow the on-screen prompts
- Results appear on screen in under 20 minutes
Developed to provide an easy to use option for the user, the Infiniplex Array for Multistat can be used by anyone to ensure rapid on-site testing within the dairy industry.
The InfiniPlex test menu is 98% compliant with EU regulations and screens for additional contaminants including; antiparasitic, anti-inflammatories, non-steroidal and unauthorised substances from one sample of raw milk, creating a better end product for the processor and end user.
To find out more about InfiniPlex contact email@example.com
Improving global dairy standards is the focus for Randox Food Diagnostics, which is demonstrating its latest advancement – the ‘InfiniPlex for Milk’ – at the 2017 World Dairy Summit. Over 1000 international delegates are expected to attend the event being held in Belfast’s Waterfront Hall between 30th October to 3rd November.
With maintaining consumer confidence in the safety and integrity of dairy products featuring as one of the key topics at this year’s summit, the Northern Ireland-based company is keen to showcase how it can help producers get an edge in the market through ensuring food safety.
At the International Dairy Foundation’s annual conference event Randox Food will be showcasing the InfiniPlex, an innovative system which tests for 130 restricted drugs from one sample, such as antibiotics, non-steroidial anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic drug residues. This is the most comprehensive array on the market and achieves 98% compliance with EU regulations.
The Infiniplex also identifies a number of drug compounds which are not on the EU’s regulated list but which are unsuitable for human consumption. Using this multiplex system ensures that any Randox-tested dairy product will be the safest on the shelf.
Dr FitzGerald, Founder and Managing Director of Randox Laboratories, commented;
“It is our aim to ensure that dairy producers have access to the latest and most comprehensive milk safety screening technologies. The Infiniplex for Milk is the world’s first screening technology that ensures dairy processors are compliant with regulations. By meeting its complex needs, InfiniPlex is changing the face of the global dairy industry.”
David Ferguson, Global Business Manager for Randox Food Diagnostics, added;
“Standard industry practice means the primary residues for which screening is carried out is usually limited to two certain varieties of antibiotics. The InfiniPlex for Milk provides a unique insight into the specific combination of drug compounds detected in a single sample offering drug discrimination that allows the user to see what commercially available drug was administered at animal level. Using our multiplex testing offers the global milk industry the most comprehensive product for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in food, protecting the food industry and the consumer.”
The International Dairy Federation World Dairy Summit takes place in the Waterfront Hall. Randox Food Diagnostics can be found at Booth 5.
For further information about Randox Food Diagnostics milk testing, please visit: http://www.randoxfood.com/Matrices/Milk
For any further questions please contact Randox PR by phoning 028 9445 1016 or emailing RandoxPR@randox.com
This week over 100 cows on a farm in New Zealand had to be put down after digesting fungus from an infected feed supply. The herd in the Southland and Otago regions was suffering from ergot toxicity. Randox Food Diagnostics have developed the only test for this fungus on the market, which can protect your animals from injury or death.
Ergot Alkaloids are a naturally occurring fungus most commonly found in grains and grasses. Produced by a group of fungi called the Claviceps species, they infect seed heads of plants during the flowering period. The fungus replaces the developing grain with toxic ergot. The dry summer and wet autumn this year provided the optimum growing conditions for the fungus.
Typically, it causes lameness and swelling of the fetlocks and hock joints but in the most severe cases animals can lose tips of their tails, or ears or even their hooves. As in this case, it can result in animals being put down.
While all animals are at risk of contracting ergot, it is most commonly found in cattle.
According to the report, VetSouth Winton veterinarian Hayden Dore confirmed four cases have been reported in Southland and South Otago with a large number of infected cows.
“Over time it effectively causes one or more of the limbs to become gangrenous. Signs of ergot toxicity generally start with a disinterest in feed, before moving to lameness in the limbs, which presented similarly to foot rot, but without the separation of the toes. Once the limbs go cold from lack of blood supply, it would take about a week before the limbs began to fall off,” he said.
“One herd with 900 milking cows had around 130 cows infected by the poisonous fungus, with subsequently 61 of them being put down.”
Testing for Ergot Alkaloids
Randox Food Diagnostics offer the only array on the market to test for Ergot Alkaloids. Validated for flour and seed, the ELISA test offers excellent limits of detection for the toxin Ergotamine at 1ppb.