Rapid Tests / Serology Reagents

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Rapid Tests / Serology Reagents

Introduction to Serology

Serology tests are used for the detection of antibodies in the blood in order to diagnose an active or previous infection, or to determine disease of the immune system such as autoimmune disorder. There are various types of serologic tests, each to diagnose a different disease; some include Anti-Streptolysin-O, Rheumatic factor, Syphilis and CRP.

  • Cost savings with excellent stability – Stable to expiry when stored at 2-8°C
  • Convenience with liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Wide measuring ranges for accurate detection of abnormal levels
  • Excellent correlation to standard methods
  • Variety of kit sizes offering suitability for all laboratories
  •  Controls and calibrators available to complement each assay, as well as applications for a wide variety of analysers.

Antibodies enable identification of past or present infection

Antibodies are formed by the body in response to infection against foreign proteins called antigens. Antigens enter the body via the mouth, nasal passages or through broken skin. Upon doing so the body’s immune system defends the body by producing antibodies, particles that attach to the antigens to deactivate them. Serology tests identify the type of antibodies and antigens present in the blood and determine the type of infection the patient may have or may have had in the past. Serology tests can also determine immunity to a certain organism.

Serology tests include:

Anti-Streptolysin O used to determine recent streptococcal infection caused by the streptococcus bacteria. Infections can be mild or severe, varying from throat infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, impetigo and middle ear infections to life-threatening infections of the blood or organs such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. In addition this test also helps identify the presence of post streptococcal complications including rheumatic fever which causes inflammation of the joints or heart, and glomerulonephritis which refers to damage of the glomeruli (tiny filters in the kidneys). The latter are rare and are caused by the body’s immune system attacking healthy body tissue in response to streptococcus bacteria.

CRP used to detect inflammation, infection and tissue injury of the liver. CRP (C-reactive protein) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation, infection and tissue injury; it is released into the blood within a few hours and therefore the CRP test enables quick detection of trauma or infection. It can be used together with consideration of signs and symptoms to diagnose the condition causing the infection or inflammation, in addition to being useful in monitoring the treatment of people with chronic inflammatory conditions.

Rheumatoid factor used to help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and distinguish it from other forms of arthritis or conditions causing similar symptoms. Rheumatoid factors are antibodies produced by the body’s immune system that can attack healthy tissue in the body. Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include pain, stiffness in the joints (particularly in the morning), and, swelling, warmth and redness.

Syphilis (RPR and TPHA) used to screen for the Treponema pallidum bacteria which causes syphilis, a chronic, contagious and often congenital venereal disease. The 2 types of tests we use include Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPHA).

RPR is a non-treponemal antibody test which detects antibodies not specifically directed against the Treponema pallidum bacteria; these are produced by the body in response to several conditions including syphilis and are therefore non-specific. Such tests are highly sensitive, however, and the RPR test can also be used to monitor the treatment of syphilis.

TPHA test is a treponemal l antibody test used to detect antibodies specifically directed against the Treponema pallidum bacteria; these are highly-specific for the detection of syphilis.

Treponemal (syphilis specific) antibodies remain in the blood for life, whereas non-treponemal (non-syphilis specific) antibodies typically clear the blood after approx. 3 years following successful treatment; therefore following a positive treponemal test result, a non-treponemal antibody test may be used to determine between an active syphilis infection/reinfection, or a past infection which has been successfully treated.

Rapid tests include:

Randox Pregnancy test used for early confirmation of pregnancy by identifying Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) in urine; hCG is a hormone released by the cells of a developing placenta shortly after conception. Levels of hCG are detectable in urine in the first week after conception, therefore making it an excellent marker for early confirmation of pregnancy.

Randox pregnancy test is highly sensitive, able to detect hCG concentrations as low as 25mlU/ml, and produces results in 3 minutes. In addition a variety of methods and kit sizes provide choice and enhances suitability.

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Lipid Reagents

Randox Lipids Reagents

Lipid tests are used to assess an individual’s risk of heart attack or stroke. Lipid tests are the most important of the cardiac risk tests as they provide a clear indication of whether someone is likely to have a coronary event caused by a blockage of the blood vessels or atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries caused by build-up of fatty deposits).

A complete lipid profile involves routine tests such as Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol to measure the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. An extended lipid profile measures emerging risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Download our Cardiology & Lipids Brochure

Key Benefits

  • Enhanced convenience with liquid ready-to-use reagents (Triglycerides kits also come in lyophilised form)
  • Controls and calibrators available including a 5 point calibrator for Lp(a) to account for the wide variation of different isoforms
  • Excellent correlation to reference methods for security of accurate results
  • Applications for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers
  • Wide measuring ranges able to comfortably detect abnormal lipid levels
  • Cost effectiveness for even small throughput labs – all lipid assays are stable to expiry when stored at 2-8⁰C (except for Triglyceride kits, stable for 21 days)

Lipid tests are vital for risk assessment

Lipid tests are used to assess an individual’s risk of heart attack or stroke. Lipid tests are the most important of the cardiac risk tests as they provide a clear indication of whether someone is likely to have a coronary event caused by a blockage of the blood vessels or atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries caused by build-up of fatty deposits).

Lipid tests aim to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease by screening for abnormalities of triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the blood. Triglycerides and cholesterol contribute to the build-up of fatty deposits, and thus lipid profiling enables preventative measures to be taken to maintain safe levels and reduce the chances of cardiovascular disease.

A complete lipid profile involves routine tests such as Total CholesterolTriglyceridesHDL Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol to measure the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. An extended lipid profile measures emerging risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Routine Tests

Routine tests include a Total Cholesterol test assessing overall cholesterol levels, a HDL Cholesterol test to measure the level of ‘good cholesterol’ in the blood, an LDL Cholesterol test to measure the level of ‘bad cholesterol’ in the blood, and a Triglycerides test assessing triglyceride levels (of which high levels are associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease).

Extended analysis of blood lipids and emerging risk factors

In addition to the conventional lipid profile Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides, we also have extended tests which can provide extra information on a patient’s lipid profile. This includes measurement of lipoproteins and their counterparts, apolipoproteins, which have the role of transferring triglycerides, cholesterol and other fats to appropriate cells for metabolism. Measurement of these allows investigation into why abnormal lipid levels may be occurring.

Apolipoprotein A-I (removes excess cholesterol from extra-hepatic tissues) test is used to find the cause of high lipid levels and discover if a disorder is causing Apo A-I deficiency

Apolipoprotein B (the main protein in LDL cholesterol aka ‘bad cholesterol’) test is used as an extended risk assessment of cardiovascular disease; elevated levels indicate increased risk even when total and LDL cholesterol levels are normal.

Apo A-I and Apo B are useful to assess patients with a personal or family history of high concentrations of lipids and/or heart diseases, for diagnosis of conditions causing elevated lipid levels, for monitoring the effectiveness of lipid lowering treatments, and, when used together they can determine Apo B/Apo A-I ratio as an alternative to total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio when determining CVD risk.

Analysis of emerging risk factors also contributes to risk assessment of cardiovascular disease:

Lipoprotein (a) levels are genetically determined and remain fairly constant as they are not affected by lifestyle factors such as diet. High levels can occur in individuals with an otherwise normal lipid profile and can increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended that patients who have developed cardiovascular disease at a young age or those with a family history of premature heart disease be tested.

sdLDL Cholesterol, a subtype of LDL Cholesterol aka ‘bad cholesterol’ is a vital marker for heart attack; elevated levels are associated with a three-fold increased risk of heart attack

Apolipoprotein A-II, a major constituent of HDL Cholesterol, plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport and lipid metabolism; the production of Apo A-II levels determine the distribution of Apo A-I in HDL (Apo A-I removes excess cholesterol), and therefore increased production of Apo A-II promotes atherosclerosis

Apolipoprotein C-II, an aid in the assessment of CVD; Apo C-II deficiency can lead to hypertriglyceridemia (elevated triglyceride levels) in patients

Apolipoprotein C-III, an aid in CVD risk assessment with elevated levels associated with both primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, in addition to being reported higher in patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperbilirubinemia, kidney deficiency and decreased thyroid function

Apolipoprotein E, responsible for the transport of triglycerides to the liver and distribution of cholesterol between cells; deficiency can lead to premature atherosclerosis

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Diabetes Reagents

Diabetes Reagents

Diabetes is a life-long condition causing blood sugar levels to become too high and affects millions of people worldwide. Whilst the condition cannot be cured, it can be controlled and monitored. Randox diabetes reagents cover a spectrum of laboratory testing requirements from disease diagnosis to monitoring of associated complications.

Download our Diabetes Brochure

Benefits

  • High stability to ensure cost effectiveness for even small throughput labs
  • A range of methods, kits and ranges for enhanced suitability of all labs
  • A range of liquid and lyophilised formats for convenience
  • High quality for accurate results
  • Controls and calibrators available
  • Applications available for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers

The 3 Types of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes manifests in childhood and is caused by deficiency (inherited or acquired) in the production of insulin by the pancreas and so the daily monitoring and administration of insulin is required.

Type 2 diabetes manifests later in life and occurs when the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively (known as insulin resistance). It is more common than type 1 diabetes, and is usually caused as a result of excess body fat and lack of physical activity. Type 2 diabetes can occur in any individual regardless of weight. Excess abdominal visceral fat has also been correlated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Visceral fat is the fat that surrounds the vital organs in our bodies. High levels of visceral fat is common on those who have a high BMI, however those with a healthy BMI but do not eat a healthy diet or exercise also can have high levels of visceral fat. Additionally, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and some cancers has also been linked to type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is the development of diabetes during pregnancy as a result of the body being unable to produce enough insulin to meet the extra needs during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause problems for both the mother and baby during and after birth, including: polyhydramnios, pre-eclampsia, the baby developing jaundice or low blood sugar levels after birth, or stillbirth. However it is possible to reduce the chances of these risks occurring if gestational diabetes is diagnosed and consistently monitored.

Diagnosis and Monitoring

Routine tests are carried out in conjunction with diabetes testing include;

  • Microalbumin to ensure normal kidney function and Albumin to ensure normal liver function.
  • Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells in the body and obtained through carbohydrate enriched foods. Insulin helps control blood glucose levels to ensure they do not get too high, and as such, high levels of glucose in the blood is an indicator of diabetes.
  • HbA1c is used to identify the average amount of glucose in the blood over a 2-3-month period. It is a good indicator of diabetes, as well as enabling diabetic patients to understand how well their diabetes is being controlled.
  • Fructosamine is used in the monitoring of diabetes and is particularly useful in reviewing the effectiveness of medication adjustments. This is because it enables average glucose levels to be obtained over a 2-3 week period. In addition, it is used to monitor glucose levels of pregnant woman suffering from gestational diabetes which allows for the monitoring of both, mother and baby glucose levels. This is crucial in decreasing risks associated with gestational diabetes such as premature birth, immediate infant health problems, miscarriage or stillbirth.

Complications Monitoring – Speciality Tests

The Randox specialist tests include;

  • Cystatin C is a more sensitive indicator of renal dysfunction than routine creatinine due to the creatinine blind range. Also, the elevated creatinine levels found in stage 2 and halfway through stage 3 renal dysfunction cannot be detected. Therefore, patients can suffer from 50% of kidney dysfunction before elevated levels are detected. Using the Cystatin C test enables more accurate patient results, and allows time for treatment to begin before it is too late.
  • Beta-2 Microglobulin is used when kidney damage has occurred to distinguish between the two most commonly affected sites, glomeruli and renal tubules.
  • D-3-Hydroxybutyrate is used in the identification of diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious complication of diabetes which occurs when blood sugar levels are consistently high and insulin levels are severely low.  Immediate diagnosis is vital as the condition can lead to coma or death if not treated immediately. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
  • Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) is linked to an increased risk of developing diabetes. The measurement of NEFA is important in cases where insulin deficiency results in the metabolism of fat. An increase in NEFA concentration has also been associated with adiposity (high level of body fat), malignant disease (progressive disease) and other metabolic syndromes such as high blood pressure and abdominal obesity.  Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) to assess diabetic patients risk of developing adiposity (high level of body fat), malignant disease (progressive disease) and other metabolic syndromes such as high blood pressure and abdominal obesity (NEFA test is important in cases where insulin deficiency results in the metabolism of fat).

Related biomarkers include:

Many health complications associated with diabetes include; kidney disease, eye disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetic ketoacidosis (a life-threatening condition that can develop in insulin dependent diabetics). Therefore, it is important to control and monitor the condition.

  • Cystatin C is a sensitive marker of kidney function used for the detection of early renal dysfunction in diabetic patients. It is important to note that creatinine is the routine test for renal dysfunction, however it has a blind range which means it is unable to detect elevated creatinine levels found in stage 2 and halfway through stage 3 renal dysfunction. As a result of this, 50% of kidney function can be lost before elevated creatinine levels are detectable. The cystatin C test is a more sensitive marker and can detect early stages of renal dysfunction, allowing treatment to begin before it is too late.

If you would like more information or require informative materials for your laboratory please contact us, or alternatively download our diabetes brochure.

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Potassium

Reagent | Potassium

Key Benefits

Exceptional correlation

The Potassium assay showed a correlation of r=0.99 against another commercially available method

Applications available

For a wide variety of clinical chemistry analysers including the RX series

Excellent precision

The Potassium assay has a precision of less than 4% CV

Randox Potassium (Colorimetric & UV)

  • Colorimetric and UV method
  • Lyophilised reagents
  • Working reagent stable for 7 days when stored at 2-8⁰C
Cat NoSize
PT3852R1 3 x 20ml
R2 3 x 9ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
PT8329R1 4 x10ml
R2 4 x 6ml
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(S) Indicates standard included in kit

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Potassium assay used for?

Potassium measurements are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions characterised by low or high blood potassium levels or at regular intervals when taking a medication that can affect potassium levels.

Clinical Chemistry Panel

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Veterinary Panel

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Phosphorus (Inorganic)

Reagent | Phosphorus 

Key Benefits

Exceptional correlation

The Phosphorus (Inorganic) assay showed a correlation of r=0.99 against another commercially available method

Applications available

For a wide variety of clinical chemistry analysers including the RX series

Excellent precision

The Phosphorus (Inorganic) assay has a precision of less than 4% CV

Other features

  • UV method
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at +15 to +25⁰C
Cat NoSize
PH3872R1a 6 x 14ml (L)
R1b 6 x 6ml
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PH8048R1 6 x 68ml (L)
R2 6 x 40.3ml
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PH8328R1 4 x 12.7ml (L)
R2 4 x 7.1ml
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(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Phosphorus (Inorganic) assay used for?

The human body contains approximately one kilogram of phosphorous. The calcium phosphate salts which comprise the inorganic substance of bone account for approximately 80% of the total phosphorous content. The remainder is distributed throughout other cells of the body primarily as organic phosphorous in phospholipids and phosphoproteins. Measurements of phosphorus (inorganic) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various disorders including parathyroid gland and kidney diseases, and vitamin D imbalance.

Clinical Chemistry Panel

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Clinical Chemistry Reagents

Clinical Chemistry Reagents

The Randox range of clinical chemistry reagents is extensive with a wide range of assays to suit your needs. Investing heavily in research and development, we continuously expand our portfolio to ensure increased choice of high quality reagents.

Randox understand the importance of accurate results, and provide reagents of the highest quality and accuracy to ensure trustworthy results and accurate diagnosis. Rigorously tested, our reagents have strong correlations with standard methods, and ensure uniformity across batches for total confidence in quality across lots.

Download our Reagents Brochure

Benefits

  • Available for a wide range of clinical chemistry analysers with inclusion of detailed instrument specific settings
  • Suitable for use with a variety of sample types including whole blood (human and animal), serum, plasma, erythrocytes, wine, beer and fruit juice
  • A variety of methods available as well as a variety of kit sizes to ensure suitability for all laboratory sizes
  • Complementary controls and calibrators available
  • Wide measuring ranges to comfortably detect abnormal levels
  • Superior stability to maximise cost-effectiveness and reduce reagent wastage

Useful Links

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Pancreatic Amylase

Pancreatic Amylase

Randox Pancreatic Amylase Benefits

Excellent Stability

Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8ºC

 

Excellent correlation to standard methods

A correlation coefficient of 1.00 was obtained with another commercially available method

Liquid ready-to-use reagents

Offers convenience and ease-of-use

Other Features

  • EPS
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at 2-8⁰C

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize
AY3855R1 4 x 16ml (L)
R2 4 x 5ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AY7934R1 6 x 20ml (L)
R2 3 x 10ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AY8149R1 7 x 11ml (L)
R2 7 x 4.8ml
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Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Pancreatic Amylase assay used for?

Amylase is an enzyme present in pancreatic fluids within the small intestine. It is responsible for digesting many types of sugars, and is released into the blood when the pancreas is inflamed or diseased.

Amylase measurements are used primarily for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis (severe inflammation of the pancreas) as well as pancreatic diseases. Amylase levels rise quickly at the start of a pancreatitis attack and fall after around 2 days. Elevated levels may also be associated with cancer of the pancreas, a perforated ulcer, gallbladder disease, mumps or ectopic pregnancy.

Clinical Chemistry Panel

For more information or to view more reagents within the clinical chemistry panel panel, please click here


Magnesium

Reagent | Magnesium

Key Benefits

Excellent precision

The Magnesium assay showed a precision of less than 3% CV

Exceptional correlation

The Magnesium assay showed a correlation of r=0.99 against another commercially available method

Completely automated protocols

Are available for a wide range of analysers

Randox Magnesium (Xylidyl Blue and Methylthy. Blue)

  • Xylidyl Blue and Methylthy. Blue method
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8⁰C

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
MG38806 x 20ml (L)EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
MG81374 x 20ml (L)EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
MG83262 x 16.5ml (L)EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Magnesium assay used for?

Magnesium is one of the major intracellular cations in the body. Its action is closely related to that of calcium. Magnesium deficiency, hypomagnesaemia can result in various neuromuscular disorders, weakness, tremors, tetany and convulsions. It is associated with hypocalcaemia, intravenous therapy, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, dialysis and pregnancy.

Increased serum magnesium levels are associated with dehydration, severe diabetic acidosis and Addison’s Disease. Conditions that interfere with glomerular filtration as in renal failure result in retention of magnesium and hence elevation of serum levels.

Clinical Chemistry Panel

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Veterinary Panel

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Lactate Dehydrogenase

Reagent | Lactate Dehydrogenase

Key Benefits

Excellent precision

The LD assay showed a precision of less than 4% CV

Exceptional correlation

The assay showed a correlation of r=0.98 against another commercially available method

Flexibility

Liquid and lyophilised reagents available, offering greater consumer choice

Randox Lactate Dehydrogenase L-P (LDH) (NAD)

  • LDH NAD method
  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Stable to expiry at 2-8°C
Cat NoSize
LD3842R1 6 x 20ml (L)
R2 3 x 18ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LD8052R1 4 x 68ml (L)
R2 4 x 37.2ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Randox Lactate Dehydrogenase P-L (UV)

  • UV method
  • Liquid and lyophilised reagents available
  • Stable to expiry at 2-8°C
Cat NoSize
LD401R1a 1 x 70ml
R1b 20 x 3ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LD3818R1 6 x 20ml (L)
R2 3 x 11ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LD8051R1 6 x 56ml (L)
R2 6 x 20ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LD8322R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Lactate Dehydrogenase assay used for?

Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) catalyses the interconversion of lactic acid and pyruvic acid. The enzyme is composed of 4 peptide chains and exists in 5 isomeric forms. LD is widely distributed throughout the body, and the highest concentrations are found in the liver, heart and skeletal muscle. LD activity is significantly elevated during myocardial infarction. Maximum levels are reached 24 to 48 hours after the onset of chest pain and may remain elevated for 7 to 12 days post infarction. Increases in LD activity are also associated with other pathological conditions including liver disease, progressive muscular dystrophy, megaloblastic and pernicious anaemia.

Publications


    Clinical Chemistry Panel

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    Veterinary Panel

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    Lactate

    Reagent | Lactate

    Key Benefits

    Excellent stability

    Stable to expiry date when stored at +2 to +8°C

    Exceptional correlation

    The assay showed a correlation of r=0.99 against another commercially available method

    Lyophilised reagents

    The Randox L-Lactate assay is supplied in a lyophilised format, enhancing stability and reducing wastage

     

    Other features

    • Colorimetric method
    • Lyophilised reagents
    • Working reagent stable for 2 weeks at 15-25°C

    Ordering information

    Cat NoSize
    LC2389R1a 1 x 100ml (S)
    R1b 16 x 6ml
    EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
    LC3980R1a 4 x 20.5ml
    R1b 4 x 20.5ml
    EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
    (S) Indicates standard included in kit

    Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

    What is Lactate assay used for?

    Increased concentration of lactate in the blood is an indicator of anaerobic metabolism i.e. blood flow to the tissues decrease and oxygen delivery is insufficient. In cases of severe oxygen deprivation “Lactic Acidosis” may occur. L-Lactate may therefore be used as an indicator of severity of circulatory failure.

    Clinical Chemistry Panel

    For more information or to view more reagents within the clinical chemistry panel, please click here

    Veterinary Panel

    For more information or to view more reagents within the veterinary panel, please click here