Renal Function and Health

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Renal Function and Health

Renal Health

Your kidneys are vital for survival, they filter waste substances out of your blood and balance the levels of salts and water in our bodies. Your kidneys filter around 180 litres of blood every day, control the production of red blood cells and release hormones that regulate blood pressure – it’s little wonder, then, the importance placed on looking after such a vital organ.

Did you know?

Around 1 in 8 people in the UK will develop Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Kidney Disease can affect people of all ages and races, 10% of the population worldwide is affected by Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD.) Since Kidney Disease can sneak up without symptoms it has been labelled a silent killer, a person can lose up to 90% of their kidney function before experiencing any signs or symptoms.

As kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build up in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop additional problems such as high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Kidney disease also increases your risk of developing heart or blood vessel disease. These problems often develop slowly and will often lead to kidney failure.

The two main causes of CKD are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of cases, other causes include inherited kidney diseases and malformations at birth.

 

How is Chronic Kidney Disease detected?

Early detection and treatment is crucial to keep kidney disease from developing into kidney failure, some simple tests can be carried out to detect early kidney disease. These are;

  1. A urine test to check if there is any protein present
  2. A blood test to measure levels of creatinine

The best treatment is early detection when CKD can be slowed or stopped, however once kidneys fail, treatment with dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed. 8 of 10 people on the transplant list are waiting for a kidney, the average wait for a new kidney is 3 years, and every day one kidney patient will die waiting for a transplant.

 

Reduce your risk of developing CKD

Your kidneys are vital to your overall health, so it’s important to look after them. There are 5 simple steps that can help you keep them in good shape;

  1. Stay hydrated
  2. Maintain a balanced diet and keep your weight in check
  3. Monitor your blood pressure
  4. Quit Smoking
  5. Limit your alcohol intake

Related Products 

Randox has developed the RX series of clinical chemistry analysers for superior semi-automated and fully automated testing. The RX series extensive dedicated test menu goes beyond routine testing and has many unique and high-performance tests available. Our range of tests covers several parameters to assess renal health.

Renal Function

Albumin Creatinine Enzymatic IgG Phosphorus (Inorganic)
Ammonia Creatinine (Jaffe) LDH Urinary Protein
Beta-2 Microglobulin Cystatin C Magnesium Urea
Calcium Glucose Potassium Uric Acid
Chloride HbA1c/Hb Sodium

Our world-famous test menu of high quality reagents ensures excellence in patient care, guaranteeing unrivalled precision and accuracy reducing costly test re-runs or misdiagnosis and offering complete confidence in results.

The RX series clinical chemistry analysers provide laboratories with a robust and smart solution ensuring you maintain a consistent workflow and can provide accurate results first time, every time. Offering excellent customer support services, our trained engineers are on hand to work with you in preserving the continuity of your operations while maximising the potential of your RX series instrument.

For more information visit: https://www.randox.com/clinical-chemistry-analysers/

 

 

Kidney disorders can develop and advance overtime without any signs and the symptoms are not recognised as being associated with renal impairment. Kidney health and regular renal screening is important to enable renal impairment to be detected in its earliest stages to prevent renal failure.  Randox offers a comprehensive range of high performance reagents for the detection and characterisation of renal function problems.

All reagents are available for use on a wide range of third party biochemistry analysers. Contact us to request an application for your specific analyser.

Cystatin C

Cystatin C is a useful marker where creatinine measurements are unsuitable e.g. patients who are obese, malnourished, have liver cirrhosis or reduced muscle mass.  Cystatin C also does not have a ‘blind area’ unlike creatinine – up to 50% of renal function can be lost before sufficient creatinine levels are detectable.  Cystatin C is extremely sensitive to small changes in Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and so is capable of detecting early stages of renal impairment.

For more information on Cystatin C, visit: www.randox.com/cystatin-c

Enzymatic Creatinine

Creatinine clearance in the kidneys gives a measurement of the GFR which is the standard marker for renal function.  The enzymatic method offers superior specificity when compared to the traditional Jaffe method.  Other benefits of the enzymatic method over the Jaffe method includes: limited interferences from bilirubin, haemoglobin, Intralipid® and Triglycerides making the assay more suitable for neonatal samples, eliminates the need for urea determination, highly specific and does not overestimate serum creatinine.

For more information on Enzymatic Creatinine, visit: www.randox.com/creatinine

Microalbumin

The detection of albumin in urine can be an indicator of kidney injury, as damage to the glomerular basement membrane results in albumin seeping out of the kidneys into urine. Sustained elevations of urinary albumin concentrations are called Microalbuminuria. The Randox Microalbumin test is an excellent marker of kidney disease and can identify individuals with diabetic nephropathy approximately 5-10 years earlier than proteinuria tests reducing the incidence of end stage renal disease.   The American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK recommend that all diabetics are screened for microalbuminuria on a yearly basis.

For more information on Microalbumin, visit: www.randox.com/microalbumin

Renal Testing Panel

  • Cystatin C
  • Creatinine Enzymatic
  • Creatinine Jaffe
  • Microalbumin
  • Total Urinary Protein
  • Urea
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Albumin
  • Ammonia
  • β₂ Microglobulin
  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Glucose
  • HbA1c
  • IgG
  • LDH
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus (Inorganic)
  • Uric Acid

When diagnosing and monitoring Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), it is vital that laboratories have a robust Quality Control (QC) system in place to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results produced. The Acusera Chemistry and Urine Controls have been designed to cover a wide range of kidney function tests at clinical decision levels eliminating the need for additional low level controls at extra expense.

Our range of Chemistry Controls contain up to 100 analytes and cover a wide range of kidney function tests. Available in a choice of liquid or lyophilised formats, options are available to suit all laboratory sizes and budgets.

Our portfolio of Urine Controls cover the full range of clinical testing, manufactured from 100% human serum a matrix similar to that of the patient is guaranteed. They are available in both liquid ready-to-use and lyophilised formats, making them ideal for use at the point-of-care and in the laboratory.

Common kidney function parameters we cover include;

  • Albumin
  • Urea/BUN
  • Bicarbonate
  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Creatinine
  • Creatinine Clearance
  • Cystatin C
  • Glucose
  • Phosphate
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Urine Albumin
  • Albumin/Creatinine Ratio
  • Beta-2 Microglobulin
  • Urinalysis
  • Urine Protein

For more information, contact us at acusera@randox.com

We also have corresponding RIQAS Chemistry and Urine Programmes which cover the common kidney function tests, including;

RIQAS General Clinical Chemistry Programme

The RIQAS General Clinical Chemistry EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 52 parameters. Three flexible yet cost effective programme options are available.

  • Accredited to ISO/IEC 17043
  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Human based serum
  • Bi-weekly reporting
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost
  • Reference method values are provided for selected parameters/lots

For more information, visit our RIQAS General Clinical Chemistry Programme page.

RIQAS Human Urine Programme

The RIQAS Human Urine EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 25 routine chemistry assays in urine.

  • Accredited to ISO/IEC 17043
  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • 100% human urine
  • Bi-weekly reporting
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost

For more information, visit our RIQAS Human Urine Programme page

 

Our Randox Health clinics offer comprehensive health testing as part of our Signature, Everyman and Everywoman packages to identify and assess risk of developing Kidney Disease. Our clinics utilise the same cutting-edge tests and quality control that we have available to clinical laboratories globally, as well as our patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT).

For more information visit: https://www.randoxhealth.com/

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Take control of your heart health with Randox

Your heart is amazing. Not only is it your most critical organ but also one of the most hard-working. The average adult heart beats around 100,000 times a day, acting as a giant pump for all the blood in your body. Indeed, every day your heart pumps over nine litres of blood through a system of blood vessels over 60,000 miles long – it’s little wonder, then, the importance placed on looking after such a vital muscle.

The heart works 24/7, only taking a rest when you sleep with the natural drop of heart rate and blood pressure. Over time, and influenced by lifestyle choices, the heart grows weaker, needing to work harder to fulfil its function. Crucial lifestyle changes now could limit your risk of developing serious cardiac conditions, such as Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in the future. Factors which can contribute to your CVD risk include genes inherited from parents or grandparents, smoking, an unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption and low physical activity levels.

You can’t change your DNA, but you can find out what it means to you and your family. One of our advanced tests can identify people living with a common but often hidden disorder – Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH). Fewer than 12% of people in the UK know they have this potentially fatal condition. It is characterised by dangerously high levels of cholesterol which can lead to early onset cardiovascular disease.

While lifestyle changes may help to limit your risk of CVD, and related heart condition, it is impossible to eradicate it completely for everyone. Accounting for 31% of deaths worldwide, CVD is the number one cause of death globally but early screening could lower this figure significantly.   That’s why it’s vitally important to detect CVD early before a coronary event like a heart attack occurs.

Today in the UK, 530 people will go to the hospital with a suspected heart attack. Only a fifth of these people will actually be having a heart attack. According to a team from King’s College London, as reported by the BBC, a faster, more accurate diagnosis of whether chest pain is caused by a heart attack would save the health service millions of pounds each year by sending well patients home and freeing up beds. Yet current testing methods do not efficiently differentiate between high-risk patients and the estimated 80% of patients who are not having a heart attack.

Randox’s revolutionary test for Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP), when combined with current testing, is able to rule out a heart attack for patients who present at A&E with chest pain which is caused by other conditions such as respiratory issues, meaning they may not need emergency admission.

When measured at the time a patient presents to A&E with chest pain, H-FABP enables doctors to triage patients suffering with a heart attack more efficiently than before, making sure those at high-risk are given medical intervention earlier.

Early screening in the form of a comprehensive health check is essential to detect cardiac irregularities before they become serious problems. Heart damage builds up over time, meaning that when detected early enough, lifestyle changes can help to reduce cardiac risk and potentially even prevent a cardiac event occurring.

Therefore, it is vitally important that individuals are tested for CVD to detect them in the earliest stages to reduce damage, prevent further damage, or even death.  Furthermore, many people suffer from inherited cardiac risk factors, which stresses the need for accurate testing.

Randox offer the complete laboratory solution to cardiac risk assessment information to doctors and hospitals, and also directly to the public at Randox Health. Our range of both traditional and novel cardiac risk biomarkers, along with our technologically-advanced range of analysers, serves to allow us to offer the most advanced, most accurate health check available on the planet.

As well as your cardiovascular risk score, a Randox Health check will also assess your cholesterol levels, FH risk, triglycerides, creative kinase, myoglobin, troponin levels and many more heart health indicators. In total, a Randox Health check can assess up to 350 different markers of irregularity or disease in the whole body, from heart to hormone health and skin to stomach.

Many serious future health issues are preventable now with action. Find out more about our health check programmes here.

 

About Randox Health

Randox Health is a global leader in healthcare diagnostics; today more than 5% of the world’s population – in excess of 370 million people across 145 countries – receives medical diagnosis using Randox products each year.

 

After investing over £220 million in the invention and production of revolutionary blood-science technology, a single Randox Health check will deliver a complete picture of your health – as it is now and, crucially, how it is likely to develop in the future.

Randox Health has proven that signs of disease or irregularity can be caught at their earliest stage. This means that, with early action, some cases of illness can even be prevented altogether. Our health checks include, but are not limited to, cancer surveillance, fertility monitoring, heart health, nutrition, digestive and diabetes health.

In other words, from one health check, you’ll receive up to 350 results and afterwards avail of expert advice from the Randox scientists or a Randox Health GP. Not only that, but a complete 12-month programme and repeat testing come as standard so you can have full confidence that you are really taking care of yourself.

 

Find out more information about Randox Health checks here: https://www.randoxhealth.com/our-packages/

 

RX Series

Randox has developed the RX series range of clinical chemistry analysers for high-quality semi-automated and fully automated testing. Choose between the RX misano, RX monaco, RX daytona+, RX imola, and the RX modena depending on the throughput of your laboratory. The RX series offers a suitable analyser for your laboratory’s needs.  For more information on the Randox RX series, please click here or email therxseries@randox.com

 

Reagents

Randox offers an extensive range of third party diagnostic reagents which are internationally recognised as being of the highest quality; producing accurate and precise results. We have the largest test menu of 118 assays, covering over 100 disease markers including specific proteins, lipids, therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, antioxidants, coagulation, diabetes and veterinary testing. A wide range of formats and methods are available providing greater flexibility and choice for any laboratory size. In addition to flexible pack sizes and a comprehensive list of analyser applications, we can also provide dedicated reagent packs (Randox Easy Read and Easy Fit regents) for a wide range of chemistry analysers providing you with freedom of choice from an independent manufacturer.

For more information on Randox Reagents, please click here or email reagents@randox.com

 

Acusera – Internal Quality Control

The Acusera cardiac controls have been designed to cover a wide range of cardiac markers at clinical decision levels, eliminating the extra expense of an additional low level control.  The controls are available in a both liquid ready-to-use and lyophilized formats making them ideal for all situations and manufactured from 100% human serum a matrix similar to that of the patient is guaranteed.  For more information on the Randox Acusera internal quality control, please click here or email acusera@randox.com

 

RIQAS – External Quality Control

The RIQAS Liquid Cardiac EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of up to 9clinically significant cardiac markers including: CK-MB mass, D-dimer, Digoxin, homocysteine, hsCRP, myoglobin, NT proBNP, troponin I, and troponin T.  RIQAS is ISO/IEC 17043 accredited and allows the registration of up to five instruments at no extra cost.  All samples are 100% human serum and provided in a liquid ready-to-use format for enhanced convenience.  Submit your results bi-weekly and view reports online via RIQAS.Net.  For more information on RIQAS, the world’s largest international EQA scheme, please click here or email acusera@randox.com

 

For further information, please contact the Randox PR team via email: randoxpr@randox.com or phone 028 9442 2413


Simple health checks, sophisticated science at Randox Health

What is health care? When we think of caring for our health, we think of going to the doctor when we feel ill. The healthcare cycle we’re accustomed to is one where we wait for symptoms to present themselves and then we visit a doctor, hoping to be prescribed medication to limit our symptoms.

Is this really health care? Are we really caring for our bodies in the best way possible by waiting for illness to manifest itself? What if we could properly look after our bodies by taking action early to stop illness in its tracks?

The key to this is identifying indicators of pre-illness, and the technology that allows you to do this is now available directly to you through Randox Health.

After investing over £220 million in the invention and production of revolutionary blood-science technology, a single Randox Health check will deliver a complete picture of your health – as it is now and crucially how it is likely to develop in the future.

Randox Health has proven that signs of disease or irregularity can be caught at their earliest stage. This means that, with early action, some cases of illness can even be prevented altogether. Our health checks include, but are not limited to, cancer surveillance, fertility monitoring, heart health, nutrition, digestive and diabetes health.

In other words, from one health check, you’ll receive up to 350 results and afterwards avail of expert advice from the Randox scientists or a Randox Health GP. Not only that, but a complete 12-month programme and repeat testing come as standard so you can have full confidence that you are really taking care of yourself.

Look out for our new ‘Health Made Simple’ blogs beginning next week, where we’ll be delving in to the sophisticated science and diagnostic tests that power each Randox Health check.

You’ll find out about our Everyman, Everywoman and our Signature health checks, as well as our Specialised testing options which focus on specific health issues.

Find out more and start your Randox Health journey today.

For further information, please contact the Randox PR team via email: randoxpr@randox.com or phone 028 9442 2413


Reconstituting Lyophilised Controls

What is Lyophilisation?

Lyophilisation or ‘freeze drying’ is the process by which water is removed from a product after it is frozen and placed under a vacuum, allowing the ice to change directly from solid to vapor without passing through a liquid phase. The process consists of three separate processes:

  1. Freezing
  2. Primary Drying (Sublimation)
  3. Secondary Drying (Desorption)

There are many benefits to using a lyophilised control including; improved product shelf-life and enhanced stability of volatile analytes. For example, many lyophilised controls have a shelf life of up to four years from the date of manufacture resulting in a reduction of costly new lot validation studies. Furthermore, lyophilised controls can be aliquoted and refrozen to extend the working stability of the product.

Reconstituting Lyophilised QC Material

The process of reconstitution involves adding a specified volume of distilled water to lyophilised QC material. The water should completely dissolve the lyophilised contents, giving a liquid solution, which is ready for analysis.

Reconstitution is a straightforward process, but requires a high level of precision. Small errors can have serious implications to the reconstituted material:

  • If too much water is pipetted during reconstitution, the material will be heavily diluted and results will be lower than expected
  • If too little water is pipetted during reconstitution, the material will not be sufficiently diluted, and results will be higher than expected
  • If the correct volume of water is pipetted, but a small amount of water gets stuck in the pipette tip due to poor pipetting technique, results will be higher than expected

If a lyophilised control has been reconstituted incorrectly the contents of the vial will be wasted. It is therefore vitally important that controls are reconstituted with care.

Materials and Methods Required

The list of requirements for an accurate and consistent reconstitution technique is not extensive, but each requirement is vital. Labs should have:

  • Calibrated volumetric pipettes
  • Sterile, appropriately sized pipette tips
  • Distilled water, or other reconstitution fluid as specified
  • Technician with good pipetting technique
  • Lyophilised QC stored according to manufacturer’s specifications

How to Reconstitute Lyophilised QC Material

Each different lyophilised control may require slightly different preparation, always refer to the instructions for use before reconstituting control material. The below guide provides a general overview of the reconstitution process, using the Randox Human Assayed Chemistry Premium Plus control (HN1530) as an example

  1. Place the vial of lyophilised QC on a flat surface, carefully remove the lid and the rubber stopper making sure not to spill any material
  2. Using a calibrated pipette and sterilised pipette tip, add exactly 5ml of distilled water directly into the QC vial, ensuring no water is left in the pipette tip, or on the rim/side of the vial
  3. Place the rubber stopper and lid firmly back onto the QC vial, and leave to stand for 30 minutes
  4. After 30 minutes, gently invert the QC vial 10-15 times to ensure the contents is completely dissolved, making sure to avoid the formation of foam. It is important that you DO NOT SHAKE the vial. Alternatively place the vial on a roller for 30 minutes to ensure the contents is thoroughly mixed
  5. Once satisfied all material has been completely dissolved, proceed to use the QC product in accordance with the ‘Control’ section of the individual analyser application
  6. Once finished, refrigerate any unused material. It is good practice to label the vial with the date of reconstitution to prevent the use of material outside of the recommended stability period
  7. Prior to reusing lyophilised material, mix the contents thoroughly by gentle inversion, as highlighted in Step 4

Additional Considerations

It is important to remember that there may be slightly different reconstitution requirements for different QC material. For this reason, it is vital that the instructions provided on the QC Kit Inserts are closely followed.

Reconstituting lyophilised QC can be time-consuming. Therefore, Randox Acusera offer convenient 5ml distilled water serum diluent to assist laboratories with reconstitution of lyophilised controls. These user-friendly pour over vials streamline the reconstitution process and eliminate the risk of pipetting errors.

If you have any further questions regarding lyophilised controls or would like to contact us, please do so by emailing us at acusera@randox.com or use the contact us button provided.


Liver health: do you know your limits?

Are you taking part in Dry January? Giving up alcohol can do your insides a lot of good, and it’s great news for your liver in particular. It may be that after the festive period our liver needs a little bit of rest!

Did you know that alcohol consumption across the UK increases by a staggering 41 percent more than the annual monthly average in December? That’s more than anywhere else in the world.

The effects of alcohol on your health really depend on how much you drink and how often, but as the statistics show, more of us increase our uptake of alcohol over the festive period.

So how does this impact our body?

The results of over indulging vary from a hangover, a poor night’s sleep, to causing an irregular heartbeat, and in some cases, excessive alcohol intake can lead to liver damage. This can be a very serious condition, given the liver’s vital role in the body.

The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes. In fat metabolism, it breaks down fats and produces energy. When we intake alcohol or drugs, the liver metabolizes the drug and detoxifies chemicals.  And it also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.

Following these processes, the liver also secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines and helps the digestion of fats and oils, otherwise known as lipids.

As Randox Health Expert Dr. Gary Smyth explains:

“The liver is one of the most complex organs in the body and also one of the most important. Although it is very resilient, each time it has to filter alcohol some of its cells die.  The liver can develop new cells, but abuse over a prolonged period reduces its ability to regenerate, causing serious damage.”

It is not just heavy drinking over years that can cause liver disease – binge drinking is also a culprit and can lead to your liver becoming fatty and inflamed. The best advice is to drink in moderation. Simple tips like taking a glass of water in-between alcoholic drinks are key to staying hydrated.

Know your units;

  • According to drinkaware.co.uk, unit guidelines are now the same for men and women.
  • Both are advised not to regularly drink more than 14 units a week
  • This equates to 6 pints of 4% beer / 6 glasses of 13% wine / 14 glasses (25ml) of 40% spirits
  • But don’t save up your 14 units, it’s best to spread evenly across the week.
  • If you want to cut down the amount you’re drinking, a good way is to have several drink-free days each week.
  • If you’ve had a heavy drinking session, avoid alcohol for 48 hours.

What does one unit of alcohol look like?

One unit of alcohol is the amount of alcohol an average adult can process within one hour so that so that there’s no alcohol left in their bloodstream.

One unit of alcohol equates to:

  • 218ml of standard 4.5% cider
  • 76ml of standard 13% wine
  • 25ml of standard 40% whiskey
  • 250ml of standard 4% beer
  • 250ml of a standard 4% alcopop

How many units are in my drink?

  • Small glass white / rosé / red wine (125ml 12%) = 1.5 units
  • Standard glass white / rosé / red wine (175 ml 12%) = 2.1 units
  • Large glass white / red / rosé wine (250ml 12%) = 3 units
  • Pint of lager / beer / cider (5.2%) = 3 units
  • Bottle of lager / beer / cider (330ml 5%) = 1.7 units
  • Single small shot of spirits (25ml 40%) = 1 unit*

*taken from NHS Live Well Guidelines

Having your liver health checked after Christmas is a great way of tracking any changes that you may need to make to your lifestyle, for better or for worse – essential for helping you prevent liver disease and allowing you to take early action if it is diagnosed.

At Randox we offer a comprehensive menu of liver function tests to determine the health of your liver.  Provided by Randox to a wealth of hospitals, laboratories and research facilities across the globe, these tests are also directly available to you, the consumer, via our Randox Health clinics.

They include:

  • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) – an enzyme mainly found in the liver. Liver injury or disease will release ALT into the bloodstream, thus elevating serum ALT levels.  Moderately high or mildly elevated ALT levels can be associated with chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis, which is scarring of the liver.

 

  • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) – an enzyme found predominantly in the heart, liver and skeletal muscles. Cell injury or disease will release AST into the bloodstream, thus elevating blood AST levels. Increased AST levels may be associated with hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), or drug-induced liver injury.

 

  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) – an enzyme found mainly in the liver. Increased levels of GGT in the blood may indicate bile duct injury, hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver necrosis (death of liver tissue), liver tumours or the use of drugs that are toxic to the liver.  A high GGT level is frequently associated with increased alcohol consumption, as this liver enzyme is involved in the breakdown and removal of alcohol from the body.

 

  • Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GLDH) – an enzyme located within the mitochondria (energy-producing machinery) of cells, particularly within liver tissue. Significant liver cell damage may cause release of GLDH into the bloodstream.  Toxic liver damage, liver cell necrosis (cell death) or hypoxic liver disease (where liver cells are deprived of oxygen) may cause an increase in GLDH. Measurement of GLDH in combination with other liver markers may help distinguish between different causes of liver dysfunction.

 

  • Bilirubin – a yellowish-brown pigment found in bile (a fluid produced in the liver that facilitates digestion in the intestine). Increased levels may be associated with liver or bile duct blockage (eg due to gallstones), hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), trauma to the liver, a drug reaction, long-term alcohol abuse or rare inherited disorders (eg Dubin-Johnson syndrome which is characterised by mild jaundice).

 

  • Albumin – produced by the liver, albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood. Albumin plays in important role in maintaining blood pressure and transporting a wide variety of small molecules, such as hormones, vitamins and drugs, throughout the body. Various conditions are associated with decreased albumin levels, including kidney and liver diseases.

 

  • Copper – an essential mineral that plays a part in many enzyme systems within the body. Excess or deficiency of copper is very rare, however raised copper levels may be caused by chronic liver disease or acute hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).

And when used in conjunction with the wide variety of other tests available within the world’s most comprehensive and personalised health testing menu, you can obtain an understanding of your full body health like never before.

That’s why we don’t test in isolation, which can give a patchy representation of your health and can fail to pick up on related symptoms elsewhere in the body. We test up to 350 tests across 25 areas of your health – giving you the power to take your health into your own hands.

Contact the Randox Health team today to determine the health of your liver, and of your body.

Call 0800 2545 130 or click here.

 

 


Randox Liver Health

The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, the loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body.  Randox are focusing on liver health, we will look at liver disease, its main causes and how to reduce your risk of many types of liver disease with some simple lifestyle changes.

Did you know?

One in five of us is at risk of developing liver damage!

Liver disease is now the fifth largest cause of death, with as many as 1 in 10 people experiencing problems with their liver at sometime in their life. Liver diseases are extremely costly in terms of human suffering, general practitioner and hospital visits, and premature loss of productivity. Most people with liver disease die in working age (16-85 years) making liver disease the third biggest cause of premature mortality, mortality rates for liver disease have increased 400% since 1970.

The three main causes of liver disease are;

1. Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD)

Regularly drinking more than the recommended amount of alcohol over a long period of time can damage your liver, leading to alcohol-related liver disease  (ALD) and liver cancer. Overall, alcohol-related liver disease accounts for well over a third (37%) of liver disease deaths. More than 1 in 10 deaths of people in their 40’s are due to liver disease, with the vast majority from alcohol-related liver disease.

2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is caused by a build up of fatty deposits in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring. After years of inflammation NAFLD leads to cirrhosis causing the liver to become scarred and lumpy; this damage is permanent and ultimately can lead to liver failure and/or cancer.

NAFLD is more common in those who are overweight or obese. A healthy liver should contain little or no fat, it is estimated that 1 in every 3 people in the UK have early stages of NAFLD due to small amounts of fats in the liver.

As well as being overweight, you are also at an increased risk of developing NAFLD if you have: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and/or high cholesterol.

3. Hepatitis

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, viral hepatitis affects over 700,00 people in the UK. Most people can recover from hepatitis A with no lasting liver damage, but hepatitis B and C can cause long term liver damage and liver cancer.

Hepatitis can lead to severe liver damage including cirrhosis, increasing the risk of liver cancer.

Related Products 

Randox has developed the RX series of clinical chemistry analysers for superior semi-automated and fully automated testing. The RX series extensive dedicated test menu goes beyond routine testing and has many unique and high-performance tests available. Our range of tests covers many illnesses which stem from an unhealthy liver. Below is the hepatic testing panel which will test the health of a patient’s liver.

Hepatic Function

Albumin Complement Component 3 IgG Transthyretin (Prealbumin)
Aldolase Complement Component 4 IgM Bile Acids
Alkaline Phosphatase Direct Bilirubin Iron (UIBC)
Alpha-I Antitrypsin Gamma GT LAP
ALT GLDH LDH
Ammonia Glycerol Total Bilirubin
AST (GOT) Haptoglobin Total Protein
Cholinesterase IgA Transferrin

Our world leading test menu of high quality reagents guarantees excellence in patient care ensuring unrivalled precision and accuracy reducing costly test re-runs or misdiagnosis and offering complete confidence in results.

The RX series clinical chemistry analysers provide laboratories with a robust and smart solution ensuring you maintain a consistent workflow and can provide accurate results first time, every time. Offering excellent customer support services, our trained engineers are on hand to work with you in preserving the continuity of your operations while maximising the potential of your RX series instrument.

For more information visit: https://www.randox.com/clinical-chemistry-analysers/

Randox supply a range of third party clinical diagnostic reagents to aid in the diagnosis of various liver diseases, and for managing the complications of such diseases. All reagents are available for use on a range of third party biochemistry analysers. Contact us to request an application for your specific analyser.

Unique tests from Randox

5th Generation Bile Acids

  • Bile acids is a highly sensitive marker of liver function, enabling early and accurate diagnosis of liver disease. Bile acids is also the most accurate method for diagnosing obstetric cholestasis in pregnant women, a common liver condition affecting women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy.
  • The fifth Generation Randox Total Bile Acids assay uses liquid stable two shot reagents in an enzymatic colorimetric assay for the quantitative in vitro determination of Bile Acids in serum or EDTA Heparinized plasma. The assay incorporates a more complex enzyme cycling mechanism than previous generations to amplify the signal, improving sensitivity and precision and reducing interference in haemolytic and lipaemic samples.
  • For more information visit https://www.randox.com/bile-acids/

Vanadate Oxidation Bilirubin

  • Bilirubin levels are important during the process of diagnosing and monitoring liver diseases including hepatitis, cirrhosis and gallstones. Other conditions characterised by elevated bilirubin concentrations include haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell disease.
  • Randox Bilirubin adopts the superior vanadate oxidation methodology which unlike diazo-based methods, does not suffer from interference from unconjugated bilirubin, giving more accurate results.
  • For more information visit https://www.randox.com/bilirubin/

 

Further testing panels from Randox

Hepatic Panel

Albumin

ALT

Ammonia

AST

Bile Acids

Bilirubin

When diagnosing and monitoring liver disease, it is vital that laboratories have a robust Quality Control (QC) system in place to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results produced. As a world leading manufacturer of QC solutions including Third Party Controls and External Quality Assessment (EQA), our extensive product portfolio is designed to help reduce costs and time without compromising on quality.

Clinical Chemistry Controls

Our Acusera Clinical Chemistry Controls deliver effective consolidation and cost savings, covering the complete liver function panel;

  • Total Serum Proteins
  • Albumin
  • Direct Bilirubin
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • AST
  • ALT

Available in a choice of assayed/unassayed, liquid/lyophilised, premium/premium plus and human/bovine formats, options are available to suit all laboratory sizes and budgets. Find out more visit https://www.randox.com/clinical-chemistry-quality-controls/

RIQAS Clinical Chemistry Programme

Our RIQAS Clinical Chemistry Programme also covers the complete liver function panel at robust reference levels, challenging the full test system.

  • Accredited to ISO/IEC 17043
  • Lyophilised for enhanced stability
  • Human based serum
  • Bi-weekly reporting
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Register up to five instruments at no extra cost
  • Reference method values are provided for selected parameters / lots

HIV-Hepatitis EQA Programme * 

The RIQAS HIV/Hepatitis EQA programme is designed to monitor the performance of tests used to detect HIV/Hepatitis virus antibodies. All samples are conveniently supplied liquid ready-to-use and are suitable for qualitative methods of analysis.

  • Liquid ready-to-use
  • 100% human plasma
  • Quarterly reporting (5 samples per quarterly distribution)
  • Submit results and view reports online via RIQAS.Net
  • Suitable for both quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis
*Not accredited to ISO/IEC 17043

 

Our Randox Health clinics offer comprehensive health testing as part of our Signature package to identify and assess risk of developing liver disease. Our clinics utilise the same cutting-edge tests and quality control that we have available to clinical laboratories globally, as well as our patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT).

For more information visit: https://www.randoxhealth.com/

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Protecting Pets from the Threat of Mycotoxins

Pet Food companies worldwide are working towards constantly improving and maximising the quality of their product. The problematic topic of mycotoxin contamination in pet feed is quickly becoming a major cause for concern. This is due to the risk they pose for animal health and with the  increasing prevalence of mycotoxins globally the focus is on pet food companies to meet EU and FDA regulations and maximise the quality of their product.

What are Mycotoxins?

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring metabolites that are produced by certain moulds and with the ability to develop and grow on a variety of crops they can affect large amounts of feed and increasingly, pet food. If a sample tests positive even for low levels of contamination the toxins are still strong enough to cause illness in animals, and if low levels are consumed over a long period of time this can result in chronic illnesses including; cancer, organ damage and neurological disorders.

The main mycotoxins of concern in pet food are;

  • Deoxynivalenol (DON)
  • Fumonisins (FUM)
  • Zearalenone (ZEN)
  • Aflatoxins
  • Ochratoxin
  • T-2 Toxin

Contamination can occur in any country around the world and at any stage of production. Herein lies the issue of how to prevent mycotoxin pollution, to tackle the issue head on and work towards a mycotoxin free product is the joint responsibility of feed producers, supply chain partners and quality control laboratories ensuring the complete safety of the product.

How can you tell if an animal has ingested pet food contaminated with mycotoxins?

In terms of animal health, mycotoxins can cause a variety of problems. Severity and symptoms can vary from animal to animal but general symptoms include; hyperactivity, vomiting, high temperature and loss of coordination. If you suspect your pet has been affected by mycotoxins you must bring them to the vet for immediate treatment.

The European Union currently regulate all the mycotoxins listed above and are subject to maximum or recommended residue limits. In the US, FDA regulations are limited to aflatoxins, DON and fumonisins, see table below for FDA regulations. If mycotoxin levels in feed fail to meet FDA standards, mass amounts of feed may need to be destroyed as grain producers are prohibited from mixing contaminated feed with clean feed to reduce the mycotoxin levels.

Pets Mycotoxin Commodity Level
Immature Animals Aflatoxins Corn/ peanut/ other ingredients 20 ppb
Adult Pets Aflatoxins Corn/ peanut/ cottonseed meal/ other ingredients 20 ppb
DON Grain/ grain byproducts, not to exceed 40% of diet 5 ppm
Fumonisins Corn/ corn byproducts, not to exceed 50% of the diet 10 ppm

How do we tackle the problem?

Safe, reliable screening solutions for different variations of mycotoxins are available that can ensure only mycotoxin free feed is produced. Randox Food Diagnostics have created mycotoxin screening platforms as a response to increased levels of mycotoxins being found in feed globally.

The platforms use patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT) so pet food producers can test for multiple toxins from a single sample. Randox Food Diagnostics have a range of mycotoxin Biochip Arrays available with customised arrays available to suit the specific screening needs of certain producers. Each Biochip format uses a straightforward extraction process with a 50µl sample of feed, available tests include; Fumonisins, Ochratoxin A, Aflatoxin G1/G2, Aflatoxin B1, Paxiline, Ergot Alkaloids, Diacetoxyscirpenol, Deoxynivalenol, T2 Toxin and Zearalenone.

For more information on mycotoxin screening with Randox Food Diagnostics contact info@randoxfooddiagnostics.com

 

 

 


Focus on Chronic Kidney Disease diagnosis (CKD)

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a long term condition which involves the progressive loss of kidney function a late diagnosis can result in end stage renal disease requiring kidney dialysis or transplantation. Typically, CKD is result of a combination of other conditions which puts a strain on the kidneys, these conditions can include high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol amongst many other ailments.1

Randox Biosciences are continually researching and developing new tests, targeting various health concerns around the world to improve diagnostics and health worldwide. Recently, our dedicated scientists have developed a new test, utilising our proprietary Biochip Array Technology (BAT) that simultaneously and quantitatively detects multiple early biomarkers associated with kidney damage allowing for earlier intervention and treatment, preventing further kidney damage.

We offer two multiplex Chronic Kidney Arrays as shown below:

Early detection provides those diagnosed with the opportunity to alter their lifestyle in order to improve their kidney and overall health, whether that is through the reduction of salt in their diet, increased physical activity and alcohol limitation.

To find out more about the Chronic Kidney Disease Arrays offered by Biosciences email info@randoxbisociences.com

1 NHS – https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/kidney-disease/

 

 


Powering the Evidence Series – Biochip Array Technology

In 2002, Randox invented a worlds first; Biochip Array Technology, instantly changing the landscape of diagnostic testing forever. Biochip Array Technology is a multi-analyte platform which provides an unrivalled increase in patient information per sample. Instead of a patient sample needing to be subdivided for each test result, or in some cases re-collected, Biochip Array Technology offers a diagnostic patient profile with each patient sample.

How does it work?

Biochip Array Technology is a precision multiplex testing platform allowing for the simultaneous quantitative or qualitative detection of a wide range of analytes from a single sample.

The biochip detection system is based on a chemiluminescent reaction. This is the emission of light, without heat, as a result of a chemical reaction. An enzyme is used to catalyse the chemical reaction on the biochip which generates the chemiluminescent signal. The light emitted from the chemiluminescent reaction that takes place in each DTR is simultaneously detected and quantified using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Camera.

Each biochip has up to 49 Discrete Test Regions (DTR). This means that up to 44 tests can be carried out simultaneously. The additional DTR are reserved for internal quality control and visual reference, a unique Biochip Array Technology feature.

 

How is the technology applied?

With over £250 million invested into Biochip Array Technology research and development, Randox have launched a range of Biochip Array Technology immunoanalysers – The Evidence Series. This includes the Evidence, the Evidence Evolution, the Evidence Investigator and the Evidence MultiSTAT. Each analyser is developed with boundary pushing engineering, designed to make financial, labour and time savings for the end user.

The Evidence Series has truly revolutionised diagnostic testing forever. Offering unrivalled capabilities across all analysers, we truly believe that the Evidence Series range of immunoassay analysers can meet your diagnostic testing capabilities.

 

For more information on any of the Evidence Series, please visit http://www.randox.com/evidence-series/ or contact us evidenceseries@randox.com.


Randox Combating Obesity

Obesity is a condition where a person has abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a serious risk to health.  This December, Randox are highlighting the health implications of this potentially deadly condition.

 

Did you know?

Approximately 8.5% of adults worldwide currently have diabetes

Worldwide obesity has almost tripled between 1975 and 2016, with over 650 million adults and 340 million children being recorded as obese in 2016 alone, highlighting that the prevalence of the condition is rapidly rising. Randox are dedicated to improving health and increasing the awareness and prevention of obesity and its consequences.

The risks and complications of being obese are severe, Obesity will increase an individual’s chances of suffering from several illnesses including musculoskeletal disease, some forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and Osteoarthritis all of which will lower an individual’s standard of living.

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most severe potential consequences of obesity this occurs when a resistance to insulin has been developed due to an elevated level of blood sugar. Some of the effects that diabetes can have on an individual include kidney failure, blindness and amputation.  To find out more about the issue check out our blog:

Related Products 

Randox has developed the RX series of clinical chemistry analysers or superior semi-automated and fully automated testing. The RX series extensive dedicated test menu goes beyond routine testing and has many unique and high-performance tests available. Our range of tests covers many illnesses that are associated with and stem from obesity.

Diabetes Panel 

Cholesterol Direct HDL Cholesterol Glycerol Ranbut (Hydroxybutyrate)
Creatinine Enzymatic Direct LDL Cholesterol HbA1c/Hb Total Protein
Creatinine (Jaffe) Fructosamine Microalbumin Triglycerides
Cystatin C Glucose NEFA (Non-Esterified Fatty Acids) Urinary Protein
Adiponectin

 


Cardiac Panel

Cholesterol CRP Full Range(0.3-160mg/l) Direct LDL Cholesterol sLDL
CK-MB CRP High Sensitivity Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) Triglycerides
CK-NAC Digoxin Lipoprotein(a) TxB Cardio
CRP Direct HDL Cholesterol Myoglobin

 

Our world leading test menu of high quality reagents guarantees excellence in patient care ensuring unrivalled precision and accuracy reducing costly test re-runs or misdiagnosis and offering complete confidence in results.

The RX series clinical chemistry analysers provide laboratories with a robust and smart solution ensuring you maintain a consistent workflow and can provide accurate results first time, every time. Offering excellent customer support services, our trained engineers are on hand to work with you in preserving the continuity of your operations while maximising the potential of your RX series instrument.

For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/clinical-chemistry-analysers/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Randox supply a range of third party clinical diagnostic reagents to aid in the risk assessment and diagnosis of obesity-related illnesses, and for managing the complications of such illnesses.  All reagents are available for use on a range of third party biochemistry analysers.  Contact us to request an application for your specific analyser.

Unique tests from Randox

sLDL

  • The Randox sLDL is the only automated assay for clinical detection of small-dense LDL (sLDL) on the market.  Furthermore, sLDL is a vital cardiac risk marker.  Research has shown individuals with a predominance of sLDL have a 3-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), even for those whose HDL, LDL, Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride levels are considered ‘normal’. Elevated levels of sLDL are associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a diet high in saturated fat, insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and genetic disposition.  Measurement of sLDL allows the clinician to get a more comprehensive picture of lipid risk factors and tailor treatment accordingly. Reducing LDL levels reduce the risk of both CVD and MI.   Furthermore, the Randox sLDL assay uses the “Denka Seiken” method which produces results in ten minutes.
  • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/sldl-cholesterol/

Lipoprotein(a)

  • Lipoprotein(a) is a major independent genetic risk factor for premature CVD and elevated levels can occur in patients with otherwise normal lipid levels. Randox Lipoprotein(a) can therefore provide much needed additional information in relation to a patient’s risk of developing CVD.  With our Lipoprotein(a) assay, Randox are breaking the boundaries of cardiology testing and providing laboratories with an opportunity to take their testing beyond the routine and get a more complete picture of patient risk.
  • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/lipoprotein-a/

Cystatin C

  • A superior measure of renal function, Cystatin C is extremely sensitive to very small changes in GFR and is therefore capable of detecting early stage kidney dysfunction. Up to 50% of renal function can be lost before significant creatinine elevation occurs. The Randox Cystatin C test provides an accurate method for the determination of Cystatin C in human serum and plasma.
  • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/cystatin-c/

    Further testing panels from Randox

    Cardiac risk panel

    • Apolipoprotein A-I
    • Apolipoprotein A-II
    • Apolipoprotein B
    • Apolipoprotein C-II
    • Apolipoprotein C-III
    • Apolipoprotein E
    • Cholesterol (sLDL)
    • Cholesterol (HDL)
    • Cholesterol (LDL)
    • Cholesterol (Total)
    • Cholesterol (HDL3)
    • Lipoprotein (a)
    • High sensitivity CRP
    • Homocysteine
    • Triglycerides

      Diabetes diagnosis and monitoring panel

      • Fructosamine
      • Glucose
      • HbA1c

      Diabetes complications monitoring

      • Albumin
      • β₂Microglobulin
      • Cystatin C
      • Creatinine (Enzymatic)
      • Creatinine (JAFFE)
      • D-3-Hydroxybutyrate (Ranbut)
      • Microalbumin
      • Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA)

      Learn more about our range of analyser applications, available or alternatively contact us to request an application for your specific analyser at Reagents@randox.com

       

       

       

       

      When diagnosing and monitoring obesity-related complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and T2DM, it is vital that laboratories have a robust Quality Control (QC) system in place to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results produced. As a world leading manufacturer of QC solutions including Third Party Controls and External Quality Assessment (EQA), our extensive product portfolio is designed to help reduce costs and time without compromising on quality.

      Diabetes

      Liquid HbA1c Control

      • Liquid ready-to-use format ideal for use in the lab or at the POCWhole blood sample matrix commutable with that of the patient sample
      • Assayed control with values available for HPLC
      • Convenient bi-level pack accurately covering the patient reportable range
      • Open vial stability of 30 days ultimately helping to reduce waste and costs
      • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/liquid-hba1c-quality-control/

      Glycated Hemoglobin EQA Programme

      • Monthly analysis ensuring early identification of test system errors
      • Maximised peer groups for comparative performance assessment
      • Reports available within 72 hours allowing corrective action to be taken immediately
      • User-friendly reports delivering at-a-glance performance assessment
      • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/hba1c-eqa/

      CVD risk

      • Lipid Control
      • Covers the complete lipid profile
      • True third party control ensuring unbiased performance assessment with any instrument or method
      • Manufactured from 100% human serum ensuring a matrix commutable with the patient sample
      • Free from Sodium Azide which can interfere with direct clearance methods of HDL and LDL Cholesterol
      • Three clinically significant levels available covering low, borderline and high risk levels of HDL and LDL Cholesterol
      • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/lipid-quality-control/

      Lipid EQA Programme

      • Covers the complete lipid profile with a choice of reporting just three parameters at a reduced cost
      • Monthly analysis ensuring early identification of test system errors
      • Maximised peer groups for comparative performance assessment
      • Reports available within 72 hours allowing corrective action to be taken immediately
      • User-friendly reports delivering at-a-glance performance assessment
      • For more information visit: http://www.randox.com/lipids-eqa/

      Our Randox Health clinics offer heart health, metabolic health and diabetes health testing as part of our Everyman, Everywoman and Signature packages to identify and assess risk of developing obesity-related diseases. Our clinics utilise the same cutting-edge tests and quality control that we have available to clinical laboratories globally, as well as our patented Biochip Array Technology (BAT).

      For more information visit: https://www.randoxhealth.com/

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