Exploring the Intricacies of Bile Acids: Understanding Their Role in Metabolism and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

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Exploring the Intricacies of Bile Acids: Understanding Their Role in Metabolism and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Bile acids (BAs) are fascinating molecules that play a pivotal role in our bodies metabolic processes. From aiding in the digestion of lipids to regulating essential metabolic pathways, BAs have garnered significant interest among researchers and healthcare professionals. In this article, we will delve into the structural and functional aspects of bile acids and explore their significance in a condition called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). For additional information, we encourage you to take a look at our latest educational guide: 5th Generation Bile Acids & Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy. So, let’s unravel the secrets of bile acids and their impact on our health!

Understanding Bile Acids

Bile acids belong to a diverse family of bile salts, characterised by their planar and amphipathic nature. They possess a hydrophilic hydroxyl and a hydrophobic methyl group, conferring their unique amphipathic properties. These properties allow bile acids to emulsify and solubilize lipids, facilitating their digestion and absorption1.

Bile acids are primarily synthesized in the liver through two pathways: the classic (neutral) pathway and the alternate (acidic) pathway. The classic pathway involves the hydroxylation of cholesterol, while the alternate pathway utilizes oxysterols as precursors. These pathways produce primary bile acids, which are further modified to generate secondary and tertiary bile acids2.

Importance of Bile Acids in Metabolism

Bile acids serve multiple functions in our bodies. Firstly, they emulsify dietary fats, breaking them down into smaller droplets that can be efficiently digested by pancreatic enzymes. Additionally, bile acids are crucial for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are incorporated into micelles, facilitated by the presence of bile acids, enabling their uptake3.

Furthermore, bile acids exhibit signalling activity through various receptors, influencing metabolic responses. One key receptor associated with bile acid metabolism is the Farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR regulates bile acid synthesis, delivery, and clearance, maintaining their levels within a safe range. FXR also modulates lipid transport and metabolism, as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis. Another important receptor is TGR5, which influences vasodilation, gallbladder function, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects1.

Illustration of the conformation of bile acids around a central lipid, forming a micelle.

Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

During pregnancy, the metabolic processes in the liver undergo significant adaptations to accommodate the growing foetus. One condition that can arise during pregnancy is intrahepatic cholestasis, commonly known as ICP. It is a multifactorial disorder characterised by elevated levels of bile acids in the blood, particularly chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA)4.

ICP manifests in the second or third trimester and can lead to various symptoms such as pruritus (itching), abnormal liver enzyme levels, jaundice, abdominal pain, and depression. The exact mechanisms underlying ICP are not fully understood, but it is believed that elevated bile acid levels may have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of the foetus, potentially leading to stillbirth or preterm birth5.

The detection and monitoring of ICP are essential for managing the condition and ensuring the well-being of both the mother and the foetus. Total bile acid (TBA) concentration is a commonly measured parameter to assess the severity of ICP. Monitoring TBA levels can aid in identifying potential risks and enabling timely interventions5.

Introducing the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay

To facilitate the accurate quantification of total bile acids in serum and plasma, the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay has emerged as a reliable and advanced diagnostic tool. This assay utilizes a highly sensitive enzymatic cycling method to measure total bile acid levels, providing precise and reproducible results. With its improved sensitivity and specificity, the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay offers a valuable tool for the early detection and monitoring of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

The assay is easy to use and can be incorporated into routine laboratory workflows. It requires a small sample volume, making it convenient for both patients and healthcare professionals. The assay provides rapid results, allowing for prompt diagnosis and timely intervention when necessary.

By accurately quantifying total bile acid levels, the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay aids in assessing the severity of ICP and monitoring the response to treatment. This information is vital for guiding clinical decisions and optimizing patient care during pregnancy.

Furthermore, the assay can contribute to ongoing research on bile acids and their role in ICP. By analysing a larger population and monitoring the dynamics of bile acid levels, researchers can gain deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying this condition and explore potential therapeutic targets.

Assay Principle

Two reactions are combined in this kinetic enzyme cycling method. In the first reaction, bile acids are oxidised by 3-α hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with the subsequent reduction of Thio-NAD to Thio-NADH. In the second reaction, the oxidised bile acids are reduced by the same enzyme with the subsequent oxidation of NADH to NAD. The rate of formation of Thio-NADH is determined by measuring the specific absorbance change at 405nm. Enzyme cycling means multiple Thio-NADH molecules are generated from each bile acid molecule giving rise to a much larger absorbance change, increasing the sensitivity of the assay.

Assay Principle for the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay

In conclusion, understanding the intricacies of bile acids is essential for comprehending their impact on our metabolism and health. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition that warrants attention, and accurate measurement of total bile acid levels is crucial for its diagnosis and management. The 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay offers an advanced and reliable solution for assessing bile acid levels, enabling timely interventions, and improving patient outcomes. With ongoing research and advancements in diagnostic techniques, we can continue to unravel the complexities of bile acids and enhance our understanding of their role in health and disease.

Don’t underestimate the strength of knowledge and awareness. Empower yourself, stay informed, and prioritize your health and well-being!

If you’d like to learn more about Bile Acids and ICP we encourage you to read our new educational guide, 5th Generation Bile Acids & The Importance of Of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy 

If you would like an additional information on our 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay, or anything else, don’t hesitate to reach out the marketing@randox.com. Additionally, feel free to visit our Reagent resource hub where you will find all of our brochures, support tools and a collection of educational material, to aid you in maintaining the highest possible levels of quality.

 

References

  1. McGlone ER, Bloom SR. Bile acids and the metabolic syndrome. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 2019;56(3):326-337. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0004563218817798
  2. Chiang JYL, Ferrell JM. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology. Gene Expression. 2018;18(2):71-87. doi:https://doi.org/10.3727/105221618×15156018385515
  3. Chiang JYL. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling. Comprehensive Physiology. 2013;3(3). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c120023
  4. Di Mascio D, Quist-Nelson J, Riegel M, et al. Perinatal death by bile acid levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a systematic review. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. Published online November 19, 2019:1-9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1685965
  5. Piechota J, Jelski W. Intrahepatic Cholestasis in Pregnancy: Review of the Literature. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;9(5):1361. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051361

Alkaline Phosphatase Reagent

Reagent | Alkaline Phosphatase (DEA Method)

Benefits of the Randox Alkaline Phosphatase reagent

Suitable for use on a range of analysers

Alkaline phosphatase can be used on third-party analysers. To enquire about an Instrument Specific Application (ISA), please contact us.

Flexibility

Liquid and lyophilised reagents available for greater customer choice.

Excellent stability

Stable up to 30 days when stored at +2 to +8°C

DEA method

  • Available as liquid and lyophilised reagents
  • Lyophilised kit Stable up to 30 days when stored at +2 to +8⁰C or 3 days at +15 – +25⁰C
  • Liquid Kit stable to expiry at +2 to +8⁰C

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize
AP9764R1 7 x 38ml (L)
R2 7 x 11.7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP3803R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP30710 x 10mlEnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

AMP method

  • Liquid ready-to-use reagents
  • Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8⁰C

Ordering Information

Cat NoSize
AP3802R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP8002R1 7 x 20ml (L)
R2 7 x 8ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AP8302R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is this assay used for?

Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found in the liver, bone, kidney, digestive system and bowel tissues. The highest concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase are contained within the tissues that make up the bone and liver.

The Alkaline Phosphatase test can be used to diagnose and monitor liver disease and damage including liver cancer, cirrhosis and hepatitis. This assay can also be used to diagnose and monitor bone damage and disease including cancers that have spread to the bone, Paget’s disease which affects how the bones grow, and issues associated with Vitamin D deficiencies.

For more information on the incidence and natural history of Paget’s disease of the bone in England and Wales, please click here.

The Randox tests can also be carried out to determine the root cause of elevated alkaline phosphatase in the blood as well as to monitor liver damage as the result of therapeutic treatment or prescribed drugs that can have implications on the liver.


Events

EVENTS CALENDAR 2023

Randox Events Calendar

After a previously successful year of reopenings and in-person events,  Randox are pleased to announce our presence at the below events. These events present a great opportunity for Randox to share our wealth of new products and innovative technologies with the industry. We look forward to making this final transition back to business as usual. Check out below what events Randox will be attending this year. We hope to see you there!

EVENT: Medlab Middle East, 2023

DATES: 06 February – 09 February 2023

Randox are attending Medlab Middle East on 6th  – 9th February 2023.

Visit the Medlab Middle East website here

EVENT: Belgian Society of Cardiology, 2023

DATES: 09 February – 10 February 2023

Randox are attending Belgian Society of Cardiology congress on 9th – 10th February 2023.

Visit the Belgian Society of Cardiology website here

EVENT: IACR, 2023

DATES: 22 February – 24 February 2023

Randox are attending the International Association for Cryptologic Research on 22nd – 24th February 2023.

Visit the IACR website here

EVENT: CLEC 2023

DATES: 02 March – 04 March 2023

Randox are attending CLEC on 2nd – 4th March 2023.

Visit the CLEC website here

EVENT: BioMed-J 2023

DATES: 09 March – 10 March 2023

Randox are attending BioMed-J on 9th – 10th March 2023.

Visit the BioMed-J website here

EVENT: APHLS Infectious Disease Laboratory Conference 2023

DATES: 13 March – 15 March 2023

Randox are attending APHLS Infectious Disease Laboratory Conference on 13th – 15th March 2023.

Visit the APHLS website here

EVENT: Australian Summer Grains Conference 2023

DATES: 13 March – 15 March 2023

Randox are attending the Australian Summer Grains Conference on 13th – 15th March 2023.

Visit the Australian Summer Grains Conference website here

EVENT: Laborama Expo 2023

DATES: 16 March – 17 March 2023

Randox are attending the Laborama Expo on 16th – 17th March 2023.

Visit the Laborama Expo here

EVENT: SANAC 2023

DATES: 16 March – 18 March 2023

Randox are attending SANAC on 16th – 18th March 2023.

Visit the SANAC website here

EVENT: 4th Annual Infectious Disease and Molecular Diagnostics Conference 2023

DATES: 23 March – 24 March 2023

Randox are attending the 4th Annual Infectious Disease and Molecular Diagnostics Conference on 23rd – 24th March 2023.

Visit the 4th Annual Infectious Disease and Molecular Diagnostics Conference website here

EVENT: AMCLI 2023

DATES: 24 March – 27 March 2023

Randox are attending AMCLI on 24th – 27th March 2023.

Visit the AMCLI website here

EVENT: BioMedica 2023

DATES: 27 March – 28 March 2023

Randox are attending BioMedica on 27th – 28th March 2023.

Visit the BioMedica website here

EVENT: POCT Innovators 2023

DATES: 28 March 2023

Randox are attending POCT Innovators on 28th March 2023.

Visit the POCT Innovators website here

EVENT: AD/PD 2023

DATES: 28 March – 01 April 2023

Randox are attending AD/PD on 28th – 1st April 2023.

Visit the AD/PD website here

grand n

EVENT: The Grand National 2023

DATES: 13 April – 15 April 2023

Randox are attending The Grand National on 13th – 15th April 2023.

Visit The Grand National website here

EVENT: ECCMID 2023

DATES: 15 April – 18 April 2023

Randox are attending ECCMID on 15th – 18th April 2023.

Visit the ECCMID website here

EVENT: Microbiology Society 2023

DATES: 17 April – 20 April 2023

Randox are attending the Microbiology Society on 17th – 20th April 2023.

Visit the Microbiology Society website here

EVENT: COLA 2023

DATES: 03 April – 04 May 2023

Randox are attending COLA on 3rd – 4th May 2023.

Visit the COLA website here

EVENT: EuroMedLab 2023

DATES: 21 May – 25 May 2023

Randox are attending EuroMedLab on 21st – 25th May 2023.

Visit the EuroMedLab website here

EVENT: Precision Med Exhibition & Summit 2023

DATES: 23 May – 24 May 2023

Randox are attending Precision Med Exhibition & Summit on 23rd – 24th May 2023.

Visit the Precision Med Exhibition & Summit website here

EVENT: ESHG 2023

DATES: 10 June – 13 June 2023

Randox are attending ESHG on 10th – 13th June 2023.

Visit the ESHG website here

EVENT: Clinical Lab Expo 2023

DATES: 15 June – 17 June 2023

Randox are attending Clinical Lab Expo on 15th – 17th June 2023.

Visit the Clinical Lab expo website here

EVENT: ASM Microbe 2023

DATES: 15 June – 19 June 2023

Randox are attending ASM Microbe on 15th – 19th June 2023.

Visit the ASM Microbe website here

EVENT: 48th CBAC 2023

DATES: 18 June – 21 June 2023

Randox are attending the 48th CBAC on 18th – 21st June 2023.

Visit the 48th CBAC website here

 

EVENT: Analytica 2023

DATES: 11 July – 13 July 2023

Randox are attending Analytica on 11th – 13th July 2023.

Visit the Analytica website here

EVENT: Medlab Asia 2023

DATES: 12 July – 14 July 2023

Randox are attending Medlab Asia on 12th – 14th July 2023.

Visit the Medlab Asia website here

EVENT: AACC 2023

DATES: 23 July – 27 July 2023

Randox are attending AACC on 23rd – 27th July 2023.

Visit the AACC website here

EVENT: 55th Brazilian Congress of Clinical Pathology Laboratory Medicine 2023

DATES: 05 September – 08 September 2023

Randox are attending 55th Brazilian Congress of Clinical Pathology Laboratory Medicine on 5th – 8th September 2023.

Visit the 55th Brazilian Congress of Clinical Pathology Laboratory Medicine website here

EVENT: IBMS 2023

DATES: 25 September – 28 September 2023

Randox are attending IBMS on 25th – 28th September 2023.

Visit the IBMS website here

EVENT: CB&CD 2023

DATES: 26 September – 29 September 2023

Randox are attending CB&CD on 26th – 29th September 2023.

Visit the CB&CD website here

EVENT: The Pharmacy Show 2023

DATES: 15 October – 16 October 2023

Randox are attending The Pharmacy Show on 15th – 16th October 2023.

Visit The Pharmacy Show website here

medica 2

EVENT: Medica 2023

DATES: 13 November – 16 November 2023

Randox are attending Medica on 13th – 16th November 2023.

Visit the Medica website here

JIB

EVENT: JIB ‘Journées de l’innovation Biologique’ 2023

DATES: 01 December – 02 December 2023

Randox are attending JIB ‘Journées de l’innovation Biologique’ on 1st – 2nd December 2023.

Visit the JIB ‘Journées de l’innovation Biologique’ website here

 

 


Aldolase Assay

Reagent | Aldolase

A Myositis Biomarker

Benefits of the Randox Aldolase Assay

Exceptional Correlation

A correlation coefficient of r=0.9917 was displayed when the Randox methodology was compared against commercially available methods.

Measuring Range

The Randox Aldolase assay has a measuring range of 1.73 – 106U/l for the comfortable detection of clinically important results.

Lyophilised Reagents

Lyophilised reagents offer enhanced stability, reducing wastage.

Excellent Precision

The Randox assay displayed a within run precision < 4.47% CV.

Dedicated Calibrator and Controls Available

Randox offer a dedicated Aldolase calibrator and controls for a complete testing package.

Applications Available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox Aldolase assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
AD1895 x 20mlEnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Clinical Significance

Elevated levels of aldolase are detected in myotonic muscular disease, including: polymyositis and progressive muscular dystrophy. Elevated levels of this enzyme have been observed in acute coronary syndromes 1. This enzyme has been identified as a myositis biomarker, a muscle-wasting disease resulting in reduced muscle strength and fatigue 2. Testing this enzyme can be utilised as a marker in the differential diagnosis of muscle weakness as aldolase levels remain consistent where weakness is caused by neurological problems such as multiple sclerosis (MS) 3.

Physiological Significance

Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme responsible for catalysing the conversion of fructose 1-6-diphosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate via the glycolysis metabolic pathway. This enzyme is present in all bodily cells, more commonly in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It has been identified as having three isoforms: A, B and C. Isoform A is found bound to the actin-containing filament of the cytoskeleton. By binding (reversible) to these filaments, aldolase aids in regulating cell contractions. The highest concentrations of this enzyme are present in the brain, liver and muscles 1.

Related Products

Aldolase Calibrator

Aldolase Control

A-Z Randox Reagents


Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO) Reagent

Reagent | Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO)

Key benefits of the Anti-Streptolysin O reagent

Excellent correlation to standard methods

The Randox Anti-Streptolysin O assay showed an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.97 compared against other commercially available methods.

 

Excellent stability

Stable until expiry date when stored at +2 to +8°C

Specificity

The antiserum of Randox Anti-Streptolysin O is monospecific for human ASO and has not been shown to cross react with other serum proteins.

Liquid ready-to-use

Available in a liquid ready-to-use format for convenience and ease-of-use.

Applications available

Applications available detailing instrument-specific settings for the convenient use of the Randox Anti-Streptolysin O assay on a variety of clinical chemistry analysers.

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
LO3998R1 2 x 9ml (L)
R2 2 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LO8015R1 2 x 8.7ml
R2 2 x 12ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
LO8305R1 1 x 7.7ml (L)
R2 1 x 11.2ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is the Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO) assay used for?

What is Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO)?

Streptolysin O (SLO) is a toxic and lethal, exocellular immunogenic protein produced and released in response to Group A Streptococcal pyogenes.  For more information on streptococcal infections, please click here [external link].  The release of SLO stimulates the production of Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO) antibodies to neutralise the SLO’s haemolytic effects. The O in the name stands for oxygen-labile.

What is the Anti-Streptolysin O (ASO) assay used for?

The Anti-Streptolysin (ASO) test is used to determine recent streptococcal infection and post streptococcal complications which includes rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. The presence and level of ASO antibodies in human serum directly reflects the extent and degree of infection. Elevated levels of ASO may also be present in other conditions including scarlet fever, acute rheumatoid arthritis, tonsillitis and various other streptococcal infections as well as in health carriers.

The Randox Anti-Streptolysin (ASO) assay is used to measure the presence of anti-streptolysin antibodies in the blood to determine if a strep infection is present.

Specific Protein Panel

For more information or to visit more reagents within the specific proteins panel, please click here.

Rapid Tests / Serology Panel

For more information or to visit more reagents within the rapid tests / serology panel, please click here.


Antioxidant Reagents

Why Choose Randox Antioxidants Reagents?

The Randox range of antioxidant reagents are designed for use within a variety of sectors including clinical, research, veterinary, pharma, food and beverages, cosmetics and sports. Furthermore, our range of antioxidant reagents include routine antioxidant reagents, as well as more specialised tests that are unique to Randox.

Download our Antioxidants Brochure

Randox Antioxidant Reagents Benefits

  • Suitable for automation which removes the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing options
  • Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for an extensive range of clinical chemistry analysers which includes detailed instrument specific settings for increased convenience.
  • Suitable for a wide variety of sample types, including whole blood (human and animal), serum, plasma, erythrocytes, among others
  • Randox antioxidants are available in liquid and lyophilised formats
  • Suitable for automation which removes the inconvenience and time consumption associated with traditional ELISA based testing options
  • A variety of kits, methods and ranges are available

The role of antioxidant reagents

Antioxidants are important for the body’s immune system to protect the body against free radical attacks. Randox provides a range of antioxidant reagents to assess all three levels of the body’s defence system (preventative antioxidants, scavenging antioxidants and repair enzymes).

Preventative antioxidants – inhibit the formation of free radicals including metal binding proteins like; Ceruloplasmin, Metallothionine, Albumin, Transferrin, Ferritin and Myoglobin.

Repair enzymes – repair damaged biomolecules such as DNA repair enzymes.

Scavenging antioxidants – remove any reactive species once formed such as Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Catalase and small molecules including Ascorbate, Tocopherol, Bilirubin, Uric Acid, Carotenoids and Flavonoids.

Antioxidant benefits against disease

Free radicals have been found to play a role in the development of many diseases including cancer (free radicals are thought to promote cell transformation into a cancer cell), arthritis and inflammatory diseases (increased oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis patients suggests antioxidants could have an important role), cardiovascular disease (antioxidants have been found to improve cardiac health), and Alzheimer’s disease (antioxidants have a role in removing deleterious free radicals from the brain).

Email Us

Get in touch with Randox via email at reagents@randox.com

Need Instructions?

Kit Inserts are available to download for free on our online portal

Buy Online

Order your lipid kits today by visiting our online store 


Amylase Reagent

Reagent | Amylase

Key Benefits of the Randox Amylase reagent

Excellent stability – Stable to expiry when stored at +2 to +8°C

Methodology – Ethylidene PNPG7 method

Liquid ready-to-use reagents – The Randox reagent comes in a liquid ready-to-use format which is more convenient as the reagent does not need to be reconstituted which aids in reducing the risk of errors occurring

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
AY3805R1 4 x 16ml (L)
R2 4 x 5ml (L)
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AY7931R1 6 x 50ml (L)
R2 4 x 18ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AY8004R1 7 x 18ml (L)
R2 7 x 7.3ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AY8335R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Amylase used for?

It is a digestive enzyme / special protein produced by the pancreas and salivary glands.  Salivary amylase is responsible for breaking down starch in the mouth and converting it into maltose.  Pancreatic amylase passes through a duct from the pancreas to the small intestine where the digestive process is completed through converting starch into glucose.  The glucose is then absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body.

Damage or inflammation to the pancreas can result in under / over production of amylase which can be a sign of pancreatic disorder which includes pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic abscess, pancreatic cancer, gallbladder disease, mumps or ectopic pregnancy.  For more information on pancreatic cancer, please click here. The Randox assay is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of amylase activity in serum, urine and plasma.


Randox Toxicology Highly Sensitive ELISA kits

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA, has been utilised as a screening tool for some time. The immunoassay technique is a popular choice for the evaluation of various research and diagnostic targets including drugs of abuse testing.

As primary manufacturer of the Biochip Array Technology, Randox Toxicology also provide highly sensitive ELISA kits that are compatible with all microplate processing instruments. Our test menu covers a broad range of drugs of abuse and metabolites including new psychoactive substances, stimulants, analgesics and sedatives. With low specificity, our ELISA kits are available across whole blood, urine and oral fluid matrices. Randox Toxicology develop the highest quality 96-well microtitre plates available on the market, with results providing excellent correlation with confirmatory methods.

Our range of ELISAs are precoated with our own antibodies which are cultivated in the UK. The ready to use reagent format facilitates optimum laboratory efficiency and allows up to 80 samples to be analysed in 2 to 3 hours with ELISA procedures.

 

* EXCLUSIVE to Randox Toxicology

 

For more information on our ELISA solutions email info@randoxtoxicology.com to be put in touch with a sales member in your area or visit www.randoxtoxicology.com.

 

 


Ammonia Reagent

Ammonia

Key Benefits of the Randox Ammonia reagent

Lyophilised Reagents

Lyophilised reagents offer enhanced stability, reducing wastage.

 

Suitable for use on a range of analysers

The Randox Ammonia reagent is suitable to use on a number of third party analysers Including Abbott, Olympus, Cobas and Hitachi.

Stability

Stable for 3 weeks at+2 to +8°C or 5 days at +15 to +25°C

Other features

  • Enzymatic UV method
  • Lyophilised reagents
  • Stable for 3 weeks at +2 to +8°C or 5 days at +15 to +25°C

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
AM1015R1a. 10 x 5ml
R1b. 1 x 70ml
R2. 2 x 2ml
(C)
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AM3979R1 4 x 20ml
R2 2 x 10ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(C) Indicates calibrator included in kit

(S) Indicates standard included in kit

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is Ammonia assay used for?

The Randox assay is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of ammonia in plasma.

Ammonia is a nitrogen waste compound and forms when the protein is broken down by bacteria in the intestines.  The liver then converts it into urea which is normally excreted from the body in urine.  Excessive concentration levels is poisonous to cells and occurs as a result of liver or kidney malfunctions.  Several diseases, both inherited and acquired can result in significantly elevated concentration levels resulting in hyperammonemia.

Reye’s syndrome is an acquired hyperammonemia disease and is characterised by high concentration levels of ammonia and decreased concentration levels of glucose. As such, an ammonia test is not usually carried out independently and is usually tested alongside glucose, electrolytes, kidney and liver function tests in adolescents and children showing symptoms.  For more information on Reye’s syndrome, please click here . Excessive concentration levels is also associated with both liver disease and renal failure which is toxic to the central nervous system.


Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Reagent

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Reagent

Key Benefits of the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) reagent

Flexibility

Liquid and lyophilised reagents available to offer greater customer choice

Suitable for use on a range of analysers

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Reagent is suitable to use on a number of third party analysers Including Abbott, Olympus, Cobas and Hitachi.

Stability

ALT is stable for up to 14 days when stored at +2 to +8°C

More features of the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) reagent

  • IFCC method
  • Available as liquid and lyophilised reagents
  • Stable to for up to 14 days when stored at +2 to +8°C

Ordering information

Cat NoSize
AL1205R1a. 1 x 105ml
R1b. 10 x 10ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AL7930R1 7 x 100ml (L)
R2 3 x 60ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AL3801R1 6 x 51ml (L)
R2 6 x 14ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AL8006R1 6 x 56ml (L)
R2 6 x 20ml (Mod. IFCC)
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
AL8304R1 4 x 20ml (L)
R2 4 x 7ml (Mod ?IFCC)
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(L) Indicates liquid option

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

Randox ALT-Colorimetric ordering information

Cat NoSize
AL146R1. 1 x 100ml
R2. 1 x 100ml
R3. 1 x 100ml
EnquireKit Insert RequestMSDSBuy Online
(S) Indicates standard included in kit

Instrument Specific Applications (ISA’s) are available for a wide range of biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to enquire about your specific analyser.

What is ALT assay used for?

Alanine Aminotransferase is one of the enzymes within the aminotransferases group and are among the most sensitive liver enzymes. The highest concentrations of the ALT enzyme can be in the liver, with decreasing concentrations found in the kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen and lung tissue respectively.

ALT measurements are used in the diagnosis of hepatic damage and diseases including viral hepatitis and cirrhosis.

The normal concentration levels of ALT in the blood are low, however, when damaged, the liver releases more ALT into the blood causing the concentration levels to rise.  When diagnosing for hepatic damage, the root cause of the damage can be established, such as disease, drug, or injury

The ALT test not only allows for the diagnosis of liver disease but also allows for the diagnosis of the root cause of the disease

It is often tested in combination with the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) test as part of the hepatic panel with alanine aminotransferase levels being higher in most types of liver disease.  For more information on the validity and clinical utility of AST and ALT when assessing disease severity, please click here

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